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Chronic diseases and preexisting conditions shape daily life for many archaeologists both in and out of the field. Chronic issues, however, can be overlooked in safety planning, which more often focuses on emergency situations because they are considered mundane, or they are imperceptible to project directors and crews until a serious problem arises. This article focuses on asthma, diabetes, and depression as common medical conditions that impact otherwise healthy archaeologists during fieldwork, with the goal of raising awareness of these conditions in particular, and the need to be more attentive to chronic diseases in general. Archaeological fieldwork presents novel situations that put those with chronic diseases and preexisting conditions at risk: environmental hazards, remoteness from medical and social resources and networks, lack of group awareness, and varying cultural norms. As a result, if chronic diseases are not attended to properly in the field, they can lead to life-threatening situations. Managing the risk presented by these conditions requires a group culture where team members are aware of issues, as appropriate, and collaborate to mitigate them during fieldwork. Descriptions of how chronic diseases affect archaeologists in the field are followed by “best practice” recommendations for self-management and for group leaders.
To examine the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the adult general population of Cyprus and assess its relationship with multi-morbidity.
A representative sample of the adult population of Cyprus was selected in 2018–2019 using stratified sampling. Demographics, Mediterranean diet, smoking and physical activity, as well as the presence of chronic, clinical and mental conditions, were collected using a validated questionnaire. Diseases were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision.
The five government-controlled municipalities of the Republic of Cyprus.
A total of 1140 Cypriot men and women over 18 years.
The average Mediterranean diet score was 15·5 ± 4·0 with males and residents of rural regions being more adherent to the Mediterranean diet compared with females and residents of urban regions (P < 0·05). Being in the higher tertile of adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower odds of multi-morbidity compared with the lower tertile, and this result was statistically significant even after adjusting for age, gender, smoking habits and physical activity (OR = 0·68, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·99).
The study provides evidence of the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Cypriot population and its association with multi-morbidity. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of multi-morbidity. Future research would attempt to replicate such results that could add solid pieces of evidence towards meeting some criteria of causality and severity tests; hence, prevention programmes and practice guidelines in Cyprus and elsewhere should take into account those beneficial effects.
A low intake of fruit and vegetables is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the size of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) of a low intake and to investigate possible sex differences. In this regard, this study used a longitudinal data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort located in Sweden, collected in 2010 and 2014. The analysis included 14 718 men and 20 589 women aged 25 to 84 years. Fruit and vegetable intake, separately <2 servings/d or combined <4 servings/d (one serving corresponding to 100 g) was set as a cut-point for low intake. The sex difference at baseline was examined. Sex-stratified logistic regression was performed with onset of T2D as the outcome and fruit and vegetable intake at baseline as the exposure with adjustment for other known risk factors. Results indicate that men consumed significantly (P < 0⋅001) less fruit and vegetables compared with women. A 62 % higher risk to develop T2D over the 4-year period was observed in men who had low vegetable intake compared with high intake after adjusting for age, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol and physical activity (OR 1⋅62; 95 % CI 1⋅00, 2⋅63). In women, a significantly higher risk of T2D was also observed with a low intake of vegetables, but not after adjustment. The present study suggests that higher consumption of vegetables seems to be protective for the onset of T2D in men. Thus, increasing the intake of vegetables in men should be a public health priority.
