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Formal institutional and legal reform is inadequate to achieve enhanced, effective international governance; attention must also be paid to engage the support and participation of global populations whom the institutions will serve. The foundation for a renewed United Nations must be the shared values of all those who support it, and a solid “civics” understanding of global institutions. Public education, both formal and informal, and extensive engagement with the mass media, are critical to establishing strengthened global governance. Populations around the world must be grounded in key principles of the international order—such as peaceful settlement of disputes and universal respect for human rights—to uphold these principles and the relevant institutions. Education is also needed for those who serve in enhanced global institutions and those who participate in international governance processes. Many will need new skills, new ways of thinking and particular qualities of evolved, ethical leadership relevant to their roles in complex, international environments. This chapter sketches the multiple forms of education and the related sharing of knowledge that should accompany the proposed processes of reform, to ensure the correct general cultural and practical circumstances needed for functional global governance, requiring unprecedented new levels of cooperation and investment.
Citizens are civic friends when they agree about the regime, their political system. In liberal democracies there is agreement about the regime, or at least about its presuppositions: freedom and equality. This insight is simple but profound because regimes are self-perpetuating: they mold citizens into a recognizable type, such as the type that loves freedom and equality. Citizens tend to like this type of person—the type they themselves belong to. A “thin” agreement is the core of Aristotle’s teaching on civic friendship. For his immediate audience, he wanted more. Although his best-practicable regime leaves out many features of his best regime, civic friendship is a critical feature. Civic friendship has been transformed by federalism, by modern communications, more recently by the internet and social media. But “the Greek polis was small enough for everyone to be friends” is a modern mistake forgetting that civic friendship is an analogy. We cannot have many friends, Aristotle says, “except in the civic sense.”
This chapter falls into these related parts. The first deals with research: why it is different today than before, why a library is no longer essential, as well as the training of faculty members to become good researchers. Strong, relevant research is a key driver for marketing, and the Dean/President typically would play a key role here, above all by communicating effectively key research findings. The Dean/President is typically also critical in finding a reasonable balance when it comes to how much resources that is spent on research verses on marketing.
Political leaders across Africa frequently accuse the media of promoting homosexuality, while activists often use the media to promote pro-LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer) narratives. Despite extensive research on how the media affects public opinion, including studies that show how exposure to certain information can increase support of LGBTQs, there is virtually no research on how the media influences attitudes towards LGBTQs across Africa. This study develops a theory that accounts for actors' mixed approach to the media and shows how different types of media create distinct effects on public opinion of LGBTQs. Specifically, the study finds that radio and television have no, or a negative, significant effect on pro-gay attitudes, whereas individuals who consume more newspapers, internet or social media are significantly more likely to support LGBTQs (by approximately 2 to 4 per cent). The author argues that these differential effects are conditional on censorship of queer representation from certain mediums. The analysis confirms that the results are not driven by selection effects, and that the relationship is unique to LGBTQ support but not other social attitudes. The results have important implications, especially given the growing politicization of same-sex relations and changing media consumption habits across Africa.
Mobile phones have been central to ICT innovation since the introduction of the smartphone and constant-quality prices are a barometer of their economic impact. Official consumer price indices (CPIs) indicate that impact differs wildly across countries: for the 2008–18 period, average annual rates of mobile phone inflation range from no change to a 25 per cent decline among 12 key countries examined in this paper. Although evidence indicates certain fundamental factors are at play, mis-measurement may lead the spread in rates to be overstated. Examination of methods employed in CPI calculation, including quality adjustment and index formulas, illuminates but does not resolve the mystery.
We investigate the frequency diverse array (FDA) for joint radar and communication systems. The basic idea is to use the transmitter/receiver modules of the radar system for communication purpose during listening mode as a secondary function. The radar will be performing its routine functions during the active mode as a primary function. An FDA at the transmitter side will be used to produce an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal, which is proposed for the communication system. The directivity of the radar antenna, FDA in this case, provides an additional advantage to mitigate the interferences other than the Direction of Interest (DoI). The proposed technique allows two beampatterns to be transmitted sequentially from the same FDA structure. Due to the communication signal transmission in the mainlobe of the second beampattern, the bit error rate achieved in the mainlobe is better than the existing techniques using the sidelobe transmission for communications. At the receiver, both incoming signals of radar and communication will share a different spatial angle. Simulation results indicate the novelty of the idea to suppress the interferences in terms of DoI. Furthermore, we analyzed the signal-to-interference ratio and Cramer–Rao lower bounds for angle and range estimation for the proposed technique.
