To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese adults living in Ningbo and to examine the association between alcohol consumption, and MetS and its medical components.
A representative survey in Ningbo was conducted in 2015 covering socio-demography. A food frequent questionnaire together with additional questionnaires was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, diet, demography, lifestyle, and medical information. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear models were used to examine the association between alcohol consumption, and both MetS and its medical components, respectively.
Total 2853 adults ≥20 years (44% men) in this final analysis.
The prevalence of frequent alcohol drinkers and MetS were 29.9% and 28.0%, respectively. Significantly higher prevalence of MetS and mean values of medical components were found in the group of frequent alcohol drinkers with an exception for HDL-C, compared to less or non-alcohol drinkers. Frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of developing MetS and positively associated with medical components excepting waist circumference.
Frequent alcohol consumption contributed to higher prevalence of MetS, and unfavorable influence on MetS and its medical components among Chinese adults. A public health intervention on alcohol restriction is necessary for the prevention and control the ongoing epidemic MetS.
We explored the genetic architecture of metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and their clustering in Chinese boys and girls. Seven metabolic traits (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], and uric acid [UA]) were measured in a sample of 1016 twins between 8 and 17 years of age, recruited from the Qingdao Twin Registry. Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models were used to identify the latent genetic structure behind the clustering of these metabolic traits. Genetic architecture of these metabolic traits was largely similar in boys and girls. The highest heritability was found for BMI (a2 = 0.63) in boys and TC (a2 = .69) in girls. Three heritable factors, adiposity (BMI and WC), blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and metabolite factors (TC, TG, and UA), which formed one higher-order latent phenotype, were identified. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly impacted the three factors through one single latent factor. Our results suggest that there is one latent factor influencing several metabolic traits, which are known risk factors of CVDs in young Chinese twins. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly imposed on them. These results inform strategies for gene pleiotropic discovery and intervening of CVD risk factors during childhood and adolescence.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and physical fitness among older Chinese (≥60 years) individuals.
Cross-sectional survey. Dietary data were collected by a simplified semi-quantitative FFQ. The 30-s Chair Stand test (30sCST), 30-s Arm Curl test (30sACT), 8-foot Time Up-and-Go test (8fTUAGT) and 6-min Walking test (6mWT) were used to assess physical fitness. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis. The association between dietary patterns and physical fitness was explored by multiple logistic regression.
Six communities (villages) of three districts in Liaocheng City (Shandong Province, China).
A total of 596 residents were recruited from April to May 2017.
Among 556 residents who were finally enrolled, 196 were men (35 %) and 360 were women (65 %). Three dietary patterns were identified: ‘Western’, ‘Vegetarian’ and ‘Modern’. The 30sACT revealed that men in the fourth quartile of the Western pattern were less likely to be classified in the ‘high-level’ group, but men in the fourth quartile of the Vegetarian pattern were classified in the high-level group. The 6mWT revealed that men in the fourth quartile of the Modern pattern were classified in the high-level group. These associations were independent of confounding factors.
Adherence to the Vegetarian pattern and Modern pattern may be protective factors for maintaining good physical fitness in older Chinese individuals. The Western pattern may lead to poor physical fitness in this population.
Lexical tones are widely believed to be a formidable learning challenge for adult speakers of nontonal languages. While difficulties—as well as rapid improvements—are well documented for beginning second language (L2) learners, research with more advanced learners is needed to understand how tone perception difficulties impact word recognition once learners have a substantial vocabulary. The present study narrows in on difficulties suggested in previous work, which found a dissociation in advanced L2 learners between highly accurate tone identification and largely inaccurate lexical decision for tone words. We investigate a “best-case scenario” for advanced L2 tone word processing by testing performance in nearly ideal listening conditions—with words spoken clearly and in isolation. Under such conditions, do learners still have difficulty in lexical decision for tone words? If so, is it driven by the quality of lexical representations or by L2 processing routines? Advanced L2 and native Chinese listeners made lexical decisions while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Nonwords had a first syllable with either a vowel or tone that differed from that of a common disyllabic word. As a group, L2 learners performed less accurately when tones were manipulated than when vowels were manipulated. Subsequent analyses showed that this was the case even in the subset of items for which learners showed correct and confident tone identification in an offline written vocabulary test. Event-related potential results indicated N400 effects for both nonword conditions in L1, but only vowel N400 effects in L2, with tone responses intermediate between those of real words and vowel nonwords. These results are evidence of the persistent difficulty most L2 learners have in using tones for online word recognition, and indicate it is driven by a confluence of factors related to both L2 lexical representations and processing routines. We suggest that this tone nonword difficulty has real-world implications for learners: It may result in many toneless word representations in their mental lexicons, and is likely to affect the efficiency with which they can learn new tone words.
