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This essay is an outline of some of the key terms in the classical Sanskrit tradition that can be translated as “imagination.” This enables us to map a very different yet recognizable terrain for our understanding of the concept. The essay is in four parts. The first looks at the articulation of ideas recognizably centred on imagination in the performative aspects of early or Vedic texts (1500–300 BCE). The second presents various terms that approach different aspects of “imagination,” and looks at some of the genres within which these terms were thematized. The third section surveys some influential contemplative practices in which imagination was carefully explored as a disciplined way of cultivating and expanding awareness. The fourth section very briefly considers the philosophical question of the cognitive status of imagination at least in aesthetic production. The conclusion opens up discussion about how this tradition of thematizing imagination may enrich the contemporary study of imagination, whose philosophical roots lie in the Western tradition.
This commentary begins by briefly reviewing and expanding upon some relevant factors of personality disorders that present challenges for clinicians. These factors include: lack of routine screening and assessment of personality disorders in routine clinical care; the vast heterogeneity both between and within personality disorder diagnoses; the high rates of comorbid psychological disorders; and the ego-syntonic nature of many personality disorders, which leads many clients to seek treatment for problems other than their personality disorders. The remainder of the commentary then outlines recommendations for clinicians to follow in their treatment of clients with personality disorders. It provides recommendations for the assessment, case conceptualization, treatment goal and target formation, target hierarchy creation, intervention selection, implementation and evaluation, and the creation and maintenance of rapport and therapeutic alliance when working with personality-disordered clients.
In recent years, several cognitive behavioral therapies have been developed to meet the specific challenges involved in treating personality disorders. Cognitive and behavioral treatment (CBT) is best represented as a family of therapies, including manualized treatment packages (or “branded” CBTs) and principle-driven interventions. This chapter reviews cognitive and behavioral intervention options for patients suffering from personality dysfunction. First, the authors provide an overview of the “branded” CBTs tested with personality disorder populations, including dialectical behavior therapy, schema focused therapy, and cognitive therapy for personality disorders. For clinicians who wish to use a cognitive behavioral approach, they then discuss how CBT case conceptualization can be used to inform a flexible and responsive treatment based on the empirically-supported treatments for personality disorders. In this approach, clinicians would formulate a treatment plan that applies cognitive and behavioral strategies, interventions, and principles of change from these empirically-supported “branded” CBTs. For example, the authors discuss ways in which the CBT principle of exposure may be considered for application across different personality disorders. Finally, they discuss the potential value in application of mindfulness and acceptance strategies with personality disorders.
The commentaries from Gold, Yen, Hughes and Rizvi highlight the challenges associated with using cognitive behavioral therapies to treat individuals with personality disorders (PDs). In this rejoinder, the authors extend upon these observations by arguing the importance of a modular, principle-driven approach to assessment and treatment of PDs. First, they discuss how there is a greater demand for treatments beyond the current “branded” CBTs and their empirical basis. In light of this limitation, clinicians need to flexibly use empirically-supported principles of change to treat processes underlying personality dysfunction. This approach requires careful case formulation and identification of behaviorally-specific targets of treatment using validated screening tools. This approach to treatment may be a useful way of meeting the demands for both patient care and current trends in national health care payor reform.
The conceptualisation of urban systems is a crucial step in their assessment. It not only involves identifying the constituent parts of an urban system, but also directly influences the definition of appropriate measurement tools, evaluation criteria, and stakeholders for the assessment. Choices related to conceptualisation therefore have strong normative implications. Hence, there is a need to develop ways to analyse and compare different approaches in terms of their relative emphases, strengths, and weaknesses. The purpose of this chapter is to respond to this need by developing analytical tools that build on four contrasting metaphors commonly used for describing cities. The set of four metaphors (machine, organism, network, and melting pot) used for this purpose were selected based their ability to capture different existing scientific perspectives on cities. Through elaborating the implications that each of the four metaphors carries for the different aspects of an urban system, our work produced two frameworks, one for analysing approaches to conceptualising urban systems in general, and another directed more specifically at analysing approaches to the assessment of urban systems. In addition to their analytical functions, these frameworks can also provide the language that enables communication between different scientific approaches to urban systems.
This chapter conceptualizes and classifies extremist right-wing parties by identifying their similarities to and differences from radical right-wing parties. It first produces a conceptual framework for identifying the two subgroups of the far right. Borrowing from existing literature on party families, it examines how various criteria such as the ideology, program, electorate, origins and international links of political parties can help distinguish between these two subfamilies. It then adds an important criterion this literature ignores, the type of political action parties undertake. Using this conceptual framework and the various criteria, the chapter then proceeds to the classification of forty-one parties in thirty countries.