This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding the relationship between early-life antibiotic exposure and childhood overweight/obesity by reviewing observational studies on prenatal antibiotic exposure and systematic reviews on infant antibiotic exposure. A search in Pubmed, Embase and Google Scholar covering the period 1st January till 1st December 2018 led to the identification of five studies on prenatal antibiotic exposure and four systematic reviews on infant antibiotic exposure. Positive trends between prenatal antibiotic exposure and overweight/obesity were reported in all studies; two studies reported a significant overall relationship and the other three reported significant relationships under certain conditions. Effect sizes ranged from odds ratio (OR): 1.04 (0.62–1.74) to relative risk (RR): 1.77 (1.25–2.51). Regarding infant antibiotics, one review concluded there was substantial evidence that infant antibiotic exposure increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity [pooled effect sizes: RR: 1.21 (1.09–1.33) for overweight and RR: 1.18 (1.12–1.25) for obesity]. Two reviews concluded there was some evidence for a relationship [pooled effect sizes: OR: 1.05 (1.00–1.11) and OR: 1.11 (1.02–1.20)]. The fourth review concluded the studies were too heterogeneous for meta-analyses and the evidence regarding the relationship between infant antibiotic exposure and childhood overweight/obesity was inconclusive. More well-designed studies are needed that include data on intra-partum antibiotics and address important potential confounders (including maternal and childhood infections). This review points to some evidence of a relationship between early-life antibiotic exposure and childhood overweight/obesity; this is especially evident in certain children (i.e. exposed to multiple and broad-spectrum antibiotics, earlier postnatal exposure and male gender) and merits further research.
Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterise the association between plasma concentrations of thirty-five polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis, the OR and 95 % CI of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/l) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per standard deviation) was associated with 29 (95 % CI 50, 1) % lower odds of elevated hsCRP. In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·87), ferulic acid (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) and caffeic acid (OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·93). The present study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.
To develop a proactive person-centered care approach for persons with (multiple) chronic diseases in general practice, and to explore the impact on ‘Quadruple aims’: experiences of patients and professionals, patient outcomes and costs of resources use.
The management of people with multiple chronic diseases challenges health care systems designed around single disease. Patients with multimorbidity often receive highly fragmented care that may lead to inefficient, ineffective and potentially harmful treatments and neglect of essential health needs. A more comprehensive, person-centered approach is advocated for persons with multiple morbidities. However, examples on how to provide more person-centered care and evidence of its impact are scarce. A group of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) took the initiative to develop such a care approach.
Mixed methods with a development and pilot-testing phase. The proactive person-centered approach will be developed using an action-based research design consisting of multiple plan-act-observe-reflect-adjust cycles. In each cycle, experiences of patients and primary care professionals from 13 practices will be collected via interviews, observations and focus groups. Starting point for the first cycle is a ‘person-centered consultation’ of up to 1 h in which the GP discusses the health status and health care needs of the patient. Furthermore, shared decisions between GP and patient are made on treatment goals and follow-up. In the pilot-test phase, a nested case cohort study allows to explore the impact of the new approach on ‘Quadruple aim’ outcomes comparing persons with and without exposure to the new care approach.
This study will provide a proactive person-centered approach for persons with multimorbidity in primary care and estimate its potential impact on quadruple outcomes.
Implementation of an advance care planning (ACP) program for people with advanced chronic conditions is a complex process. The aims of this paper are to describe (1) the development of the ACP program in Catalonia, Spain, for patients with advanced chronic conditions and complex needs and (2) the preliminary results of the implementation of this program in health and social services.
The ACP program was developed and implemented in a four-stage process as follows: (1) design and organization of the project; (2) selection of the professionals to carry out the project; (3) creation of four working groups to develop the conceptual model, guidelines, training program, and perform a qualitative evaluation; and (4) project implementation.
The following deliverables were completed: (1) conceptual framework document; (2) practical guidelines for the application of the ACP; (3) online training course (3,763 healthcare professionals completed the online course, with an overall satisfaction rating of 8.4 on a 10-point scale); and (4) additional training activities (conferences, short courses, and seminars) in between 2015 and 2017.
Significance of results
This project was led by the Catalan Ministry of Health. The strengths of the project development include the contribution of a wide range of professionals from the entire region, approval by the Catalan Bioethics Committee and the Social Services Ethics Committee, and the ongoing validation by members of the community. A standardized online training course was offered to all primary care professionals and included as a quality indicator for continuing education for those professionals in the period 2016–2020. The main outcome of this project is the establishment of a pragmatic ACP throughout the region and training of the health and social care professionals involved in the care of advanced chronic patients.
