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This study utilizes self-consistency motivational theory to investigate the association between employees' experience of co-worker ostracism and their promotive voice, while also examining the mediating role of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and the moderating effect of emotional stability. We collected three-wave data from personnel in North American organizations and found that social exclusion by co-workers hinders employees' expression of constructive views about work-related matters as it dampens their OBSE. We observed that this mediating role of OBSE is mitigated to the extent to which employees have emotional stability, a dispositional feature that helps them control emotions, discipline impulses, and handle challenges. Overall, our study identifies a key mechanism, employees' belief about their self-esteem and proficiency as an organizational member, through which co-worker exclusion hampers promotive voice, and it reveals how their emotional stability might contain this process.
We propose a novel formal framework (called 3D-NCDC-ASP) to represent and reason about cardinal directions between extended objects in 3-dimensional (3D) space, using Answer Set Programming (ASP). 3D-NCDC-ASP extends Cardinal Directional Calculus (CDC) with a new type of default constraints, and NCDC-ASP to 3D. 3D-NCDC-ASP provides a flexible platform offering different types of reasoning: Nonmonotonic reasoning with defaults, checking consistency of a set of constraints on 3D cardinal directions between objects, explaining inconsistencies, and inferring missing CDC relations. We prove the soundness of 3D-NCDC-ASP, and illustrate its usefulness with applications.
In this chapter the concept of strong Markov consistency and the concept of weak Markov consistency for finite time-inhomogeneous multivariate Markov chains is introduced and studied. In particular, necessary and sufficient conditions for both types of Markov consistency are given. The main tool used here is the semimartingale characterization of finite Markov chains. In addition, operator interpretation of a sufficient condition for strong Markov consistency and a necessary condition for weak Markov consistency are provided. By definition, strong Markov consistency implies the weak Markov consistency. In this chapter we provide sufficient condition for the reverse implication to hold.
In this chapter the concept of strong Markov consistency for multivariate Markov families and for multivariate Markov processes is introduced and studied. Strong Markov consistency of a multivariate Markov family/process, if satisfied, provides for invariance of the Markov property under coordinate projections, a property that is important in various practical applications. We only consider conservative Markov processes and Markov families. In Section 2.1, we study the so-called strong Markov consistency for multivariate Markov families and multivariate Markov processes taking values in an arbitrary metric space. This study is geared towards formulating a general framework within which the strong Markov consistency can be conveniently analyzed. In Section 2.2, we specify our study of the strong Markov consistency to the case of multivariate Feller-Markov families taking values in Rn. The analysis is first carried in the time-inhomogeneous case, and then in the time homogeneous case where a more comprehensive study can be done.
In this chapter we introduce and discuss various concepts of consistency for multivariate special semimartingales. The results here are mainly based on Theorem 5.1, which generalizes to the case of semimartingales that are not special. Thus, these results themselves generalize in a straightforward manner to the case of semimartingales that are not special. We chose to work with special semimartingales in order to ease somewhat the presentation. Throughout this chapter the semimartingale truncation functions will be considered to be standard truncation functions of appropriate dimensions. In what follows, the semimartingale characteristics will be always computed with respect to the relevant standard truncation functions. Thus, the semimartingale characteristics for all the semimartingales showing in the rest of this chapter are considered to be unique (as functions of the trajectories on the canonical space) once the filtration is chosen with respect to which the characteristics are computed. The theory is illustrated by various examples.
The Archimedean Survival Process (ASP), which is quite interesting from a theoretical point of view, originates in some financial applications. It turns out that applications of ASP and ASP structures go beyond finance. ASPs are very interesting objects to study in the context of stochastic structures, both from the theoretical and applied perspective.
Conditional Markov Chains are an important class of stochastic processes, and thus, study of the related consistency problems is important. Finite conditional Markov chains generalize classical finite Markov chains. Thus, in many ways, the study of Markov consistency for finite multivariate conditional Markov chains done in this chapter is a generalization of the study done in Chapter 3. In particular, the results derived here are nicely illustrated by their counterparts given in the simpler set-up of Chapter 3.
