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Psychosocial factors may influence mortality and morbidity after coronary bypass surgery (CABG), but it is unclear when, post-surgery, they best predict the outcome, if they interact, or whether results differ for men and women.
This prospective, observational study assessed depression symptoms, social support, marital status, household responsibility, functional impairment, mortality and need for further coronary procedures over 14 years of follow-up. Data were collected in-hospital post-CABG and at home 1-year later. Mortality and subsequent cardiac procedure data were extracted from a Cardiac Registry.
Of 296 baseline participants, 78% (43% were women) completed data at 1-year post-CABG. Long-term survival was shorter with 1-year depression and lower household responsibility but that was not true for the measures taken at baseline [HR for depression = 1.27; 95% CI 1.02–1.59 v. 0.99 (0.78–1.25), and HR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.52–0.97 v. 0.97 (0.80–1.16)] for household responsibility. An interaction between depression symptoms and social support at year 1 [χ2 (11) = 111.05, p < 0.001] revealed a greater hazard of mortality d with increased depression only at mean (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.21–2.26) and high social support (HR = 2.23; 95% CI 1.46–3.40). Depression also accounted for increased event recurrence. There were no significant interactions of sex with medical long-term outcomes.
In a sex-balanced sample, depression and household responsibility measured at 1-year post-CABG were associated with significant variance in unadjusted and adjusted predictor models of long-term mortality whereas the same indices determined right after the procedure were not significant predictors.
The benefits of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and positive psychology therapy (PPT) in patients with cardiovascular disease are still not well defined. We assessed the efficacy of CBT and PPT on psychological outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.
Randomized controlled trials evaluating CBT or PPT in CAD patients published until May 2018 were systematically analyzed. Primary outcomes were depression, stress, anxiety, anger, happiness, and vital satisfaction. Random effects meta-analyses using the inverse variance method were performed. Effects were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean differences (MD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs); risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool.
Nineteen trials were included (n = 1956); sixteen evaluated CBT (n = 1732), and three PPT (n = 224). Compared with control groups, depressive symptoms (13 trials; SMD −0.80; 95% CI −1.33 to −0.26), and anxiety (11 trials; SMD −1.26; 95% CI −2.11 to −0.41) improved after the PI, and depression (6 trials; SMD −2.08; 95% CI −3.22 to −0.94), anxiety (5 trials; SMD −1.33; 95% CI −2.38 to −0.29), and stress (3 trials; SMD −3.72; 95% CI −5.91 to −1.52) improved at the end of follow-up. Vital satisfaction was significantly increased at follow-up (MD 1.30, 0.27, 2.33). Non-significant effects on secondary outcomes were found. Subgroup analyses were consistent with overall analyses.
CBT and PPT improve several psychological outcomes in CAD patients. Depression and anxiety improved immediately after the intervention while stress and vital satisfaction improve in the mid-term. Future research should assess the individual role of CBT and PPT in CAD populations.
The evidence linking low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) to CVD is controversial, and results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the relationship between LCD patterns and coronary artery Ca (CAC) scores from computed tomography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort. Our sample included 5614 men and women free of clinical CVD at baseline (2000–2002), who had a FFQ, a baseline measure and ≥1 measure of CAC during follow-up. We excluded those with implausible energy intake or daily physical activity. The overall, animal-based and plant-based LCD scores were calculated based on intakes of macronutrients. Relative risk regression and robust regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between LCD score quintile and CAC outcomes, after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The mean age of participants was 63 years. The median intakes of total carbohydrate, fat and protein were 53·7, 30·5 and 15·6 % energy/d, respectively. Among 2892 participants with zero CAC scores at baseline, 264 developed positive scores during 2·4-year follow-up (11–59 months). Among those with positive scores at baseline, the median increase in CAC was 47 units over the course of follow-up. The overall, the animal-based and the plant-based LCD scores were not associated with CAC prevalence, incidence and progression. In conclusion, diets low in carbohydrate and high in fat and/or protein, regardless of the sources of protein and fat, were not associated with higher levels of CAC, a validated predictor of cardiovascular events, in this large multi-ethnic cohort.