The transition from Fordism to the knowledge economy in the world’s advanced democracies was underpinned by the revolution in information and communications technology (ict). The introduction and rapid diffusion of ict pushed up wages for college-educated workers with complementary skills and allowed top managers and CEOs to reap greater rewards for their own talents. Despite these common pressures, income inequality did not rise to the same extent everywhere; income in the Anglo-Saxon countries remains particularly unequally distributed. To shed new light on this puzzle, the authors carry out a panel data analysis of eighteen oecd countries between 1970 and 2007. Their analysis stands apart from the existing empirical literature by taking a comparative perspective. The article examines the extent to which the relationship between the knowledge economy and income inequality is influenced by national labor market institutions. The authors find that the expansion of knowledge employment is positively associated with both the 90/10 wage ratio and the income share of the top 1 percent, but that these effects are mitigated by the presence of strong labor market institutions, such as coordinated wage bargaining, strict employment protection legislation, high union density, and high collective bargaining coverage. The authors provide robust evidence against the argument that industrial relations systems are no longer important safeguards of wage solidarity in the knowledge economy.
The digital age has brought new possibilities and potency to state surveillance activities. Of significance has been the advent of bulk communications data monitoring, which involves the large-scale collection, retention and subsequent analysis of communications data. The scale and invasiveness of these techniques generate key questions regarding their ‘necessity’ from a human rights law perspective and they are the subject of ongoing human rights-based litigation. This article examines bulk communications data surveillance through the lens of human rights law, undertaking critical examination of both the potential utility of bulk communications surveillance and – drawing on social science analysis – the potential human rights-related harm. It argues that utility and harm calculations can conceal the complex nature of contemporary digital surveillance practices, rendering current approaches to the ‘necessity’ test problematic. The article argues that (i) the distinction between content and communications data be removed; (ii) analysis of surveillance-related harm must extend beyond privacy implications and incorporate society-wide effects; and (iii) a more nuanced approach to bulk communications data be developed. Suggestions are provided as to how the ‘necessity’ of bulk surveillance measures may be evaluated, with an emphasis on understanding the type of activity that may qualify as ‘serious crime’.
We describe the new version of the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL)-to-Answer Set Programming (ASP) translator plasp. First, it widens the range of accepted PDDL features. Second, it contains novel planning encodings, some inspired by Satisfiability Testing (SAT) planning and others exploiting ASP features such as well-foundedness. All of them are designed for handling multivalued fluents in order to capture both PDDL as well as SAS planning formats. Third, enabled by multishot ASP solving, it offers advanced planning algorithms also borrowed from SAT planning. As a result, plasp provides us with an ASP-based framework for studying a variety of planning techniques in a uniform setting. Finally, we demonstrate in an empirical analysis that these techniques have a significant impact on the performance of ASP planning.
, a new answer set programming (ASP) system that integrates an efficient grounder, namely
, with an automatic selector that inductively chooses a solver: depending on some inherent features of the instantiation produced by
, machine learning techniques guide the selection of the most appropriate solver. The system participated in the latest (7th) ASP competition, winning the regular track, category SP (i.e., one processor allowed).
This essay presents the analysis, approach and understanding of the underlying reasons why
females join the “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” (ISIS), accept its rules and impositions,
play an active role in it, and often actively recruit other women to join ISIS as perceived
by an experienced and savvy communications expert and professional who also took active part
in anti-terrorism campaigns in Pakistan. Previously he was a journalist who gained a deep
understanding of the political and policy-making dynamics in his country. Especially
valuable is the section on the “Way Forward”; that is, how to effectively tackle the
recruitment campaign and methodology of ISIS.
On January 20, 2017, Republican candidate Donald J. Trump was sworn in as the 45th President of the United States. The run-up to this inauguration was marked by unusually hostile political rhetoric. For many, this linguistic divisiveness was fodder for the post-election surge in physical and verbal aggression. Using a mixed-method approach that combines actuarial and speech act assessment, this study examines 30 Anonymous Threatening Communications sent during the US presidential election for the presence and prevalence of (para)linguistic features associated with verbal and physical threat. The article argues for more forensic linguistic research into mainstream producers and consumers of hate-filled political rhetoric.
Communication has long been accepted as integral to the conduct of international affairs. The role that discourses, ideas, norms, and narratives play at the systemic level of world politics has been examined extensively. Scholarly interest has now turned to how international actors use political communication tools to create and counter threats, such as propaganda, hybrid warfare, fake news, and election tampering, and it is often taken for granted that states are inferior to their challengers in these domains. To address this, ‘Strategic Communications’ has emerged as a mode of thought and practice promising to enhance state communication; encompassing long-established activities including public diplomacy, public relations, nation branding, and information operations. In this developing field, private sector professionals are increasingly being called on to support and advise governments. Particular attention has been paid to the ‘Big Data’ private companies may have access to, but there has been little IR research examining the experts seeking changes in how strategic communications is practised. Informed by elite interviews with communication professionals across the public-private space, this article sets out a research agenda to fill this gap, enhancing understanding of the expert relationships that shape international strategic communications.
