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This chapter traces the development of education in America from the end of Reconstruction to World War II. The industrialization that characterized this period gave rise to a system of “scientific” management which prized efficiency and competition above all other factors. This in turn influenced the philosophy of behaviorism, which remains a pillar of American education. The chapter exposes the faulty premises of behaviorism and its unfortunate effects when applied in schools. In addition, the chapter examines sources as varied as the Founders’ writings and the latest neuroscientific research to critique behaviorism and endorse social constructivist pedagogy. The chapter also features a brief discussion of the outer limits imposed by the Supreme Court on the government’s ability to regulate education. The discussion includes an examination of three seminal cases: Pierce, Meyer, and Yoder.
Since 1990, market mechanisms have occurred in the predominantly hierarchical National Health Service (NHS). The Health and Social Care Act 2012 led to concerns that market principles had been irrevocably embedded in the NHS and that the regulators would acquire unwarranted power compared with politicians (known as ‘juridification’). To assess this concern, we analysed regulatory activity in the period from 2015 to 2018. We explored how economic regulation of the NHS had changed in light of the policy turn back to hierarchy in 2014 and the changes in the legislative framework under Public Contracts Regulations 2015. We found the continuing dominance of hierarchical modes of control was reflected in the relative dominance and behaviour of the sector economic regulator. But there had also been a limited degree of juridification involving the courts. Generally, the regulatory decisions were consistent with the 2014 policy shift away from market principles and with the enduring role of hierarchy in the NHS, but the existing legislative regime did allow the incursion of pro market regulatory decision making, and instances of such decisions were identified.
The ‘deep sea’ encompasses a broad range of habitats that differ greatly in their assemblages and ecosystem functioning. Habitats may be described by a combination of environmental factors (e.g., depth, slope) and biotic factors (e.g., source of primary productivity). We review recent attempts to define deep-sea biogeographic provinces based on spatial and temporal variations in oceanographic conditions, and consider potential boundaries to distributional ranges, in particular habitats based on recent phylogeographic studies. We briefly discuss abiotic interactions in various habitats, noting the particular influence of local hydrodynamics. We consider competition and predation at whale falls and hydrothermal vents, discuss symbiotic interactions particularly with respect to deep-sea corals, which are particularly prevalent in submarine canyons and seamounts, and consider the difficulties of inferring processes from patterns.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at Clinton, NC, to quantify the effects of season-long interference of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) on ‘AG6536’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Weed density treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m−2 for A. palmeri and 0, 1, 2, 4, and 16 plants m−2 for D. sanguinalis with (interspecific interference) and without (intraspecific interference) soybean to determine the impacts on weed biomass, soybean biomass, and seed yield. Biomass per square meter increased with increasing weed density for both weed species with and without soybean present. Biomass per square meter of D. sanguinalis was 617% and 37% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean, for 1 and 16 plants m−2 respectively. Biomass per square meter of A. palmeri was 272% and 115% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant for D. sanguinalis and A. palmeri grown without soybean was greatest at the 1 plant m−2 density. Biomass per plant of D. sanguinalis plants across measured densities was 33% to 83% greater when grown without soybean compared with biomass per plant when soybean was present for 1 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. Similarly, biomass per plant for A. palmeri was 56% to 74% greater when grown without soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant of either weed species was not affected by weed density when grown with soybean due to interspecific competition with soybean. Yield loss for soybean grown with A. palmeri ranged from 14% to 37% for densities of 1 to 8 plants m−2, respectively, with a maximum yield loss estimate of 49%. Similarly, predicted loss for soybean grown with D. sanguinalis was 0 % to 37% for densities of 1 to 16 m−2 with a maximum yield loss estimate of 50%. Soybean biomass was not affected by weed species or density. Results from these studies indicate that A. palmeri is more competitive than D. sanguinalis at lower densities, but that similar yield loss can occur when densities greater than 4 plants m−2 of either weed are present.