Coronary artery disease after bone marrow transplantation is rare in children and young adults. We report the case of a 21-year-old who developed coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction secondary to graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplantation. Physicians caring for young patients after bone marrow transplantation should be aware of the potential for coronary artery disease and evaluate appropriately.
Background: The relationship between vascular disease and Parkinson’s disease (PD) is controversial. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the association of two common vascular diseases (stroke and coronary artery disease [CAD]) with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: We identified 63 and 62 PD cases in two population-based cohorts (Malu rural community and Wuliqiao urban community) and collected information of PD and non-PD by means of questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between stroke, coronary artery disease and PD, after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking status, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and body mass index. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that CAD and stroke were associated with PD in the Malu rural community (CAD: odds ratio [OR]=7.11, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 3.09-16.40, p<0.001; stroke: OR=6.77, 95% CI: 3.09-14.81, p<0.001) and stroke was associated with PD in the Wuliqiao urban community (OR=2.58, 95% CI: 1.36-4.89, p=0.004), especially in women. In a subgroup analysis of PD with age- and sex-matched controls, the results were similar in the Malu rural community (CAD: OR=12.72, 95% CI: 2.92-55.32, p=0.001; stroke: OR=6.26, 95% CI: 1.83-21.42, p=0.003), whereas in the Wuliqiao urban community the results were different in that CAD (but not stroke) was found to be associated with PD (CAD: OR=2.44, 95% CI: 1.09-5.47, p=0.03; stroke: OR=1.79, 95% CI: 0.77-4.17, p=0.18). Conclusions: Our study suggested that stroke and CAD are associated with PD in two Chinese population-based cohorts, indicating a probable vascular component in the pathogenesis of PD.
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide, a consequence of mostly poor lifestyle and dietary behaviours. Although whole fruit and vegetable consumption has been consistently shown to reduce CVD risk, the exact protective constituents of these foods are yet to be clearly identified. A recent and biologically plausible hypothesis supporting the cardioprotective effects of vegetables has been linked to their inorganic nitrate content. Approximately 60–80 % inorganic nitrate exposure in the human diet is contributed by vegetable consumption. Although inorganic nitrate is a relatively stable molecule, under specific conditions it can be metabolised in the body to produce NO via the newly discovered nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway. NO is a major signalling molecule in the human body, and has a key role in maintaining vascular tone, smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet activity and inflammation. Currently, there is accumulating evidence demonstrating that inorganic nitrate can lead to lower blood pressure and improved vascular compliance in humans. The aim of this review is to present an informative, balanced and critical review of the current evidence investigating the role of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in the development, prevention and/or treatment of CVD. Although there is evidence supporting short-term inorganic nitrate intakes for reduced blood pressure, there is a severe lack of research examining the role of long-term nitrate intakes in the treatment and/or prevention of hard CVD outcomes, such as myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. Epidemiological evidence is needed in this field to justify continued research efforts.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was undertaken to determine the effects of almond consumption on blood lipid levels, namely total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), TAG and the ratios of TC:HDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C. Following a comprehensive search of the scientific literature, a total of eighteen relevant publications and twenty-seven almond-control datasets were identified. Across the studies, the mean differences in the effect for each blood lipid parameter (i.e. the control-adjusted values) were pooled in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. It was determined that TC, LDL-C and TAG were significantly reduced by −0·153 mmol/l (P < 0·001), −0·124 mmol/l (P = 0·001) and −0·067 mmol/l (P = 0·042), respectively, and that HDL-C was not affected (−0·017 mmol/l; P = 0·207). These results are aligned with data from prospective observational studies and a recent large-scale intervention study in which it was demonstrated that the consumption of nuts reduces the risk of heart disease. The consumption of nuts as part of a healthy diet should be encouraged to help in the maintenance of healthy blood lipid levels and to reduce the risk of heart disease.
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival after prehospital cardiac arrest. While community CPR training programs have been implemented across the US, little is known about their acceptability in non-US Latino populations.
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to enrolling in CPR training classes and performing CPR in San José, Costa Rica.
