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In recent years, outbreaks of hand–foot–mouth disease (HFMD) in China, Singapore and other Western Pacific Region, involving millions of children, have become a big threat to public health. This study aimed to quantitatively assess all qualified studies and identify the risk factors for HFMD death. A systematic search of the databases PubMed, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed. Study heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Seven case–control studies involving 1641 participants (634 died and 1007 survived) were included in the meta-analysis. Human enterovirus 71 infection, male, age ⩽3 years, vomiting, cyanosis, convulsion, duration of fever ⩾3 days, atypical rashes and abdominal distention were not significantly related to HFMD death (P ⩽ 0.05). Lethargy (odds ratio (OR) = 6.62; 95% CI 3.61–12.14; I2 = 0%; P < 0.0001), pneumonoedema/pneumorrhagia (OR = 4.09; 95% CI 2.44–6.87; I2 = 0%; P < 0.0001), seizures (OR = 6.85; 95% CI 2.37–19.74; I2 = 0%; P = 0.0004), dyspnoea (OR = 8.24; 95% CI 2.05–33.19; I2 = 83%; P = 0.003) and coma (OR = 3.76; 95% CI 1.85–7.67; I2 = 0%; P = 0.0003) were significantly associated with HFMD death, which were risk factors for HFMD death.
We report a case of Figulla-II Occlutech septal occluder malposition with residual shunt at posteriosuperior margin of an atrial septal defect. Improvising its bioptome type delivery cable, same system was used to recapture the device and redeploy it successfully. This report highlights a potential malfunction of Figulla-II Occlutech disc and the advantage of its delivery system for retrieval of the device.
Ductal arterial spasm is a very potentially dangerous incidence during percutaneous device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), which, otherwise, is a very safe catheter intervention. It is essential to notice its occurrence before device sizing and deploying. Without awareness, it can mislead device selection and can result in serious complication. In this report, we shared our nightmare of ductal spasm during transcatheter closure of PDA in two children which had led to death in one patient.
Deep learning using convolutional neural networks represents a form of artificial intelligence where computers recognise patterns and make predictions based upon provided datasets. This study aimed to determine if a convolutional neural network could be trained to differentiate the location of the anterior ethmoidal artery as either adhered to the skull base or within a bone ‘mesentery’ on sinus computed tomography scans.
Coronal sinus computed tomography scans were reviewed by two otolaryngology residents for anterior ethmoidal artery location and used as data for the Google Inception-V3 convolutional neural network base. The classification layer of Inception-V3 was retrained in Python (programming language software) using a transfer learning method to interpret the computed tomography images.
A total of 675 images from 388 patients were used to train the convolutional neural network. A further 197 unique images were used to test the algorithm; this yielded a total accuracy of 82.7 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 77.7–87.8), kappa statistic of 0.62 and area under the curve of 0.86.
Convolutional neural networks demonstrate promise in identifying clinically important structures in functional endoscopic sinus surgery, such as anterior ethmoidal artery location on pre-operative sinus computed tomography.
Transcatheter implantation of pulmonary balloon-expandable stent-valves requires pre-stenting of the right ventricular outflow tract with large calibre stents. To increase awareness of the associated risks of this part of transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement therapy, we report potential fatal complications during the implantation of AndraStents® in the right ventricular outflow tract in six cases from five different European institutions and their management.
Method and result:
We present a retrospective case series analysis looking at the time period from 2013 to 2018. Of 127 AndraStents® implanted in the right ventricular outflow tract, in six patients, age from 13 to 71 years, a misconfiguration of the AndraStent® occurred forming a “diabolo”-configuration. During inflation of the balloon, the stent showed extreme “dog-boning”, an expansion of the stent at both ends with the middle part remaining unexpanded. This led to rupture of the balloon and loss of manoeuvrability in four patients. Out of the total six cases, in four patients the stent was eventually expanded with high-pressure balloons, and in one case the stent was surgically retrieved. In one patient, in whom a percutaneous retrieval of the embolised stent was attempted, a fatal bleeding occurred.
Pre-stenting of the right ventricular outflow tract by AndraStents® can lead to misconfiguration of the stent with potentially fatal complications. Rescue strategies of misconfigured stents include stent inflation and placement with high pressure non-compliant balloons or surgical backup. Interventional retrieval measures of AndraStents® cannot be advised.
