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Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa is regularly threatened by the occurrence of weather shocks. We wonder whether the way farmers respond to shocks can affect land use and induce deforestation. Reviewing the existing literature, we found that this question has only been marginally studied. Drawing from the adaptation and land-use change literatures, we then expose the mechanisms through which weather shocks can push farmers to induce land-use change, or conversely to foster conservation. As farmers cope with shocks, their responses can cause degradations in ecosystems which could, in the long term, encourage deforestation and land-use change. To prepare for the next growing season, or adapt to climate variability and risk in the longer term, farmers also make structural adjustments in their farm and land-use decisions, which may lead to changes in land holding. They also resort to adaptation strategies that can indirectly affect land-use decisions by affecting households’ resources (labor, income).
Dr. Fischer traces the process of transformation from the neurochemistry of motivation and John Schumann's derivative stimulus appraisal theory, where need comes from relevance, the potential for self and social status, novelty, pleasantness, and, above all, the ability to cope. Technology tools – learning management systems, video and audio recording, use of films and videos for culture study, and relevant applications (apps) – are discussed as means to develop coping with the language and culture, thereby increasing the probability of learner transformation to intrinsically motivated persons able to appreciate and learn from others and continue that process throughout their adult lives.
Many older adults experience memory changes that can have a meaningful impact on their everyday lives, such as restrictions to lifestyle activities and negative emotions. Older adults also report a variety of positive coping responses that help them manage these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine how objective cognitive performance and self-reported memory are related to the everyday impact of memory change.
We examined these associations in a sample of 94 older adults (age 60–89, 52% female) along a cognitive ability continuum from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment.
Correlational analyses revealed that greater restrictions to lifestyle activities (|rs| = .36–.66), more negative emotion associated with memory change (|rs| = .27–.76), and an overall greater burden of memory change on everyday living (|rs| = .28–.61) were associated with poorer objective memory performance and lower self-reported memory ability and satisfaction. Performance on objective measures of executive attention was unrelated to the impact of memory change. Self-reported strategy use was positively related to positive coping with memory change (|r| = .26), but self-reported strategy use was associated with more negative emotions regarding memory change (|r| = .23).
Given the prevalence of memory complaints among older adults, it is important to understand the experience of memory change and its impact on everyday functioning in order to develop services that target the specific needs of this population.
The present study examined the developmental value of parsing different forms of children's risky involvement in interparental conflict as predictors of children's subsequent psychological adjustment. Participants included a diverse sample of 243 preschool children (Mage = 4.6 years) and their mothers across two measurement occasions spaced 2 years apart. Three forms of risky involvement (i.e., cautious, caregiving, and coercive) were identified using maternal narratives describing children's emotional and behavioral reactivity during and immediately following interparental conflict. Utilizing a multimethod, multi-informant design, findings revealed that each form of involvement prospectively predicted unique configurations of children's developmental outcomes. Greater coercive involvement was associated with higher levels of externalizing problems, callous and unemotional traits, and extraversion. Higher levels of caregiving involvement were linked with greater separation anxiety. Finally, cautious involvement predicted more separation anxiety and social withdrawal.
Research is increasingly identifying the issues of ecological distress, eco-anxiety and climate grief. These painful experiences arise from heightened ecological knowledge and concern, which are commonly considered to be de facto aims of environmental education. Yet little research investigates the issues of climate change anxiety in educational spaces, nor how educators seek to respond to or prevent such emotional experiences. This study surveyed environmental educators in eastern Australia about their experiences and strategies for responding to their learners’ ecological distress. Educators reported that their students commonly experienced feeling overwhelmed, hopeless, anxious, angry, sad and frustrated when engaging with ecological crises. Educators’ strategies for responding to their learners’ needs included encouraging students to engage with their emotions, validating those emotions, supporting students to navigate and respond to those emotions and empowering them to take climate action. Educators felt that supporting their students to face and respond to ecological crises was an extremely challenging task, one which was hindered by time limitations, their own emotional distress, professional expectations, society-wide climate denial and a lack of guidance on what works.
The loss of a child is a devastating event, and bereaved parents often suffer intense and long-lasting grief reactions and are at risk for psychological symptoms. More knowledge about how parents cope with grief may improve the support to bereaved parents. This study, therefore, aimed to explore parents’ views on what facilitated or complicated their grief coping after losing a child to cancer.