After consulting 10 San José residents, a survey was created, pilot-tested, and distributed to a convenience sample of community members in public gathering places in San José. Questions included demographics, CPR knowledge and beliefs, prior CPR training, having a family member with heart disease, and prior witnessing of a cardiac arrest. Questions also addressed barriers to enrolling in CPR classes (cost/competing priorities). The analysis focused on two main outcomes: likelihood of registering for a CPR class and willingness to perform CPR on an adult stranger. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to test for associations between patient characteristics and these outcomes.
Among 371 participants, most were male (60%) and <40 years old (77%); 31% had a college degree. Many had family members with heart disease (36%), had witnessed a cardiac arrest (18%), were trained in CPR (36%), and knew the correct CPR steps (70%). Overall, 55% (95% CI, 50-60%) indicated they would “likely” enroll in a CPR class; 74% (95% CI, 70-78%) would perform CPR on an adult stranger. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation class enrollment was associated with prior CPR training (OR: 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.3) and a prior witnessed cardiac arrest (OR: 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). Willingness to perform CPR on a stranger was associated with a prior witnessed cardiac arrest (OR: 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.4) and higher education (OR: 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2). Believing that CPR does not work was associated with a higher likelihood of not attending a CPR class (OR: 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-7.9). Fear of performing mouth-mouth, believing CPR is against God’s will, and fear of legal risk were associated with a likelihood of not attending a CPR class and not performing CPR on a stranger (range of ORs: 2.4-3.9).
Most San José residents are willing to take CPR classes and perform CPR on a stranger. To implement a community CPR program, barriers must be considered, including misgivings about CPR efficacy and legal risk. Hands-only CPR programs may alleviate hesitancy to perform mouth-to-mouth.
SchmidKM, Mould-MillmanNK, HammesA, KroehlM, Quiros GarcíaR, Umaña McDermottM, LowensteinSR. Barriers and Facilitators to Community CPR Education in San José, Costa Rica. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):509–515.
The aims of the current report are to present the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics/biochemical indices and lifestyle habits of the population and to explore the potential association of exclusive olive oil consumption, in relation to lifestyle factors, with coronary artery disease risk.
Demographic, lifestyle, dietary and biochemical variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to estimate the relative risks of developing coronary artery disease.
The Hellenic study of Interactions between Single nucleotide polymorphisms and Eating in Atherosclerosis Susceptibility (THISEAS), a medical centre-based case–control study conducted in Greek adults.
We consecutively enrolled 1221 adult patients with coronary artery disease and 1344 adult controls.
A higher prevalence of the conventional established risk factors was observed in cases than in controls. Physical activity level was higher in controls (1·4 (sd 0·2) than in cases (1·3 (sd 0·3); P<0·001). Regarding current and ex-smokers, the case group reported almost double the pack-years of the control group (54·6 (sd 42·8) v. 28·3 (sd 26·3), respectively; P<0·001). Exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with 37 % lower likelihood of developing coronary artery disease, even after taking into account adherence to the Mediterranean diet (OR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·93; P=0·02).
Exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with lower risk of coronary artery disease, even after adjusting for adoption of an overall healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet.
Olive oil (OO) is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet and has been associated with longevity and a lower incidence of chronic diseases, particularly CHD. Cardioprotective effects of OO consumption have been widely related with improved lipoprotein profile, endothelial function and inflammation, linked to health claims of oleic acid and phenolic content of OO. With CVD being a leading cause of death worldwide, a review of the potential mechanisms underpinning the impact of OO in the prevention of disease is warranted. The current body of evidence relies on mechanistic studies involving animal and cell-based models, epidemiological studies of OO intake and risk factor, small- and large-scale human interventions, and the emerging use of novel biomarker techniques associated with disease risk. Although model systems are important for mechanistic research nutrition, methodologies and experimental designs with strong translational value are still lacking. The present review critically appraises the available evidence to date, with particular focus on emerging novel biomarkers for disease risk assessment. New perspectives on OO research are outlined, especially those with scope to clarify key mechanisms by which OO consumption exerts health benefits. The use of urinary proteomic biomarkers, as highly specific disease biomarkers, is highlighted towards a higher translational approach involving OO in nutritional recommendations.