To analyse trends in sweetened beverages consumption among adults in Brazil between 2007 and 2016.
A time-series analysis, with data from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL). The prevalence of regular consumption (≥5 d/week), the average daily consumption (millilitres) and the prevalence of non-consumption of these beverages were analysed. The temporal variations of the indicators were calculated by linear regression. The analyses were performed for the complete set of the evaluated population and stratified by sociodemographic characteristics.
Brazilian capitals and Federal District.
Brazilian adults aged ≥18 years (n 519 641).
There was a reduction in both regular and average daily consumption of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages (−1·28 percentage points (pp)/year, P=0·001 and −9·63 ml/year, P=0·001, respectively). The same result regarding regular consumption was found when only sugar-sweetened beverages were analysed (−1·11 pp/year, P=0·011). Similar trends were identified in the stratified analyses, with a greater magnitude of reduction among males, young adults, those with higher schooling and residents of more developed regions. Coincidentally, there was an increase in the prevalence of adults who did not consume sweetened beverages (1·54 pp/year, P=0·005).
The consumption of sweetened beverages decreased during the period. However, a significant portion of the population still referred a daily consumption of these beverages.
Disasters in countries with limited resources can put the emergency preparedness of the country to the test. The first major task after a disaster is to take care of the wounded. In countries where the epidemiological transition has occurred, chronic disease can place a major strain on public health preparedness after a disaster. The purpose of this field report is to alert public health practitioners of an infrequently reported public health problem: the impact of natural disasters on adherence to chronic medications. In our experience, the most common complaint in the weeks that followed the 2016 earthquake was not having access to their chronic medications. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 291–295)
This study was aimed toward discerning depressive symptom trajectories associated with different chronic conditions and toward finding modifiable factors associated with those trajectories.
Data were drawn from the 1996–2007 Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Nine chronic conditions were selected, and mood trajectories were measured with the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale.
Among the nine chronic conditions we examined, four patterns of depressive symptom trajectories were identified: (1) elevated depressive symptoms and worsened over time after diagnosed with heart disease (n = 681), arthritis (n = 850), or hypertension (n = 1,207); (2) elevated depressive symptoms without worsening over time after diagnosed with stroke (n = 160), lung diseases (n = 432), gastric conditions (n = 691), or liver diseases (n = 234); (3) no elevated depressive symptoms after diagnosis but an increase in depressive symptoms over time for participants with diabetes (n = 499); and (4) no significant patterns after diagnosed with cancer (n = 57). Cumulative psychological burden over time was significant for participants with hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, or arthritis. However, these effects disappeared after controlling for comorbidities and physical limitations. Moreover, psychiatric condition was found to play an important role in baseline depressive symptoms among participants diagnosed with lung diseases, arthritis, or liver diseases.
Findings from this study provide information in addressing psychological burden at different times for different conditions. In addition, minimizing the incidence of comorbidities, physical limitations, or psychiatric conditions may have the prospective effect of avoiding the trend of increased depressive symptoms, especially when adults diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis, lung diseases, arthritis, or liver diseases.
The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled ‘Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies’. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation–health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation–health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims.
Cachexia is a clinically relevant syndrome which impacts on quality of life, morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from acute and chronic diseases. The hallmark of cachexia is muscle loss, which is triggered by disease-associated inflammatory response. Cachexia is a continuum and therefore a staging system is needed. Initially, a three-stage system (i.e. pre-cachexia, cachexia and refractory cachexia) was proposed. More recent evidence supports the use of a five-stage classification system, based on patient's BMI and severity of weight loss, to better predict clinical outcome. Also, large clinical trials in cancer patients demonstrated that cachexia emerging during chemotherapy has greater influence on survival than weight loss at baseline. Therefore, becoming widely accepted is the importance of routinely monitoring patients’ nutritional status to detect early changes and diagnose cachexia in its early phases. Although cachexia is associated with the presence of anabolic resistance, it has been shown that sustained yet physiological hyperaminoacidaemia, as well as the use of specific nutrients, is able to overcome impaired protein synthesis and revert catabolism. More importantly, clinical evidence demonstrates that preservation of nutritional status during chemotherapy or improvement of body weight after weight loss is associated with longer survival in cancer patients.