This study was derived from a nationwide postal survey. Cancer-bereaved parents (n = 161) provided written responses to two open-ended questions: “Is there anything that has helped you cope with your grief after your child's death?” and “Is there anything that made it difficult for you to cope with your grief?” Content analysis was used to analyze the responses.
Parents reported that a supportive social network of family and friends, and having remaining children, facilitated their coping with grief. Meeting professional counselors and meeting other bereaved parents, connecting to memories of the deceased child in various contexts, including school and pediatric care settings, were also reported facilitating grief coping. Parents stated that the following experiences had complicated grief coping: additional losses in their family or social network; not being able to share emotions with their partner; when they perceived that friends, relatives, or colleagues lacked empathy or patience; when they felt challenging demands from employers at a too early stage.
Significance of results
This study contributes to the understanding of parents’ grief experiences and what has facilitated or complicated their coping with grief, which can help health care professionals and others improve bereavement support services.
Research suggests that the metacognitive model is applicable to clinical child populations. However, few measures related to the model are available for younger age groups. A key concept of the model is the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), which encompasses the individual’s worry and rumination, maladaptive coping strategies, and metacognitive beliefs. While the CAS has been successfully measured in adults, this has not yet been attempted in children.
The aim of this study was to adapt a measure of the CAS for use with children and investigate the measure’s associations with anxiety, worry, depression and metacognitions.
Our study included 127 children with anxiety disorders aged 7–13 years. The adult measure of CAS was adapted for use with children and administered at pre- and post-treatment. We examined the correlations between variables and the ability of the CAS measure to explain variance in anxious symptomatology, as well as the measure’s sensitivity to treatment change.
The adapted measure, CAS-1C, displayed strong associations with overall anxiety, depression, worry and metacognitions. The CAS-1C explained an additional small amount of variance in anxiety and worry symptoms after accounting for metacognitions, which may be due to the measure also assessing thinking styles and coping strategies. Furthermore, the measure displayed sensitivity to treatment change.
The child measure of the CAS is a brief tool for collecting information on metacognitive beliefs and strategies that maintain psychopathology according to the metacognitive model, and it can be used to monitor treatment changes in these components.
High levels of stress are expected when crises affect people’s lives. Therefore, this Web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among university students from Pakistan to investigate the psychological impairment and coping strategies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Google Forms were used to disseminate the online questionnaire to assess anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and coping strategies (Brief-COPE). A total of 1134 responses (age, 21.7 ± 3.5 y) were included. The frequency of students having moderate-severe anxiety and depression (score ≥ 10) were ≈ 34% and 45%, respectively. The respondents’ aged ≥ 31 y had significantly lower depression score than those ≤ 20 y (P = 0.047). Males had significantly less anxiety (6.62 ± 5.70 vs 7.84 ± 5.60; P = 0.001) and depression (8.73 ± 6.84 vs 9.71 ± 7.06; P = 0.031) scores. Those having family members, friends, or acquaintances infected with disease had significantly higher anxiety scores (8.89 ± 5.74 vs 7.09 ± 5.56; P < 0.001). Regarding coping strategies, the majority of respondents were found to have adopted religious/spiritual coping (6.45 ± 1.68) followed by acceptance (5.58 ± 1.65), self-distraction (4.97 ± 1.61), and active coping (4.81 ± 1.57). In conclusion, COVID-19 caused significant impairment on mental health of the students. The most frequent coping strategies adopted by students were religious/spiritual and acceptance coping. During epidemics, mental health of students should not be neglected.
Awareness of dementia is examined in different scientific fields as significant for assessment of diagnosis, and for treatment and adaptation to the disease. There are very few longitudinal studies of individual experiences of awareness among people with dementia, related to quality of life.
To examine how younger people (< 65 years) with dementia (YOD) express awareness of the dementia and how, over time, they seem to handle awareness as a strategy to preserve quality of life.
A longitudinal qualitative study with individuals with YOD was performed with interviews every six months over five years for a maximum of ten interviews. The interviews were analysed by modified grounded theory.
Awareness is a complex, multidimensional concept. Awareness of dementia is predisposed by personality, life history and established coping styles. The main coping styles – live in the moment, ignore the dementia, and make the best of it – seem to be rather consistent throughout the progression of the disease. Transitions in life situation, such as moving to a nursing home, may change the individual’s awareness of dementia.