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between plasma alkyresorcinol (AR) concentrations, which are biomarkers of whole-grain intake, and atherosclerotic progression over 3 years in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.
Plasma AR concentrations were measured by a validated GC–MS method in fasting plasma samples. Atherosclerosis progression was assessed using change in mean minimal coronary artery diameter (MCAD) and percentage diameter stenosis (%ST), based on mean proximal vessel diameter across up to ten coronary segments. Dietary intake was estimated using a 126-item interviewer-administered FFQ.
A prospective study of postmenopausal women participating in the Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis trial.
For the analysis of plasma AR concentrations and atherosclerotic progression, plasma samples and follow-up data on angiography were available for 182 women.
Mean whole-grain intake was 9·6 (se 0·6) servings per week. After multivariate adjustment, no significant associations were observed between plasma AR concentrations and change in mean MCAD or progression of %ST. Plasma AR concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary whole grains (r=0·35, P<0·001), cereal fibre (r=0·33, P<0·001), bran (r=0·15, P=0·05), total fibre (r=0·22, P=0·003) and legume fibre (r=0·15, P=0·04), but not refined grains, fruit fibre or vegetable fibre.
Plasma AR concentrations were not significantly associated with coronary artery progression over a 3-year period in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. A moderate association was observed between plasma AR concentrations and dietary whole grains and cereal fibre, suggesting it may be a useful biomarker in observational studies.
CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80 % men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84 % men, median age 69 years; range 46–84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18–36) kg/m2. The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0–433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0–303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9–45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0·14 g/d; range 0·01–1·06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4·9 μg/d; range 1·9–11·2 μg/d), saturated fat (median 13·1 % of energy (E%); range 9–23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6·3 E%; range 1·9–11·3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62 % (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150–200 g/d), 73 % (dietary fibre; recommendation 30–45 g/d), 91 % (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0·45 g/d), 98 % (vitamin D; recommendation 10–20 μg/d) and 13 % (LA; recommendation 5–10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95 % (saturated fat; recommendation < 10 E%) and 7 % (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.
Background: Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in patients with Kawasaki disease, in conjunction with coronary artery aneurysm and stenosis that characterise this disease, are potential risk factors for developing coronary artery disease in young adults. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adult patients with Kawasaki disease. Methods: All patients aged 18−55 years of age diagnosed with Kawasaki disease were sampled from Nationwide Inpatient Sample database using International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD 9 code 446.1) from 2009 to 2010. Demographics, prevalence of coronary artery disease, and other traditional risk factors in adult patients with Kawasaki disease were analysed using ICD 9 codes. Results: The prevalence of Kawasaki disease among adults was 0.0005% (n=215) of all in-hospital admissions in United States. The mean age was 27.3 years with women (27.6 years) older than men (27.1 years). Traditional risk factors were hypertension (21%), hyperlipidaemia (15.6%), diabetes (11.5%), tobacco use (8.8%), and obesity (8.8%), with no significant difference between men and women. Coronary artery disease (32.4%), however, was more prevalent in men (44.7%) than in women (12.1%; p=0.03). In multivariate regression analysis, after adjusting for demographics and traditional risk factors, hypertension (OR=13.2, p=0.03) was an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease. Conclusion: There was increased preponderance of coronary artery disease in men with Kawasaki disease. On multivariate analysis, hypertension was found to be the only independent predictor of coronary artery disease in this population after adjusting for other risk factors.
Ageing is a complex multifactorial process, reflecting the progression of all degenerative pathways within an organism. Due to the increase of life expectancy, in recent years, there is a pressing need to identify early-life events and risk factors that determine health outcomes in later life. So far, genetic variation only explains ~20–25 % of the variability of human survival to age 80+. This clearly implies that other factors (environmental, epigenetic and lifestyle) contribute to lifespan and the rate of healthy ageing within an individual. Twin studies in the past two decades proved to be a very powerful tool to discriminate the genetic from the environmental component. The aim of this review is to describe the basic concepts of the twin study design and to report some of the latest studies in which high-throughput technologies (e.g. genome/epigenome-wide assay, next generation sequencing, MS metabolic profiling) combined with the classical twin design have been applied to the analysis of novel ‘omics’ to further understand the molecular mechanisms of human ageing.