A nationwide survey of 2022 consumers was conducted in Australia in late 2011. A short list of questions about knowledge of the nutrient composition of common foods was administered along with questions about the respondents' food attitudes, demographics, school education and dieting practices. Overall, the results showed that nutrition knowledge was relatively high. Latent class analysis showed two groups of consumers with ‘high’ and ‘low’ knowledge of nutrition. Higher knowledge was positively associated with age, female sex, university education, experience of home economics or health education at school, having a chronic disease, and attitudes to food issues, and negatively with type 1 diabetes or the use of diabetes-control diets. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed.
The prevalence and impact of long-term conditions continues to rise. Care planning for people with long-term conditions has been a policy priority for chronic disease management in a number of health-care systems. However, patients and providers appear unclear about the formulation and implementation of care planning. Further work in this area is therefore required to inform the development, implementation and evaluation of future care planning initiatives. We distinguish between ‘care planning’ (the process by which health-care professionals and patients discuss, agree and review an action plan to achieve the goals or behaviour change of most relevance and concern to the patient) and a ‘care plan’ (a written document recording the outcome of a care planning process). We propose a typology of care planning and care plans with three core dimensions: perspective (patient or professional), scope (a focus on goals or on behaviours) and networks (confined to the professional–patient dyad or extending to the entire care network). In addition, we draw on psychological models of mediation and moderation to outline potential mechanisms through which care planning and care plans may lead to improved outcomes for both patients and the wider health-care system. The proposed typology of care planning and care plans offered here, along with the model of the process by which care planning may influence outcomes, provide a useful framework for future policy developments and evaluations. Empirical work is required to explore the degree to which current care planning approaches and care plans can be described according to these dimensions, and the factors that determine which types of patients and professionals use which type of care plans.
The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of deficiency/insufficiency of vitamin D in adolescents and its relationship to overweight and metabolic disorders.
Cross-sectional study. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 3 d dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised measurements of serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, calcidiol (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment. Body composition and blood pressure were assessed.
Fifteen schools (eight public and seven private) in the central city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
The analysis included a study population of 160 adolescents (seventy-seven eutrophic and eighty-three overweight) aged 15 to 17 years.
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was observed in 1·25 and 70·6 % of adolescents, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D levels were statistically lower in adolescents with weight excess, abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, higher levels of parathyroid hormone, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertension (P < 0·05). Lower BMI and waist circumference were observed in the third (highest) tertile of vitamin D intake for all adolescents. The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is primarily nutritional and reflects a low vitamin D intake.
Our results support the negative association among serum 25(OH)D levels and vitamin D intake with non-skeletal outcomes in Brazilian adolescents. Vitamin D fortification of foods and/or the use of vitamin D supplements need to be considered to raise vitamin D intake in the adolescent population, even in a sunny country like Brazil.
Inflammation is part of the normal host response to infection and injury. Eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and other inflammatory molecules are frequently produced during this process. Numerous studies in humans have documented the inflammation-limiting properties of omega-3 fatty acids, but only a few have been randomised clinical trials. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic search of randomised clinical trials on omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers in all subjects including healthy and ill persons up to February 2011 using PubMed and LILACS databases, defined by a specific equation using MeSH terms and limited to randomised clinical trials; there was no any a priori decision to include some diseases and not others. The quality of each publication was validated by using the JADAD scale and the CONSORT checklist. Inflammatory biomarkers were considered as primary outcomes. Twenty-six publications of the last 10 years were selected. Studies included healthy subjects and patients with cardiovascular disease and other chronic and acute diseases; all reported the number of subjects, type of study, type and doses of omega-3 fatty acids, main outcomes and major inflammatory biomarkers. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids are associated with plasma biomarker levels, reflecting lower levels of inflammation and endothelial activation in cardiovascular disease and other chronic and acute diseases, including chronic renal disease, sepsis and acute pancreatitis. However, further research is required before definitive recommendations can be made about the routine use of omega-3 fatty acids in critically ill patients or with neurodegenerative or chronic renal disease.