Unawareness of dementia may have an important adaptive function to preserve quality of life. To increase awareness must be approached with reflexivity and the utmost sensitivity.
If performance goals (i.e., motivation to prove ability) increase children's vulnerability to depression (Dykman, 1998), why are they overlooked in the psychopathology literature? Evidence has relied on self-report or observational methods and has yet to articulate how this vulnerability unfolds across levels of analysis implicated in stress–depression linkages; for example, hypothalamic–pituitaryadrenal axis (HPA), sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Utilizing a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach (Cicchetti, 2010), this experimental study tested Dykman's goal orientation model of depression vulnerability in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 121, Mage = 10.60 years, Range = 9.08–12.00 years, 51.6% male). Self-reports of performance goals, attachment security, and subjective experience of internalizing difficulties were obtained in addition to objective behavioral (i.e., task persistence) and physiologic arousal (i.e., salivary cortisol, skin conductance level) responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and two randomly assigned coping conditions: avoidance, distraction. Children with performance goals reported greater internalizing difficulties and exhibited more dysregulated TSST physiologic responses (i.e., HPA hyperreactivity, SNS protracted recovery), yet unexpectedly displayed greater TSST task persistence and more efficient physiologic recovery during avoidance relative to distraction. These associations were stronger and nonsignificant in the context of insecure and secure attachment, respectively. Findings illustrate a complex matrix of in-the-moment, integrative psychobiological relationships linking performance goals to depression vulnerability.
Having faced multiple traumatic events and severe losses linked to situations of organized violence in their home countries, refugees might experience a loss of connection due to the destruction of important social bonds and a fragmentation of cultural structures. Studies provide growing evidence that cultural belonging and political mobilization may play an important role in reconstructing meaning and connection in the wake of collective violence, loss, and exile. In this chapter, we explore the role of these collective identifications in post-trauma reconstruction through the case of Kurdish refugee families. Thematic analysis of family and parent interviews indicates how the intra-familial transmission of collective identifications may operate as a source of dealing with cultural bereavement and loss, commemorating trauma, and reversing versus reiterating trauma. The findings support an explorative understanding of collective identifications as meaningful resources in refugee families’ post-trauma reconstruction. Our analysis also identifies a paradox between reparative and potentially perilous aspects of collective identifications.
In this chapter, you will gain an understanding of resilience in teachers and teaching, coping strategies for sustaining a teaching career, being mindful as a teacher, your wellbeing and ability to flourish and the meaning of a growth mindset.
This book bring together knowledge and skills from the last 20 years in initial teacher education. Stories from the authors and those of pre-service teachers are used to explore the kinds of skills and strategies – including those related to mindfulness – that enable teachers to cope with the challenges of their profession, as well as enjoy and savour the highlights. We hope that you find this book useful as you undertake your journey to becoming a mindful and committed teacher.
New York City is in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care centers are stretched beyond capacity. Daily death rates are staggering. The city’s population is hunkered down in fear. Our anxiety treatment center is treating patients via video appointments. We are helping anxious individuals adapt to tumultuous changes that we ourselves are experiencing. Our work in this time has reinforced our core beliefs about managing one’s emotions; that difficult times require more active coping and that we all draw heavily from social support and familiarity to create a feeling of well-being. These principles and the experiences of our patients are discussed.
L’objectif de notre étude comparative est d’isoler des facteurs de risque de passage à l’acte suicidaire en cas de troubles dépressifs. Des patients adultes déprimés sont inclus dans l’étude, après 48 heures d’hospitalisation dans le service de psychiatrie, en distinguant les patients déprimés admis suite à une Tentative de Suicide (groupe « TS ») et les patients déprimés sans TS (groupe « Control »). Le bilan clinique est effectué à l’aide d’auto-questionnaires et d’hétéro-évaluations (Hamilton, coping, insight, dépendance interpersonnelle…) [1–4].
Alors que les deux groupes possèdent des caractéristiques sociodémographiques ainsi que des dimensions dépressives comparables, cette étude montre que les patients « TS » sont plus isolés socialement et ont des ATCD familiaux de TS pour 67 % d’entre eux (contre 31 % chez les « Control »). Ces patients « TS » ont un pauvre insight comparé aux patients « Control » et ont une conscience partielle de leurs troubles psychiatriques. Aussi, les deux groupes se distinguent clairement selon les facteurs de coping, tout en ne montrant pas de différence au niveau de la dépendance interpersonnelle. À partir de ces données, nous proposons de nous interroger sur les modalités de sortie des patients déprimés et de discuter d’un programme spécifique de suivi ambulatoire post-crise.