Mood disorders are grouped into four broad categories: depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, mood disorder due to a general medical condition, and substance-induced mood disorders. This chapter provides some guidelines on the assessment and management of mood disorders in the emergency department (ED) setting. Cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke, are also often associated with depression. The diagnosis of a mood disorder is based on history, collateral information, and observation of the patient's behavior. Mood disorders should be suspected in patients with multiple, vague, nonspecific complaints and in patients who are frequent users of medical care. The creation of a safe and stable environment for the patient should be a first priority in management. The patient with an acute manic episode may be disruptive, refuse medical evaluation, and make repeated attempts to leave the ED.
Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are present in 0.2–1.4% of the general population. These anomalies represent one of the most confusing issues in the field of cardiology and challenges for interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons if the anomalies are unrecognised. Double right coronary artery is one of the rarest coronary arteries. Previously, the probability of developing atherosclerotic changes in patients with a double right coronary artery was considered to be equal to that in those without it. In reality, however, a high prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was found in patients with a double right coronary artery originating from a single ostium after our comprehensive literature search through the PubMed database. Owing to the fact that double right coronary artery is both a congenital and potentially atherosclerotic coronary artery disease at diagnosis, coronary intervention or cardiac operation is more complicated than previously believed. Individuals with a double right coronary artery may be unaware of its presence until an accidental finding during coronary angiography or cardiac operation and are at risk for unsuspected complications of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or during cardiac operation. Therefore, it is important to obtain information on the anatomic variants of this congenital coronary anomaly in patients who are undergoing either coronary intervention, aortic root operation or myocardial revascularisation. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive article to discuss the anomalies and their clinical implications.
Certain patient populations provide challenging clinical situations for the sedation provider. Patients with cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic renal failure, obesity, or advanced age are considered high risk and possess a higher rate of procedural complications. This chapter discusses important features of these higher-risk patients and practice management when sedation is required. COPD is frequently found in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema. Common procedural complications in this patient population include hypoventilation (hypoxemia and hypercapnia) and bronchospasm. Bronchospasm manifests as wheezing, and it is commonly caused by an exacerbation of the patient's COPD, but an anaphylactoid reaction to a sedation medication should be ruled out. Patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) who become oversedated experience cardiac complications related to hypotension and/or hypoxemia. Medication used for sedation should be titrated in slowly, carefully watching hemodynamic response to the medication.
This chapter discusses the anaesthetic management of intracranial vascular abnormalities with particular emphasis on subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and carotid artery stenosis. Cerebral aneurysms occur mainly at vascular bifurcations within the circle of Willis or proximal cerebral artery. Patients with salt-wasting syndrome are hypovolaemic and require fluid to prevent intravascular volume contraction. Interventional neuroradiology is being used increasingly to treat central nervous system (CNS) disease by either delivering therapeutic devices or by administering drugs at the point of need. During periods of acute vascular occlusion or vasospasm, induced hypertension can maintain cerebral perfusion by increasing flow across the circle of Willis. Patients presenting for carotid surgery are elderly and often have coexisting medical problems common to patients with vascular disease. These include coronary artery disease, chronic pulmonary airway disease and diabetes mellitus.
Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF) has been associated with impaired cognitive function, but it is unclear if these changes are specific to CHF and if they get worse with time. We designed this study to determine if adults with CHF show evidence of cognitive decline compared with adults with and without coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out of 77 adults with CHF (ejection fraction, EF < 0.4), 73 adults with a clinical history of CAD and EF > 0.6, and 81 controls with no history of CAD. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly (CAMCOG) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), digit coding and copying, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the short form health survey (SF36). Endpoints were collected at baseline and after 12 and 24 months.
Results: The adjusted CAMCOG scores of CHF participants declined 0.9 points over two years (p = 0.022) compared with controls without CAD. There were no differences between the groups on other cognitive measures. Participants with CHF and with CAD experienced similar changes in cognitive function over two years. Left ventricular EF and six-minute walk test results could not explain the observed associations.
Conclusions: The changes in cognitive function and mood associated with CHF over two years are subtle and not specific to CHF.