Patent ductus arteriosus is among the most common congenital heart diseases. With the increasing use of transcatheter closure procedures, the incidence of complications related to the procedure has increased. Embolization of the ductus closure device to the pulmonary artery is a very rare complication. Since those procedures are often performed under non-operating room anesthesia, anesthetic management of such patients is of great importance. Herein, anesthetic management of embolization of the ductus closure device to the pulmonary artery in a little girl was presented. This is the first case regarding the anesthetic management of such complication.
Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is increasingly adopted as an alternative procedure to surgery in dysfunctional homograft, and in patients with “native” or wide right ventricle outflow tract dysfunction. Pre-stenting is mandatory in this category of patients for many reasons, one of which is to create an adequate landing zone for the bioprosthesis. Here we report on a tricky situation that occurred during pre-stenting, and we describe how we successfully overcame it.
Introduction: Incentive spirometry (IS) is commonly used in post-operative patients for respiratory recovery. Literature suggest that it can possibly improve lung function and reduce post-operative pulmonary complication. There is no recommendation about the use of IS in the emergency department (ED). However, rib fractures, a common complaint, increase the risk of pulmonary complications. There is heterogeneous ED practice for the management of rib fractures. The objective of this study is to assess the benefits of IS to reduce potential delayed complications in ED discharged patients with confirmed rib fracture. Methods: This is a prospective observational planned sub-study in 4 canadians ED between November 2006 and May 2012. Non-admitted patients over 16 y.o. with a main complaint of minor thoracic injury and at least one suspected/confirmed rib fracture on radiographs were included. Discharge recommendations of IS use was left to attending physician. IS training was done by ED nurses. Main outcomes were pneumonia, atelectasis and hemothorax within 14 days. Analyses were made with propensity score matching. Results: 450 patients with at least one rib fracture were included. Of these, 182 (40%) received IS with a mean age of 57.0 y.o. Patients with IS seem to have worse condition. 61 (33.5%) had 3 fractures comparatively to 56 (20.9) for patient without IS. Although, the groups were similar for mean age, sex and mechanism of injury. There were in total 76 cases of delayed hemothorax (16.9%), 69 cases of atelectasis (15.3%) and five cases of pneumonia (1.1%). The use of IS was not protector for delayed hemothorax (RR= 0.80, 95% CI [0.45 1.36]) and nor for atelectasis or pneumonia (RR=0.74, 95% CI [0.45 1.36]) Conclusion: Our results suggest that unsupervised and broad incentive spirometry use does not seem to add a protective effect against the development of delayed pulmonary complications after a rib fracture. Further study should be made to assess the usefulness of IS in specific injured population in the ED.
Oesophageal disorders and osteonecrosis of the jaw are recognised complications of the commonly prescribed medication bisphosphonate. Despite these diagnoses being seen comparatively frequently within the ENT clinic, osteonecrosis of the external ear is a less well reported complication.
The current literature is reviewed and our experience with six cases of bisphosphonate-related ear canal osteonecrosis is presented.
Six cases were identified as suffering from ear canal osteonecrosis as a result of bisphosphonate treatment. One of our cases suffered bilateral ear canal osteonecrosis after only 20 months of oral alendronic acid treatment. Management ranged from bisphosphonate cessation and topical treatment, to surgical debridement in the operating theatre.
Bisphosphonate-related ear canal osteonecrosis is undoubtedly under-diagnosed. For such a commonly prescribed medication, the risks and side effects of bisphosphonate should be better known and long-term treatment should be avoided if possible.
We report a case of combined severe aortic stenosis and regurgitation in a pregnant patient with a history of congenital bicuspid aortic valve. The patient presented at 22 weeks of gestation with angina and pre-syncopal symptoms. During her admission, she experienced intermittent episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and hypotension. A multi-disciplinary healthcare team was assembled to decide on the appropriate medical and surgical treatment options. At 28 weeks of gestation, the patient underwent a caesarean delivery immediately followed by a mechanical aortic valve replacement.
The objective of this study was to explore the clinical effect of the transcatheter closure of congenital perimembranous ventricular septal defect using the Amplatzer duct occluder 2.
Between February 2012 and December 2016, 51 patients were subjected to Amplatzer duct occluder 2 for transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect. A total of 51 patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defect who underwent transcatheter closure by the conventional membranous ventricular septal occluder comprised the control group. The success rate and complications were compared, and indications of Amplatzer duct occluder 2 for perimembranous ventricular septal defect were explored.