Interspecific interactions between parasites sharing the same host are often antagonistic; the presence of one species decreases the number of individuals or negatively affects both the distribution and reproduction of the other species. Antagonistic interactions between co-infecting parasites may translate into direct competition or interactive segregation, but elements of both may be present. Potential interactions between two acanthocephalan species, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae, were studied in the field in two of their natural fish definitive hosts. There was no evidence for competitive exclusion between P. laevis and A. anguillae. However, a negative interaction was found for the first time in the field between these two species. Based on the analysis of parasite abundance and total biomass using a static regression approach, I found that the abundance and total biomass of parasite was also limited by host characteristics. These results are consistent with previous laboratory studies on competition between P. laevis and A. anguillae.
Field studies were conducted over six seasons to determine the critical period for weed control (CPWC) in high-yielding cotton, using common sunflower as a mimic weed. Common sunflower was planted with or after cotton emergence at densities of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 plants m−2. Common sunflower was added and removed at approximately 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750, and 900 growing degree days (GDD) after planting. Season-long interference resulted in no harvestable cotton at densities of five or more common sunflower plants m−2. High levels of intraspecific and interspecific competition occurred at the highest weed densities, with increases in weed biomass and reductions in crop yield not proportional to the changes in weed density. Using a 5% yield-loss threshold, the CPWC extended from 43 to 615 GDD, and 20 to 1,512 GDD for one and 50 common sunflower plants m−2, respectively. These results highlight the high level of weed control required in high-yielding cotton to ensure crop losses do not exceed the cost of control.
Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) is a problematic and economically damaging dicotyledonous weed infesting crops in many regions of the world. Resistance to the auxinic herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba is widespread in Western Australian R. raphanistrum populations, with the resistance mechanism appearing to involve alterations in the physiological response to synthetic auxins and in plant defense. This study aimed to determine whether these alterations cause inhibition in plant growth or reproduction that could potentially be exploited to manage 2,4-D–resistant populations in cropping areas. Therefore, the morphology and seed production of resistant and susceptible populations were compared in an outdoor pot study, with plants grown in the presence and absence of competition by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The susceptible and resistant R. raphanistrum populations were equally suppressed by wheat competition, with plant growth and seed production being decreased by approximately 50%. Although resistant populations produced less vegetative biomass than susceptible populations, there was no negative association between resistance and seed production. Therefore, it is unlikely that any nonherbicidal management practices will be more efficacious on 2,4-D–resistant than 2,4-D–susceptible R. raphanistrum populations.
This article traces the diachronic development from the Proto Norse demonstrative hinn via the Old Icelandic definite article(s) to the Modern Icelandic article system. This demonstrative gave rise to two distinct article elements during the Viking period that are well-attested from Old Icelandic onwards, a freestanding and a suffixed article.
Based on evidence from Old Icelandic, I argue for a categorial distinction between an adjectival and a nominal article, which does not entirely coincide with a mere morpho-phonological distinction. The former, which mostly occurs as a freestanding element, is a genuine component of AP, not an immediate constituent of the nominal extended projection. The latter, which only occurs in suffixal form, heads a low projection in the extended nominal projection and has scope only over the noun. For Modern Icelandic, on the other hand, I will adopt the idea that free and suffixed articles are two surface manifestations of the same element.
The diachronic perspective is complemented by an examination of the development of seven adjectivally modified definite noun phrase patterns. This empirical survey reveals several surprising facts: The standard pattern of modification in Modern Icelandic was virtually non-existent prior to the 17th century, and double definiteness persisted until the early 20th century. Likewise, certain modificational patterns otherwise found in Mainland Scandinavian were dominant between the 16th and 19th century. This latter observation points to a competition between two adjectival articles hinn vs. sá similar to the one that had taken place earlier in Mainland Scandinavian. In Icelandic, however, sá did not replace hinn, and, in the long run, a pattern not comprising an adjectival article became the dominant one.