The WHO’s (2001) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model conceptualizes health from an ecological perspective. It has been implemented by many professionals as the standard health classification framework that guides providers’ decisions regarding assessment tools and targeted interventions. Despite this model’s prevalence among many healthcare providers, the ICF framework remains largely underutilized by many in the counseling fields. This conceptual paper provides an overview of the strengths of the ICF model and ICF-based measurements, and demonstrates its clinical, research, and educational value. A case study is presented to guide counselors and counselor educators through application of the ICF model in various contexts to encourage expanded use of the model. Use of the ICF model among counseling professionals, educators, and researchers is recommended as one way to enhance measurement of clinical outcomes.
Chapter 1 – How do we change the world? – presents the rationale of the book, its aim, and scope, introduces key concepts and outlines the state of research on and for transformations toward sustainability. The chapter highlights different calls for sustainability transformations in the United Nations 2030 Agenda, countries’ contributions to the Paris Agreement and subsequent negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The chapter further discusses the difference between the concepts of transformation and transition. The chapter argues that greater conceptual clarity on sustainability transformations across societies in the world facilitates decision-making and planning in form of democratization, organizational effectiveness and international cooperation.
In recent decades, dramatic developments in genetics research have begun to transform not only the practice of medicine but also conceptions of the social world. In the media, in popular culture, and in everyday conversation, Americans routinely link genetics to individual behavior and social outcomes. At the same time, some social researchers contend that biological definitions of race have lost ground in the United States over the last fifty years. At the crossroads of two trends—on one hand, the post-World War II recoil from biological accounts of racial difference, and on the other, the growing admiration for the advances of genetic science—the American public’s conception of race is a phenomenon that merits greater attention from sociologists than it has received to date. However, survey data on racial attitudes has proven to be significantly affected by social desirability bias. While a number of studies have attempted to measure social desirability bias with regard to racial attitudes, most have focused on racial policy preferences rather than genetic accounts of racial inequality. We employ a list experiment to create an unobtrusive measure of support for a biologistic understanding of racial inequality. We show that one in five non-Black Americans attribute income inequality between Black and White people to unspecified genetic differences between the two groups. We also find that this number is substantially underestimated when using a direct question. The magnitude of social desirability effects varies, and is most pronounced among women, older people, and the highly-educated.
Languages differ typologically in motion event encoding (Talmy, 2000). Furthermore, the cross-linguistic variations in lexicalization modulate cognition in a dynamic and task-dependent manner (Slobin, 1996a). This study aims to investigate whether early Cantonese–English bilinguals behave differently from monolinguals in each language when lexicalizing and categorizing voluntary motion in different language contexts. Specifically, monolinguals were instructed and narrated in their native languages. We assigned bilinguals to a monolingual and a bilingual context by manipulating immediate language use in their oral descriptions. Results from monolinguals suggested an effect of language on event conceptualization. However, results from bilinguals showed that their performances patterned with English monolinguals in both event lexicalization and conceptualization regardless of the language context. These findings indicate that early exposure to a second language has motivated speakers to converge to a single lexicalization pattern compatible for both languages. And the degree of convergence is modulated by the amount of language contact with each language. The study demonstrates that participants draw on their linguistic knowledge during the non-verbal task and provides evidence for L2-biased cognitive restructuring within the framework of thinking-for-speaking.
There is general consensus among usage-based researchers that the development of linguistic structure is driven by domain-general processes, but these processes are not always explained in light of psychological research on cognition. Chapter 3 provides a systematic overview of the various cognitive processes that are involved in language use and explains, in general terms, how grammar, usage and cognition are related. It is argued that language use involves a unconscious decision-making process that is determined by cognitive factors from three general domains: (1) social cognition (e.g., joint attention, common ground), (2) conceptualization (e.g., figure-ground, metaphor) and (3) memory-related processes (e.g., automatization, priming). The various processes can reinforce each other but can also be in competition. Of particular importance is the competition between other-oriented processes of social cognition and self-oriented processes of memory and activation spreading. One general advantage of the network approach is that it provides a natural explanation for the effects of frequency on usage and development.
Chapter 2 provides a background on the use of network models in different scientific disciplines and introduces the general architecture of the grammar network. The proposed network model has two levels of analysis: a lower level, at which linguistic signs, notably constructions, are defined by three different types of associations, or relations: (1) symbolic relations connecting form and meaning, (2) sequential relations connecting linguistic elements in sequence and (3) taxonomic relations connecting linguistic patterns at different levels of abstraction. Together the three relations define the basic units of speech, i.e., lexemes and constructions. Every unit constitutes a (local) network shaped by language use, but these networks also serve as nodes of a higher-level network that involves three other types of relations: (4) lexical relations connecting lexemes with similar or contrastive forms and meanings, (5) constructional relations connecting constructions at the same level of abstraction and (6) and filler-slot relations connecting particular lexemes with constructional schemas.