The success rate of the interventional procedure was 98.0% (50/51) in the group of Amplatzer duct occluder 2 versus 100% in the group of conventional membranous ventricular septal occluder. The mean age of the patients of Amplatzer duct occluder group was 5.0±3.7 years (range: 1.5–25.0), and the mean weight was 19.3±8.1 kg (range: 11.0–52.0). The mean outlet diameter of the defects was 2.8±0.6 mm (range: 1.8–5.1) as measured by transthoracic echocardiography. The device was implanted by a retrograde approach in 40 patients and antegrade approach in 10 patients. No statistical significance was observed in the incidence of complication and hospitalisation duration between the two groups; however, the Amplatzer duct occluder 2 group was cost-effective (p<0.05) and required less fluoroscopy time (p<0.05). Neither deaths nor new onset of aortic and tricuspid insufficiency occurred during the median 26.2 months (range: 3–65) of follow-up.
Amplatzer duct occluder 2 has advantages of simple manipulation and less medical costs compared with conventional device in transcatheter closure of small type perimembranous ventricular septal defect.
To evaluate the impact of couch translational shifts on dose–volume histogram (DVH) and radiobiological parameters [tumour control probability (TCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)] of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans and to develop a simple and swift method to predict the same online, on a daily basis.
In total, ten prostate patients treated with VMAT technology were selected for this study. The plans were generated using Eclipse TPS and delivered using Clinac ix LINAC equipped with a Millennium 120 multileaf collimator. In order to find the effect of systematic translational couch shifts on the DVH and radiobiological parameters, errors were introduced in the clinically accepted base plan with an increment of 1 mm and up to 5 mm from the iso-centre in both positive and negative directions of each of the three axis, x [right–left (R-L)], y [superior–inferior (S-I)] and z [anterior–posterior (A-P)]. The percentages of difference in these parameters (∆D, ∆TCP, ∆EUD and ∆NTCP) were analyzed between the base plan and the error introduced plans. DVHs of the base plan and the error plans were imported into the MATLAB software (R2013a) and an in-house MATLAB code was generated to find the best curve fitted polynomial functions for each point on the DVH, there by generating predicted DVH for planning target volume (PTV), clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risks (OARs). Functions f(x, vj), f(y, vj) and f(z, vj) were found to represent the variation in the dose when there are couch translation shifts in R-L, S-I and A-P directions, respectively. The validation of this method was done by introducing daily couch shifts and comparing the treatment planning system (TPS) generated DVHs and radiobiological parameters with MATLAB code predicted parameters.
It was noted that the variations in the dose to the CTV, due to both systematic and random shifts, were very small. For CTV and PTV, the maximum variations in both DVH and radiobiological parameters were observed in the S-I direction than in the A-P or R-L directions. ∆V70 Gy and ∆V60 Gy of the bladder varied more due to S-I shift whereas, ∆V40 Gy, ∆EUD and ∆NTCP varied due to A-P shifts. All the parameters in rectum were most affected by the A-P shifts than the shifts in other two directions. The maximum percentage of deviation between the TPS calculated and MATLAB predicted DVHs of plans were calculated for targets and OARs and were found to be less than 0·5%.
The variations in the parameters depend upon the direction and magnitude of the shift. The DVH curves generated by the TPS and predicted by the MATLAB showed good correlation.
This paper presents our experience on delayed-onset haematoma formation after cochlear implantation, a topic which has not been well discussed in the literature.
Retrospective case review study.
Five children who had undergone cochlear implant surgery at 1.5 to 4 years of age (median, 2.5 years) were studied. The haematoma episodes occurred 2–12 years (median, 6 years) after cochlear implantation. Two patients had recurrent episodes. Two of the seven haematoma episodes were managed by needle aspiration alone, four by incision and drainage alone, and one by both needle aspiration and incision and drainage. Other than one patient with coagulopathy, there were no obvious predisposing factors, including trauma.
The majority of delayed-onset haematomas occurred without obvious predisposing factors. Needle aspiration can differentiate a haematoma from an abscess or cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and it provides an effective immediate therapeutic solution. However, aseptic techniques are emphasised to minimise the chances of an uncomplicated haematoma converting into a septic one.
Morbidity is defined as a state of being unhealthy or of experiencing an aspect of health that is “generally bad for you”, and postoperative morbidity linked to paediatric cardiac surgery encompasses a range of conditions that may impact the patient and are potential targets for quality assurance.