To establish a structural equation model for exploring the direct and indirect relationships of depressive symptoms and their associated factors among the Chinese elderly population.
A cross-sectional research. The 2015 data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were adopted.
CHARLS is an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the social, economic, and health status of nationally representative samples of middle-aged and elderly Chinese residents.
A total of 5791 participants aged 60 years and above were included.
Depressive symptoms were used as the study outcome. Sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were used as predictors. Confirmatory factor analysis was first conducted to test the latent variables. Structural equation model was then utilized to examine the associations among latent variables and depressive symptoms.
The mean age of the participants was 68.82 ± 6.86 years, with 55.53% being males. The total prevalence of depressive symptoms was 37.52%. The model paths indicated that sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were directly associated with depressive symptoms, and the effects were 0.281, 0.509, −0.067, and −0.162, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration were indirectly associated with depressive symptoms, mediating by poor health status. Their effects on poor health status were −0.093, 0.180, and −0.279, respectively. All paths of the model were significant (P < 0.001). The model could explain 40.9% of the variance in the depressive symptoms of the Chinese elderly population.
Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with sociodemographic characteristics, poor health status, unhealthy habits, and sleep duration among Chinese elderly population. The dominant predictor of depressive symptoms was poor health status. Targeting these results might be helpful in rationally allocating health resources during screening or other mental health promotion activities for the elderly.
Much of the literature discusses filial piety in general and ambiguous terms. This study, in contrast, investigates specific perceptions of filial piety and parental expectations of filial duty among older Chinese immigrants in Canada. The study is based on thematic analysis of 46 Chinese immigrants in seven focus groups conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Findings show the perceptions of filial piety varied, but almost all participants had reduced expectations of their children. Nevertheless, they still valued and expected emotional care from their children. The study argues that changes in institutional settings, social policies and welfare systems define parents’ support needs and affect their expectations in the host society, while norms and institutional settings in the place of origin influence their perceptions of filial piety.
The processing advantage for multiword expressions over novel language has long been attested in the literature. However, the evidence pertains almost exclusively to multiword expression processing in adults. Whether or not other populations are sensitive to phrase frequency effects is largely unknown. Here, we sought to address this gap by recording the eye movements of third and fourth graders, as well as adults (first-language Mandarin) as they read phrases varying in frequency embedded in sentence context. We were interested in how phrase frequency, operationalized as phrase type (collocation vs. control) or (continuous) phrase frequency, and age might influence participants’ reading. Adults read collocations and higher frequency phrases consistently faster than control and lower frequency phrases, respectively. Critically, fourth, but not third, graders read collocations and higher frequency phrases faster than control and lower frequency sequences, respectively, although this effect was largely confined to a late measure. Our results reaffirm phrase frequency effects in adults and point to emerging phrase frequency effects in primary school children. The use of eye tracking has further allowed us to tap into early versus late stages of phrasal processing, to explore different areas of interest, and to probe possible differences between phrase frequency conceptualized as a dichotomy versus a continuum.
The introductory chapter mainly provides two kinds of information. One is the explanation of some basic terminologies used in the traditional study of Chinese phonology. The other is various source materials that are used in the study of Chinese historical phonology. These two kinds of information are very much interrelated. Due to the logographic nature of the Chinese writing system, the study of a historical sound system is a rather difficult task. Despite such difficulty, Chinese scholars have been diligently analyzing the phonological system of Chinese for more than fifteen hundred years. In the long history of Chinese scholarship, the achievements of phonological studies are represented by a large number of terminologies. Since all these achievements were made at the absence of an alphabetical spelling system, what has been achieved by and large is the collection of categorical information, such as how many tones, how many initials, and how many different categories of finals a given dialect or standard has. The terminologies are the keys to understanding traditional phonology. They are frequently used in the phonological studies for all periods: Old Chinese, Middle Chinese, Old Mandarin, and even Modern Mandarin.
Translations are generally assumed to share universal features that distinguish them from texts that are originally written in the same language. Thus, we can argue that these translations constitute their own variety of a language, often called translationese. However, translations are also influenced by their source languages and thus show different characteristics depending on the source language. Consequently, we argue that these variants constitute different “dialects” of translations into the same target language. Studies using machine learning techniques on Indo-European languages have investigated the universal characteristics of translationese and how translations from various source languages differ. However, for typologically very different languages such as Chinese, there are only few corpus studies that tap into the intricate relation between translations and the originals, as well as into the relations among translations themselves. In this contribution, we investigate the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics of Chinese translationese, both in general and with respect to different source languages? (2) Can we find differences not only at the lexical but also on the syntactic level? and (3) Based on the characteristics found in the previous questions, which of the proposed laws and universals can we corroborate based on our evidence from Chinese? We use machine learning to operationalize determining the importance of different characteristics and comparing their importance for our Chinese dataset with characteristics previously reported in studies on English. In addition, our methodology allows us to add syntactic features, which have rarely been used to study translations into Chinese. Our results show that Chinese translations as a whole can be reliably distinguished from non-translations, even based on only five features. More interestingly, typological traces from the source languages can often be found in their translations, therefore creating what we call dialects of translationese. For instance, translations from two Altaic languages exhibit more noun repetition and less frequent use of pronouns. Additionally, some characteristics that are not discriminative for English work well for Chinese, possibly because the distance between Chinese and the source languages is greater than that in English studies.