In methodical product development, numerous data are used and linked with each other, especially variant-related data. This paper presents a model-based solution for avoiding inconsistencies in the development of product families with many variants and extends it to modular lightweight design. In addition, the inconsistencies in methodical product development were classified and solution approaches were shown. Thus, inconsistencies can be avoided with the presented elaborated data model for an integrated product and process model based on the presented procedure.
This paper studies the parameter estimation for Ornstein–Uhlenbeck stochastic volatility models driven by Lévy processes. We propose computationally efficient estimators based on the method of moments that are robust to model misspecification. We develop an analytical framework that enables closed-form representation of model parameters in terms of the moments and autocorrelations of observed underlying processes. Under moderate assumptions, which are typically much weaker than those for likelihood methods, we prove large-sample behaviors for our proposed estimators, including strong consistency and asymptotic normality. Our estimators obtain the canonical square-root convergence rate and are shown through numerical experiments to outperform likelihood-based methods.
We give a dynamic extension result of the (static) notion of a deviation measure. We also study distribution-invariant deviation measures and show that the only dynamic deviation measure which is law invariant and recursive is the variance.
Introduction: eCTAS is a real time electronic triage decision-support tool designed to improve patient safety and quality of care by standardizing the application of the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS). The tool dynamically calculates a recommended CTAS score based on the presenting complaint, vital signs and selected clinical modifiers. The primary objective was to assess consistency of CTAS score distributions across 35 emergency departments (EDs) by 16 presenting complaints pre and post eCTAS implementation. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used population-based administrative data from January 2016 to December 2018 from all hospital EDs in Ontario that had implemented eCTAS with at least 9 months of data. Following a 3-month stabilization period, we compared data for 6 months post-eCTAS implementation to the same 6-month period the previous year (pre-implementation) to account for potential seasonal variation, patient volume and case-mix. We included triage encounters of adult (≥18 years) patients if they had one of 16 pre-specified high-volume, presenting complaints. A paired-samples t-test was used to determine consistency by estimating the absolute difference in CTAS distribution for each presenting complaint, by each hospital, pre and post eCTAS implementation, compared to the overall average of the 35 EDs. Results: There were 183,231 triage encounters in the pre-eCTAS cohort and 179,983 in the post-eCTAS cohort from 35 EDs across the province. Triage scores were more consistent with the overall average after eCTAS implementation in 6 (37.5%) presenting complaints: chest pain (cardiac features) (p < 0.001), extremity weakness/symptoms of cerebrovascular accident (p < 0.001), fever (p < 0.001), shortness of breath (p < 0.001), syncope (p = 0.02), and hyperglycemia (p = 0.03). Triage consistency was similar pre and post eCTAS implementation for the presenting complaints of altered level of consciousness, anxiety/situational crisis, confusion, depression/suicidal/deliberate self-harm, general weakness, head injury, palpitations, seizure, substance misuse/intoxication or vertigo. Conclusion: A standardized, electronic approach to performing triage assessments increased consistency in CTAS scores across many, but not all, high-volume CEDIS complaints. This does not reflect triage accuracy, as there are no known benchmarks for triage accuracy. Improvements in consistency were greatest for sentinel presenting complaints with a minimum allowable CTAS score.
There has been a growing interest in the quality of life (QoL) of the mentally ill, subsequently a number of instruments to measure QoL have been developed. One of the measures of QoL which has received considerable attention is the Lancashire QoL Profile (LQOLP). The present study investigated test-retest reliability and internal consistency in the Swedish translation of the LQOLP using a cross-sectional sample of 29 inpatients. The results showed that test-retest reliability of subjective life satisfaction in the nine life domains covered by the LQOLP was satisfactory in seven of the domains, and acceptable in two (social relations and religion). Test-retest reliability for total subjective satisfaction score, global well-being, and an interviewer rated QoL were all on a satisfactory level (r > 0.80). The internal consistency and homogeneity of the total subjective QoL scale and the nine life domain subscales was satisfactory except for the social relations scale, where it was somewhat low.