As part of a wider study, a multi-disciplinary group of professionals aimed to define a list of morbidities linked to paediatric cardiac surgery that was prioritised by a panel reflecting the views of both professionals from a range of disciplines and settings as well as parents and patients.
We present a set of definitions of morbidity for use in routine audit after paediatric cardiac surgery. These morbidities are ranked in priority order as acute neurological event, unplanned re-operation, feeding problems, the need for renal support, major adverse cardiac events or never events, extracorporeal life support, necrotising enterocolitis, surgical site of blood stream infection, and prolonged pleural effusion or chylothorax. It is recognised that more than one such morbidity may arise in the same patient and these are referred to as multiple morbidities, except in the case of extracorporeal life support, which is a stand-alone constellation of morbidity.
It is feasible to define a range of paediatric cardiac surgical morbidities for use in routine audit that reflects the priorities of both professionals and parents. The impact of these morbidities on the patient and family will be explored prospectively as part of a wider ongoing, multi-centre study.
To investigate associations of maternal periconceptional shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake with risk of pregnancy complications.
In this prospective cohort study, we collected information on intake of seafood subtypes using FFQ. We categorized seafood intake into frequencies of <0·2 servings/month, 0·2 servings/month–<0·5 servings/week, 0·5–1·0 servings/week and >1 servings/week. We ascertained gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth diagnoses from medical records. Using generalized linear models with a log link, the Poisson family and robust standard errors, we estimated risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals across seafood intake categories.
The Omega study, a study of risk factors for pregnancy complications among women recruited from prenatal clinics in Washington State, USA, 1996–2008.
The current study included 3279 participants from the Omega study.
Median (interquartile range) shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake was 0·3 (0–0·9), 0·5 (0–1·0) and 0·5 (0·1–1·0) servings/week, respectively. Lean fish intake of >1 servings/week (v. <0·2 servings/month) was associated with a 1·55-fold higher risk of preterm birth (95 % CI 1·04, 2·30) and was not associated with the other pregnancy complications. Higher intake of seafood (total or other subtypes) was not associated with pregnancy complications (separately or combined).
Higher intake of lean fish, but not fatty fish or shellfish, was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth; these findings may have significance for preterm birth prevention. Studies of mechanisms and potential contributing factors (including seafood preparation and nutrient/contaminant content) are warranted.
We hypothesised that lower mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy values would be associated with a greater incidence of gastrointestinal complications in children weighing <10 kg who were recovering from cardiac surgery. We evaluated mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy, central venous oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gases for 48 hours post-operatively. Enteral feeding intake, gastrointestinal complications, and markers of organ dysfunction were monitored for 7 days. A total of 50 children, with median age of 16.7 (3.2–31.6) weeks, were studied. On admission, the average mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy value was 71±18%, and the systemic oxygen saturation was 93±7.5%. Lower admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy correlated with longer time to establish enteral feeds (r=−0.58, p<0.01) and shorter duration of feeds at 7 days (r=0.48, p<0.01). Children with gastrointestinal complications had significantly lower admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy (58±18% versus 73±17%, p=0.01) and higher mesenteric arteriovenous difference of oxygen at admission [39 (23–47) % versus 19 (4–27) %, p=0.02]. Based on multiple logistic regression, admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy was independently associated with gastrointestinal complications (Odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93–0.97; p=0.03). Admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 to identify children who developed gastrointestinal complications, with a suggested cut-off value of 72% (78% sensitivity, 68% specificity). In this pilot study, we conclude that admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy is associated with gastrointestinal complications and enteral feeding tolerance in children after cardiac surgery.