Decreased reliance on pesticides can be achieved through a clever use of eco-evolutionary knowledge via intercropping economically valuable crops with companion plants that can hamper pest outbreaks. We created a greenhouse multi-layered microcosm system to test two potato peach aphid clones, performing alone or in competition, on mixes of genetically variable cultivars of cabbage, with and without onion. The onion acted as a nuisance/disturbance for the pest, which was generally for the benefit of the cabbage albeit both plants sharing space and nutrients. The onion effect was context-specific and differed by aphid genotype. Onion variable nuisance negatively affected the numbers of one aphid genotype (green) across all contexts, while the other genotype (pink) numbers were decreased in two contexts only. However, the green performed better than the pink on all cases of cabbage di-mixes despite its numbers being capped when the onion was present. Further, there was also a general aphid propensity to wander off the plant along with a differential production of winged morphs to escape the onion-affected environments. Moreover, through a comparative increase in dry mass, which was subject to onion and aphid effects, a diversity effect was found where the cabbages of fully genetically variable microcosms sustained similar final dry mass compared with non-infested microcosms. Our findings provide fresh insights into the use of multi-layered contextual designs that not only allow disentangling the relative effects of genetic variation and modes of interaction, but also help integrate their benefits into pest management in view of companion planting.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Clinton, NC, to determine the interspecific and intraspecific interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) or large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in ‘Covington’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Amaranthus palmeri and D. sanguinalis were established 1 d after sweetpotato transplanting and maintained season-long at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 plants m−1 of row in the presence and absence of sweetpotato, respectively. Predicted yield loss for sweetpotato was 35% to 76% for D. sanguinalis at 1 to 16 plants m−1 of row and 50% to 79% for A. palmeri at 1 to 8 plants m−1 of row. Weed dry biomass per meter of row increased linearly with increasing weed density. Individual dry biomass of A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis was not affected by weed density when grown in the presence of sweetpotato. When grown without sweetpotato, individual weed dry biomass decreased 71% and 62% from 1 to 4 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively. Individual weed dry biomass was not affected above 4 plants m−1 row to the highest densities of 8 and 16 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively.
Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a prominent knowledge representation language with roots in logic programming and non-monotonic reasoning. Biennial ASP competitions are organized in order to furnish challenging benchmark collections and assess the advancement of the state of the art in ASP solving. In this paper, we report on the design and results of the Seventh ASP Competition, jointly organized by the University of Calabria (Italy), the University of Genova (Italy), and the University of Potsdam (Germany), in affiliation with the 14th International Conference on Logic Programming and Non-Monotonic Reasoning (LPNMR 2017).
China represents a new chapter in ongoing controversy over the use of state intervention to promote innovation and upgrading. This book analyzes the nature and outcome of recent Chinese efforts to accelerate progress toward global technology frontiers in electricity, telecommunications and semiconductors.
Our contributors document impressive absorption and upgrading of a wide array of technologies as well as individual instances of path-breaking innovation. Notable advances include achievement and even extension of global technical standards in particular segments of electricity transmission and thermal power generation along with rising competitive strength in global markets for conventional and nuclear electricity, telecom equipment and software.
We also observe instances – notably semiconductors and wind turbine equipment - in which government efforts to promote innovation have encountered difficulty in penetrating overseas (wind equipment) and even domestic (semiconductors) markets. In addition, we observe consistently high levels of excess capacity and operational inefficiency – for example, the average cost of generating and delivering each unit of electricity is at least 30 percent higher in China than in the United States
Recent initiatives center on the Made in China 2025 plan to develop an extensive array of advanced manufacturing industries. Current strategy emphasizes instruments – self-reliance, channeling resources toward state enterprises, top-down selection of strategic products and technologies and Party control – that have retarded productivity growth in the past, while moving away from openness, competition, private-sector expansion and other measures strongly associated with past increases in productivity.
Telecommunication equipment, a sector that has thrived in an environment of openness and competition, offers a strong contrast to the recent decline in productivity outcomes visible at the industry-wide level and in several electricity-related product categories. Current policies reinforce distorted incentives that can only expand the massive costs associated with excess investment, misallocation and corruption. These costs will act as a powerful counterweight to the extraordinary human, financial and policy resources that China’s leaders are now directing toward innovation and upgrading across a broad spectrum of industries.