Chronic disease patients are at high risk of developing serious influenza-related complications. This study investigated the prevalence of seasonal influenza vaccination (IV) and associated factors in such patients. A random sample of 704 Chinese adults with chronic disease was anonymously interviewed by telephone; 35·8% of them had ever taken up IV and 22·7% did so during the last flu season. The most frequently mentioned facilitator was recommendation made by a healthcare worker (HCW). Knowledge that IV is required annually, perceived severe health impacts of influenza, and recommendation made by a HCW were positively associated with previous IV and intention to take up IV in the next year, while perceived side-effects was inversely associated with previous IV and intention to take up IV. The coverage of IV in this study population was low. HCWs should clarify IV-related health beliefs in chronic disease patients and actively advise them to take up IV.
This article emphasizes the shifting paradigm of palliative care from cancer patients to vital organ failure in chronic diseases. It offers a view about a type of palliative care for patients reaching the pre-terminal phase of a chronic illness. Unlike cancer patients, time is not as sharply delineated and physical pain is not a major factor, but psychological distress is often a major component of the clinical condition. Starting from the perspective of a psychiatric consultant on medical and surgical wards, I present short clinical vignettes to introduce a discussion about psychological manifestations in patients with chronic vital organ failure. The objective is to help patients find meaning to the last stage of their life. To that effect, four key sensitive areas are presented for clinicians to assess end-of-life coping: pressure on character organization, the management of hope, mourning problems, and ill health as a screen for psychological distress.
Background: This is the first study to investigate the associations between chronic health conditions of older people and their impact on co-resident psychological morbidity using population-based samples in low and middle income countries (LAMICs).
Methods: Single-phase cross-sectional catchment area surveys were undertaken in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, and in rural and urban catchment areas in Mexico, Peru, India and China. All residents aged 65 years and over were interviewed with a co-resident key informant. Exposures were structured clinical diagnoses (10/66 and DSM-IV dementia and ICD-10 depression), self-reported diagnosis (stroke) and physical impairments. Mediating variables were dependence and disability (WHODAS 2.0), and the outcome was co-resident psychological morbidity assessed using SRQ-20.
Results: Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for the associations between health conditions and psychological morbidity in each site, and meta-analysis was used to pool the estimates. 11,988 pairs comprising a participant and a co-resident informant were included in the analysis. After meta-analysis, independent effects were noted for depression (PR2.11; 95% CI 1.82–2.45), dementia (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.72–2.28), stroke (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17–1.71) and physical impairments (PR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13–1.21). The effects were partly mediated through disability and dependence. The mean population attributable fraction of total chronic conditions was 30.1%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of co-resident psychological morbidity is higher among co-residents of older people with chronic conditions. This effect was prominent for, but not confined to, depression and dementia. Attention needs to be directed to chronic conditions.
Preconception counseling is far beyond providing information about pregnancy to women prior to conception. It is an ultimate period for risk assessment, health promotion and medical/psychosocial interventions. Low pre-pregnancy weight increases risks for preterm birth and low birth weight both associated with significant neonatal morbidity. The assessment of the woman's vaccination history is strongly recommended before beginning the treatment of infertility. Identified risk factors that require referral to genetic counseling include developmental delay, congenital anomalies or any genetic family disorders, chromosomal anomalies or known genetic conditions in at least one member of a couple. For the majority of chronic diseases, optimal control prior to conception is associated with favorable maternal and neonatal outcomes. Men should be targeted because their lifestyle and general health affect semen quality and the health of their offspring, and influence women's compliance with recommendations.