Background: Cranioplasty encompasses various cranial reconstruction techniques that are used following craniectomy due to stroke or trauma. Despite classical infectious signs, symptoms, and radiologic findings, however, the diagnosis of infection following cranioplasty can be elusive, with the potential to result in definitive treatment delay. We sought to determine if fever or leukocytosis at presentation were indicative of infection, as well as to identify any factors that may limit its applicability. Methods: Following institutional review board approval, a retrospective cohort of 239 patients who underwent cranioplasty following craniectomy for stroke or trauma was established from 2001-2011 at a single center (Massachusetts General Hospital). Analysis was then focused on those who developed a surgical site infection, as defined by either frank intra-operative purulence or positive intra-operative cultures, and subsequently underwent operative management. Results: In 27 total cases of surgical site infection, only two had a fever and four had leukocytosis at presentation. This yielded a false-negative rate for fever of 92.6% and for leukocytosis of 85.2%. In regard to infectious etiology, 22 (81.5%) cases generated positive intra-operative cultures, with Propionibacterium acnes being the most common organism isolated. Median interval to infection was 99 days from initial cranioplasty to time of infectious presentation, and average follow-up was 3.4 years. Conclusions: The utilization of fever and elevated white blood cell count in the diagnosis of post-cranioplasty infection is associated with a high false-negative rate, making the absence of these features insufficient to exclude the diagnosis of infection.
Remote monitoring is increasingly used in the follow-up of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Data on paediatric populations are still lacking. The aim of our study was to follow-up young patients both in-hospital and remotely to enhance device surveillance.
This is an observational registry collecting data on consecutive patients followed-up with the CareLink system. Inclusion criteria were a Medtronic device implanted and patient’s willingness to receive CareLink. Patients were stratified according to age and presence of congenital/structural heart defects (CHD).
A total of 221 patients with a device – 200 pacemakers, 19 implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and two loop recorders – were enrolled (median age of 17 years, range 1–40); 58% of patients were younger than 18 years of age and 73% had CHD. During a follow-up of 12 months (range 4–18), 1361 transmissions (8.9% unscheduled) were reviewed by technicians. Time for review was 6±2 minutes (mean±standard deviation). Missed transmissions were 10.1%. Events were documented in 45% of transmissions, with 2.7% yellow alerts and 0.6% red alerts sent by wireless devices. No significant differences were found in transmission results according to age or presence of CHD. Physicians reviewed 6.3% of transmissions, 29 patients were contacted by phone, and 12 patients underwent unscheduled in-hospital visits. The event recognition with remote monitoring occurred 76 days (range 16–150) earlier than the next scheduled in-office follow-up.
Remote follow-up/monitoring with the CareLink system is useful to enhance device surveillance in young patients. The majority of events were not clinically relevant, and the remaining led to timely management of problems.
To investigate the effect of pre-emptive parecoxib sodium, given in addition to routine analgesic treatment, on post-operative cognitive function in elderly patients.
Seventy elderly patients were included, who were 65–82 years of age, 48–75 kg of weight, and ASA grade I-II. Preoperative mini mental state examination (MMSE) score was ≥21 points. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: control group (group C) and parecoxib sodium group (group P). Before induction of general anesthesia, 40 mg of parecoxib sodium was injected intravenously in group P and the same volume of saline was injected in group C. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) containing fentanyl and tramadol was used for post-operative pain control. A 3 ml blood sample was obtained from the peripheral vein one day before surgery, 1, 4, 24, and 72 h after surgery, and plasma cortisol, IL-6 and S100β concentrations were measured. Cognitive function was evaluated by measuring the MMSE score and a neurological test battery within 72 h after surgery. The occurrence of post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), the dosage of fentanyl and tramadol used in PCIA, and the rate of additional fentanyl administration were recorded.
Compared to group C, post-operative plasma cortisol concentration decreased, the amount of fentanyl and tramadol used in PCIA was reduced, the rate of additional fentanyl administration decreased, and the rate of POCD was reduced in group P (P < 0.05).
Pre-emptive analgesia with 40 mg of parecoxib sodium can reduce the incidence of POCD in elderly patients.
Limb ischaemia is a rare but catastrophic complication related to cardiac catheterisation. We report an infant weighing 3 kg with unrepaired tricuspid atresia type 1b, small patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect presenting with cardiogenic shock owing to progressively reduced pulmonary blood flow from closing ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. An emergency palliative ductal stent was successfully placed with marked clinical improvement. However, acute limb ischaemia developed necessitating above-knee amputation, despite medical management and vascular surgery. The cause of limb loss in our patient was catheterisation-related vascular injury causing arterial dissection–arterial thrombosis in the presence of shock and coagulopathy. This report emphasises the complexity in managing limb ischaemia associated with coagulopathy and highlights the importance of early recognition of reduced pulmonary flow in a single ventricle patient. Timely elective placement of a surgical systemic to pulmonary shunt would prevent catastrophic clinical presentation of compromised pulmonary flow and avoid the need for an emergent life-saving intervention and its associated complications.