As a pre-test validity study, a French version of the 28-item general health questionnaire was carried out on 158 general psychiatric patients, without any selection on diagnosis. These patients were concomitantly assessed by psychiatrists with a list of DSM III-R criteria for affective and anxiety disorders. Internal consistency of the questionnaire proved to be excellent. Principal component analysis provided a 4-factor solution, including a ‘depressive’ factor, close to that originally proposed by Goldberg and Hilllier (1979), but with some differences in the loading of insomnia. Although there were some differences in case distribution between the centres, this study confirms internal validity of the GHQ-28 as a screening instrument for psychiatric research.
This chapter is the first of two exploring the idea that the core thought of the naïve conception – that there is an intimate connection between sets and properties – can be preserved as long as we build into the conception the idea that certain properties are pathological and, for this reason, do not determine a set. The chapter first uses a result from Incurvati and Murzi (2017) to show that restricting attention to those properties that do not give rise to inconsistency will not do. It then focuses on the limitation of size conception of set, according to which the pathological properties are those that apply to too many things. Various versions of the doctrine are distinguished. The chapter also discusses what it calls the definite conception, according to which the pathological properties are the indefinitely extensible ones. It is argued that the limitation of size fails to provide a complete explanation of the set-theoretic paradoxes. The definite conception faces the same problem and, in addition, it is unclear whether it has the resources to develop a reasonable amount of set theory.
Looking at the general trend, we are walking towards the possibility of three different futures. The first possibility is a state of global chaos, the second possibility is a global autocracy and the third scenario is global democracy, could be the product of the motivational will of policy-makers, politicians, thinkers and opinion leaders with the backing of society, based on the centuries-long and bitter experiences of humankind and bestowed with the participatory virtues of shared values.
What we need to do is release ourselves from the psychology of pessimism, establish a healthy balance between a normativism attached to reality and a realism that takes values into account, and then to create a new projection of order within the harmony of this balance.
In order to elicit a new order’s doctrinal basis, one needs to define the fundamental principles that will constitute the intellectual substructure for international, regional and national-scale endeavors and guide practical applications.
In this framework in the fifth section, the principles of a vision for a new order are discussed and analyses the five principles of inclusive governance; inclusiveness, internal consistency, interest optimization, implementation of power structure and institutionalization.
The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS). 57 stable severe mental disorder patients (42 men, 73.7%, and 15 women, 26.3%), ranging in age between 23 and 64 years, (M = 46.25; SD = 7.52) answered to the BRCS and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF). Descriptive analyses, estimations of internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and correlations between the BRCS and the WHOQOL-BREF were calculated. The factorial validity of the scale was tested using confirmatory factor analysis, with a single dimension of resilience. The BRCS showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha of .69). Correlations between the BRCS and WHOQOL-BREF were positive, r(PhH-R) = .42, r(PsH-R) = .40, r(SR-R) = .33, r(E-R) = .35, and significant (p < .01). In conclusion, the Spanish adaptation of the BRCS seems to be a reliable and valid measure of resilience in stable severe mental disorder patients.
The standard neoclassical conception of rationality is narrow. It was created mainly for technical purposes such as making economic models internally consistent and mathematically tractable. We advocate a broader notion, especially for normative purposes, of “inclusive rationality.” This rationality concept is consistent with many of the choices and behaviors attributed to cognitive biases by behavioral economists. In fact, these biases can even be useful in helping people achieve their purposes. Although a narrow form of rationality may be more easily falsified, the broader form is the normatively relevant one.
We consider the propositional logic equipped with Chellas stit operators for a finite set of individual agents plus the historical necessity modality. We settle the question of whether such a logic enjoys restricted interpolation property, which requires the existence of an interpolant only in cases where the consequence contains no Chellas stit operators occurring in the premise. We show that if action operators count as logical symbols, then such a logic has restricted interpolation property iff the number of agents does not exceed three. On the other hand, if action operators are considered to be nonlogical symbols, then the restricted interpolation fails for any number of agents exceeding one. It follows that unrestricted Craig interpolation also fails for almost all versions of stit logic.