Maritime accident statistics reveal that ship collisions are among the most frequent and severe accidents. The same statistics indicate that most of them are caused by human error, mainly due to breaches of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs) and to the lack of communication between ships. There are also special situations where there is some ambiguity in the application of the COLREGs. In such occasions, and if there is no communication between the ships involved, compliance with the Rules may still end up in a collision. This article brings a new approach to Collision Avoidance Systems (CAS) and presents the earliest stages in the development of safety functions for the reduction of ship-to-ship collision risk on the high seas. These functions will help the concerned ships achieve coordinated compliance with the COLREGs. Functional safety standards are applied and, in their implementation, real, accessible electronic programmable systems (hardware and software) will be used.
In this paper, we present a novel dual-band wearable compact flexible antenna for body-centric wireless communications (BCWCs). The design is based on a modified planar dipole with parasitic elements, meandered lines, and a rectangular reflector embedded into a hydrophobic rubber-textile multilayer substrate in order to get both good antenna performance and mechanical properties. The antenna's structure is analyzed and optimized in free space (FS), on a numerical and an experimental homogeneous flat phantom. The overall dimensions of the antenna are 50 mm × 40 mm × 4.6 mm and a prototype mass of 11 g, which makes it suitable for practical applications in BCWCs. The built prototype resonated at 2.47 GHz with a |S11|−26.90 dB and at 5.42 GHz with a |S11|−24.60 dB in the FS. The measured bandwidths are 500 MHz (2.2–2.7 GHz) and 1000 MHz (4.65–5.75 GHz) at lower and higher bands, respectively. The antenna exhibits a measured maximum gain of 1.17 dBi at 2.66 GHz and a radiation efficiency of 28.44% in FS. The 10 g average maximum specific absorption rate is 0.165 W/kg at 2.70 GHz and 0.520 W/kg at 5.24 GHz when the antenna is placed on the numerical phantom at net input power 0.1 W.
With the advent of new media technologies and approaches in the twentieth century, public health officials became convinced that health needed mass media support. The World Health Organization believed that educating people, as well as informing them about the health situation around the world, could assist in the enduring fight against disease. Yet in an increasingly competitive media landscape, the agency recognized the need to persuade people and hold their attention through attractive presentation. Public information, the name given to the multiple strategies used to communicate with the public, was rarely straightforward and required the agency not only to monitor the impact of its own efforts but also to identify opportunities to further enhance its reputation, especially when this was in danger of damage or misappropriation. The WHO’s understanding of public information provides insights into the development of international information, communication, and education networks and practices after 1945, as well as the increasingly central position of these processes in generating support for and evincing the value of international organizations.
Accepting that Taiwan has accumulated “soft power” since the introduction of democratic reforms in the late 1980s, this paper assesses Taiwan's external communications during Ma Ying-jeou's presidency and how its soft power resources have been exercised. Demonstrating the strategic turn from political warfare to public and cultural diplomacy, the paper begins with the premise that the priority must be to increase familiarity with Taiwan among foreign publics. It then argues that any assessment of external communications in the Ma administration must consider the impact of two key decisions: first, the dissolution of the Government Information Office and the transfer of its responsibilities for international communications to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a new Ministry of Culture, and second, the priority given to cultural themes in Taiwan's external communications.
Medical facilities may struggle to maintain effective communications during a major disaster. Natural and man-made disasters threaten connectivity by degrading or crippling Internet, cellular/mobile, and landline telephone services across wide areas. Communications among staff, between facilities, and to resources outside the disaster area may be lost for an extended time. A prototype communications system created by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides basic communication services that ensure essential connectivity in the face of widespread infrastructure loss. It leverages amateur radio to provide resilient email service to local users, enabling them to reach intact communications networks outside the disaster zone. Because amateur radio is inexpensive, always available, and sufficiently independent of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructure, it has often augmented telecommunications capabilities of medical facilities. NLM’s solution is unique in that it provides end-user to end-user direct email communications, without requiring the intervention of a radio operator in the handling of the messages. Medical staff can exchange email among themselves and with others outside the communications blackout zone. The technology is portable, is deployable on short notice, and can be powered in a variety of ways to adapt to the circumstances of each crisis. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:257–264)
In this contribution, the authors perform the design and show the experimental results relative to a prototype of a combined wireless power transfer (WPT)–power line communications (PLC) system, in which the WPT channel is interfaced to a PLC environment to allow data transfer when the cabled connection is no longer available. The main rationale behind this idea stays in the fact that PLC communication is now a popular choice to enable communications, for instance, in smart grids and in home automation, while WPT devices start to be available in the market (i.e. for mobile phones) and soon they will be a reality also for higher power (i.e. vehicle battery charging). In particular, theoretical insights about the requirements of the system are given; a two coils system has been implemented and a measurement campaign, together with simulations, show that the system is of great potentiality and could be used in applications where both wireless power and data transfer are needed (such as vehicles battery charging), achieving maximum power transfer and good data rate in order to transmit high-speed signals.