Our system needs a makeover, and this chapter uses basic economic and social principles as the bedrock of reform. It builds opportunities for dissent and competition into the fabric of multidistrict proceedings and incentivizes lawyers to use them. But doing so relies on judges. Educating judges and encouraging them to select leaders using a competitive process, tying leaders’ fees to the benefits they confer on plaintiffs, opening the courthouse doors to hear about those benefits (or not) directly from the plaintiffs, and remanding those litigants who don’t want to settle can allow the vibrant rivalries within the plaintiffs’ bar to see to it that dissent and competition flourish. As attorneys object and compete, they are likely to divulge new information, thereby equipping judges with pieces of the puzzle that they currently lack. In short, this chapter explains how arming judges with procedures that better align plaintiffs’ attorneys’ self-interest with their clients’ best interest equips courts to hold parties accountable even without legislation or rulemaking.
Patient choice in the context of National Health Service (NHS) reforms in England can refer to the law and policy underpinning patient movement between the NHS and private healthcare sector (in existence since the introduction of the NHS in 1948), as well as recent competition reforms of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, the National Health Service (Procurement, Patient Choice and Competition) (No 2) Regulations 2013 and the 2014 Private Healthcare Market Investigation by the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA). This paper highlights the existence of two discrete, yet related frameworks: the ‘NHS patient – private patient’ framework based on Department of Health, NHS England and latterly Clinical Commissioning Group policy, and the ‘NHS patient choice’ framework, derived from New Labour choice and competition policies and subsequently enshrined by the 2012 Act reforms. The juxtaposition of these frameworks underscores the symbiotic relationship between the NHS and private healthcare, which raises questions about the fitness for purpose of current policy. It also helps explain why the competition reforms are difficult to implement, and suggests that the knitting together of patient choice and competition may unravel following the 2012 Act reforms and CMA private healthcare market development.
Glyphosate-resistant junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] crops in Australia. Due to limited herbicide options in mungbean, there is an increased interest in developing integrated management strategies for the sustainable control of E. colona. Pot experiments were conducted in a screenhouse in 2017 and 2018 by growing E. colona plants (glyphosate-resistant [GR] and glyphosate-susceptible [GS] biotypes) alone (1 plant pot−1) and in competition with 4 and 8 mungbean plants pot−1. Both biotypes were developed from a single population using the clone method. The growth and seed production of both GR and GS biotypes were similar in response to mungbean competition. Averaged over biotypes, there was a reduction in the growth and seed production of E. colona as crop plants increased. Compared with the weed plants grown alone, crop interference reduced E. colona height by 17% to 19%, tiller numbers by 69% to 82%, total shoot biomass by 85% to 91%, and inflorescence numbers by 74% to 91%. When E. colona was grown with 8 mungbean plants pot−1, leaf weight ratio increased by 42% compared with plants grown alone. Compared with weed plants grown alone, mungbean interference (4 and 8 plants pot−1) reduced weed seed production by 85% to 95%. These reductions were similar for both biotypes (GR and GS), suggesting that there was no fitness penalty associated with resistance. The results of this study suggest that mungbean interference can reduce E. colona growth and seed production, but it should not be considered as a stand-alone strategy to manage E. colona and similar species in mungbean. These results also highlight the need for integrating crop competition with other management strategies to achieve complete and sustainable management of this weed.