Comparing coping mechanisms of 15-17 year-old inhabitants of “Tehran Correction and Rehabilitation Center” (named: delinquents) and the same age students of Tehran high schools (named: non-delinquents).
In a cross-sectional descriptive study, all 105 inhabitants of the center (81 males and 24 females) and 372 high school students (181 males and 191 females) who were randomly selected from area 6 of Tehran high schools completed the “Adolescent Coping Scale” which consists of 18 strategies and 3 styles. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and T-test.
Non-delinquent males and females used productive style more than reference to others, and reference to others more than non-productive style. Delinquent males used productive style and reference to others without significant difference, and also used these two styles significantly more than non-productive style. Delinquent females used all three styles without significant difference. Delinquent males used all three styles significantly more than non-delinquent males. Delinquent females used productive style less, non-productive style more and reference to others without significant difference from non-delinquent females.
In comparison with delinquent females, Delinquent males have a more comprehensive set of coping skills and can use external resources more effectively. Delinquent females use a very dysfunctional collection of coping mechanisms, which may have caused their vulnerability to social pathologies.
Although there is now strong evidence confirming the efficacy of psychological therapies in schizophrenia, the therapeutic processes which they activate remain widely unknown. In order to effectively implement them in clinical practice, identification of these processes is essential. In a controlled study, the efficacy of a coping-oriented therapy approach for schizophrenia patients was tested. Furthermore, the study aimed at establishing preliminary hypotheses on the therapeutically relevant factors. Treatment effects were found in the prominence of psychopathology, the extent of cognizance of the disorder, and the level of social functioning. Moreover, a better psychopathological and social outcome as measured 12 and 18 months after completion of therapy was best predicted by the patients’ mastery of active, problem-focused coping strategies immediately after completion of therapy. The findings underscore the clinical relevance of specific coping styles and corroborate the appropriateness of focusing on aspects of coping behavior in psychological interventions for schizophrenia patients.
The most effective way of coping with a traumatic event is to develop a narrative, which can take many forms, e.g., talking to friends and family, formal treatment, written accounts. Autobiographical works and novels by ex-soldiers are good examples of texts, which can aid psychologists’ understanding of traumatic stress, providing powerful insights not normally obtained through traditional psychological methods. Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front, illustrates the psychological problems experienced by men in battle. Psychologists have rarely used novels as sources of data, yet they provide a rich insight into the problems associated with traumatic events. The issues raised in the book include: an account of battle experience, civilian understanding, memory and coping. This approach can be used to extend our understanding of traumatic situations.
The study examined the effectiveness of a group- administered cognitive behavioral intervention (CBT) with depressed university students in Jordan. 84 university students were recruited and assigned randomly to control and intervention groups. Intervention impact was assessed on measures of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and coping strategies at three times points; baseline, postintervention, 3- months postintervention. Overall, using CBT showed a significant improvement in the used measures. At postintervention, students had lower scores on perceived stress, depression, and avoidance coping and higher scores in approach coping. The findings are discussed in terms of treatment implications and recommendations for use at academic settings.
For the first time, the present study explores pre-episodic disturbances, i.e. self-experienced vulnerability and prodromal symptoms, and related coping strategies preceding schizophrenic and depressive relapses. After complete recovery from the acute episode, 27 patients with recurrent schizophrenic and 24 patients with recurrent depressive episodes were assessed retrospectively for pre-episodic disturbances and related coping strategies with the “Bonn scale for the assessment of basic symptoms—BSABS”. All (100%) of the schizophrenic and 23 (96%) of the depressive patients showed pre-episodic disturbances. Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly more often an increased emotional reactivity and certain perception and thought disturbances. Depressive patients reported significantly more often an impaired tolerance to certain stress and disorders of emotion and affect. Sixty-three percent of the schizophrenics and 87% of the depressives reacted to pre-episodic disturbances with coping strategies. The pre-episodic disturbances in patients with schizophrenia could be described in terms of mild psychotic productivity, those in depressives in terms of mild depressive syndrome. Future studies will have to show if these findings can be replicated in first episode or initial prodromal state samples and if the assessment of mild psychotic productivity and mild depressive syndrome can be used for early diagnosis and early intervention in schizophrenia and depression.