Background: There is increasing interest in the use of metaphor in cognitive behaviour therapy. Experts advocate bringing client metaphors into case conceptualizations, but there is little empirical research to support this. Aims: This study evaluated the effect of training 12 therapists to attend to client metaphors and bring them into case conceptualizations. Method: Pre- and post-training role-played therapy sessions were conducted and video-recorded. Alliance was rated by role play ‘clients’ and an external expert rated the quality of the sessions and of the shared conceptualizations. Results: There were significant increases in some ratings of alliance, based on role play ‘client’ ratings and external ratings of role plays of therapy sessions before and after training. The greater the difference between therapist and ‘client’ on a measure of preference for producing metaphor, the lower the rating of the session by the ‘client’ on the Bond factor score of an alliance measure, the Working Alliance Inventory. This result suggests that working metaphorically may be most effective when the therapist and client have a similar degree of preference for speaking metaphorically. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary support for the idea that attending to client metaphors during conceptualization can be beneficial for alliance.
Any approach to interaction is confronted with the dilemma of reconciling the empirical fact that meaning is locally and interactionally managed, as shown by conversation analysis, with the fact that conversations are subject to genres that impose conventionalized expectations for allowable contributions and inferences, as advocated by the ethnography of communication. This theoretical paper attempts to overcome this challenge by integrating Langacker’s current-discourse-space model with Barsalou’s dynamic model of situated conceptualization. With reference to these frameworks, the paper sketches a grounded socio-cognitive model of meaning construction in context that combines the situated interactional negotiation of meaning with the discursive knowledge that underlies speech genres in the form of genre-simulators. To substantiate and illustrate the theoretical considerations, the paper draws on two extracts from spoken tourist-information transactions.
Background: Case conceptualization is assumed to be an important element in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) because it describes and explains clients’ presentations in ways that inform intervention. However, we do not have a good measure of competence in CBT case conceptualization that can be used to guide training and elucidate mechanisms. Aims: The current study addresses this gap by describing the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Collaborative Case Conceptualization – Rating Scale (CCC-RS; Padesky et al., 2011). The CCC-RS was developed in accordance with the model posited by Kuyken et al. (2009). Method: Data for this study (N = 40) were derived from a larger trial (Wiles et al., 2013) with adults suffering from resistant depression. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were calculated. Further, and as a partial test of the scale's validity, Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for scores on the CCC-RS and key scales from the Cognitive Therapy Scale – Revised (CTS-R; Blackburn et al., 2001). Results: The CCC-RS showed excellent internal consistency (α = .94), split-half (.82) and inter-rater reliabilities (ICC =.84). Total scores on the CCC-RS were significantly correlated with scores on the CTS-R (r = .54, p < .01). Moreover, the Collaboration subscale of the CCC-RS was significantly correlated (r = .44) with its counterpart of the CTS-R in a theoretically predictable manner. Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that the CCC-RS is a reliable measure with adequate face, content and convergent validity. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings to other facets of validity.
As one of the Austronesian languages spoken in Taiwan, Amis exhibits abundant lexical items for describing odors. This paper investigates the lexical representations of olfaction across the Amis dialects, showing that Amis possesses more than a dozen abstract odor terms, and uses the proclitic hala=/hali=/ha= plus reduplication of a noun as the source-oriented construction for manifesting olfactory perception. This study also incorporates controlled elicitation by using the booklet of ‘The Smell Identification Test™’ to elicit spontaneous descriptions for the perceived odors. The methodology provides further information to shed light on the categories of verbal responses for odors and the degree of perceptual consistency based on culturally dependent experiences.
This paper offers the first general introduction to CODA (Cognitive Discourse Analysis), a methodology for analyzing verbal protocols and other types of unconstrained language use, as a resource for researchers interested in mental representations and high-level cognitive processes. CODA can be used to investigate verbalizations of perceived scenes and events, spatio-temporal concepts, complex cognitive processes such as problem-solving and cognitive strategies and heuristics, and other concepts that are accessible for verbalization. CODA builds on and extends relevant established methodologies such as cognitive linguistic perspectives, verbal protocol analysis in cognitive psychology and interdisciplinary content analysis, linguistic discourse analysis, and psycholinguistic experimentation.
Many attempts have been made to discover some systematicity in the semantics of phrasal verbs. However, most research has investigated the semantics of particles exclusively; no study has examined how the multiple meanings of the verb also contribute to the meanings of phrasal verbs. The current corpus-based (COCA) study advances the research on phrasal verbs by examining the interaction of the polysemy networks of both the verb and the particle in four phrasal verb constructions: get up, take up, get out, and take out. Following the Cognitive Linguistics (CL) based methodology set out by Tyler and Evans (2003) for analyzing the semantics of particles, in conjunction with Langacker’s (1991) analysis of the semantics of verbs, a replicable polysemy analysis of the semantics of get and take was established. The polysemy networks for both the verbs and the particles laid the foundation for investigating the multiple meanings of the phrasal verbs found in the corpus. The CL-based analysis of the semantics of the phrasal verb constructions provides evidence for the compositional nature of phrasal verbs, showing that the multiple meanings can be systematically accounted for through the interaction of the polysemy networks of the component verbs and particles.