Where two species occupy the same habitat and similar niches, competition is likely to drive small-scale spatial niche separation or resource partitioning that may not be immediately apparent. A stable isotope approach was used to investigate potential trophic niche separation between co-existing rocky shore crabs in the North-West (NW) Arabian Gulf. Leptodius exaratus and Pilumnopeus convexus which occupy similar shore height on the same rocky intertidal habitats. We also investigated conspecific differences between males vs females and adults vs juveniles. δ15N results indicated that adults of both species occupy a high trophic level in the rocky shore community, suggesting similar functional roles and potential for competition for food resources, while significant differences in δ13C values indicated differences in dietary sources between the two species, and also changes in diet between juveniles and adults in both species. MixSIAR analysis of δ15N and δ13C data confirmed field observations that both species are generalist omnivores, with potential for direct competition including adult predation on juveniles, including conspecifics. Differentiation in isotopic niches (SIBER analysis) was mainly driven by the significant differences in δ13C values, suggesting that co-existence of the two crab species is at least in part mediated by trophic niche separation or dietary resource partitioning, with some (unquantified) potential for spatial resource partitioning at the microhabitat level.
This study examines how competitive and cooperative relationships within R&D consortia influence member firms’ innovation output. We propose a U-shaped relationship between the presence of market competitors for a member firm and the firm's joint R&D output with other consortium members, and examine how the relationship is mediated by interactions with other members at the firm level and moderated by collaborative efforts at the consortium level. Using a unique sample of 320 firms from 52 R&D consortia in China, we find support for our predictions. This multi-level study extends our understanding of competition and cooperation in multi-party networks and provides insights for creating a balance between the two forces that is conducive to innovation.
Susceptibility of a system to colonization by a weed is in part a function of environmental resource availability. Doveweed [Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan] can establish in a variety of environments; however, it is found mostly in wet or low-lying areas with reduced interspecies competition. Four studies evaluated the effect of mowing height, interspecies competition, and nitrogen, light, and soil moisture availability on M. nudiflora establishment and growth. A field study evaluated the effect of mowing height on M. nudiflora establishment. In comparison with unmowed plots, mowing at 2 and 4 cm reduced spread 46% and 30%, respectively, at 9 wk after planting. Effect of mowing height and nitrogen fertilization on ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Burtt-Davy×C. transvaalensis L. Pers.) and M. nudiflora interspecies competition was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. Murdannia nudiflora coverage was 62% greater in flats maintained at 2.6 cm than flats maintained at 1.3 cm. Supplemental application of 49 kg N ha−1 mo−1 increased M. nudiflora coverage 75% in comparison with 24.5 kg N ha−1 mo−1. A difference in M. nudiflora coverage could not be detected between flats receiving 0 and 24.5 kg N ha−1 mo−1, suggesting moderate nitrogen fertilization does not encourage M. nudiflora colonization. Effect of light availability on M. nudiflora growth and development was evaluated in a greenhouse study. Growth in a 30%, 50%, or 70% reduced light environment (RLE) did not affect shoot growth on a dry weight basis in comparison with plants grown under full irradiance; however, internode length was 28% longer in a 30% RLE and 39% longer in a 50% and 70% RLE. Effect of soil moisture on M. nudiflora growth and development was evaluated in a greenhouse study. Plants maintained at 50%, 75%, and 100% field capacity (FC) increased biomass>200% compared with plants maintained at 12.5% or 25% FC.
In recent years, several European antitrust authorities intervened in the wine sector to authorize mergers and acquisitions, provide opinions to governments, and ascertain anticompetitive agreements. This article analyzes these interventions in the context of an evolving regulatory framework. I draw conclusions about the direction of competition policy, in particular in relation to possible co-operations among various players in the wine industry. (JEL Classifications: K21, L40, L51)
This article examines strategic public shaming, a novel form of regulatory tactics employed by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) during its enforcement of the Anti-Monopoly Law. Based on analysis of media coverage and interview findings, the study finds that the way that the NDRC disclosed its investigation is highly strategic depending on the firm's co-operative attitude towards the investigation. Event studies further show that the NDRC's proactive disclosure resulted in significantly negative abnormal returns of the stock prices of the firm subject to the disclosure. For instance, Biostime, an infant-formula manufacturer investigated in 2013, experienced −22 per cent cumulative abnormal return in a three-day event window, resulting in a loss of market capitalization that is 27 times the antitrust fine that it ultimately received. The NDRC's strategic public shaming might therefore result in severe market sanctions that deter firms from defying the agency.