This article attempts to outline the ways in which Chinese and Chinese American writers envision metropolitan New York by examining selected prose works which primarily engage with immigrant experiences. While recognizing the creative agency and imaginative power of this body of work, within these texts there are nevertheless embedded responses to and interactions with immigration laws and landmark events such as the Sino-Japanese War, the Second World War, the Chinese Civil War, the AIDS epidemics, the 9/11 attacks, the 1997 handover or return of Hong Kong to China, and China’s implementation of the reform and opening-up policy which started in 1978. Hence, the representations of New York in these works from different generations of writers of Chinese descent are heavily influenced by, and connected to, variegated sociohistorical forces, creating distinct and intricate transnational linkages across the Pacific.
Mark Twain had a positive and supportive stance toward the Chinese from his time in the West and throughout his lifetime. He recognized the ill treatment of Chinese immigrants in Nevada and California, and he spoke out against brutal police tactics against Chinese in San Francisco. He collaborated with Bret Harte on a play, Ah Sin, which employs Chinese stereotypes, but also makes a pro-Chinese statement. As efforts toward Chinese exclusion intensified in the 1870s and 1880s, he was a strong supporter of Chinese rights. Although he never traveled to China during his lifetime, he is considered by the Chinese as a friend of their people and their country.
This longitudinal study examines change in maternal interaction strategies in Taiwanese mothers across time, and the synchronic and diachronic relationships between maternal interaction strategies and children's language and early literacy skills. Forty-two mother–child dyads participated in this study. Their interactions during joint book-reading were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed when the children were fourteen, twenty-six, and thirty-six months of age. The children received a battery of language and early literacy tests when they were thirty-six months old. Findings showed that Taiwanese mothers adjusted their use of interaction strategies as their children grew. Maternal use of description, performance, prediction inference, and print-related talk were positively correlated with their children's language and literacy skills. Significant negative correlations were found between use of task-behavioral regulation strategy and text reading in mothers and their children's language performance. This study suggests that age-appropriate interaction strategies are important for children's language and early literacy development.
This study systematically reviewed literature on the neighbourhood food environment in relation to diet and obesity among residents in China.
A keyword search of peer-reviewed articles was performed in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria include study designs: longitudinal/cohort studies or cross-sectional studies; study participants: people of all ages; exposures: neighbourhood food environment (e.g. restaurants, supermarkets, wet markets, fast-food restaurants, or convenience stores); outcomes: diet and/or body weight status; and country: China.
Seventeen studies met all criteria and were included. Among the eight studies that assessed the neighbourhood food environment in relation to diet, six reported at least one statistically significant relationship in the expected direction, whereas the remaining two exclusively reported null effects. Among the eleven studies that assessed the neighbourhood food environment in relation to body weight or overweight/obesity, ten reported a significant association whereas the remaining one reported a null relationship. Variety, density, and proximity of food outlets were positively associated with local residents’ dietary diversity, portion size, and daily caloric intake. Density and proximity of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores were positively associated with local residents’ adiposity in some but not all studies. Evidence linking any specific food outlet type to diet/obesity remains lacking due to the small number of studies and heterogeneities in food environment measures, geographical locations, and population subgroups.
The neighbourhood food environment may influence diet and obesity among Chinese residents but the evidence remains preliminary. Future studies adopting an experimental study design and objective/validated environment and dietary measures are warranted.
There is growing evidence that suggests the association of vitamin D status with the development and progression of heart failure (HF). The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, we consecutively recruited patients with HF. Patients were followed prospectively for a median duration of 1 year. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured with competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The endpoints were cardiac events, including CVD death and rehospitalisation for worsening HF. Univariate and multivariable adjustments were performed with Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. The 25(OH)D concentration was obtained in 343 patients with a median value of 17·4 (interquartile range 12·6–23·4) ng/ml. There were 102 cardiac events, including forty-three deaths and fifty-nine rehospitalisations. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis found that the serum concentration 25(OH)D was independently associated with cardiac events (hazard ratio 0·93, 95 % CI 0·88, 0·97) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·89) after adjustment for confounding factors. We divided the HF patients into four groups according to the 25(OH)D quartiles. Kaplan–Meier analysis found that the patients with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration had a higher risk of cardiac events or CVD mortality than those with high serum 25(OH)D concentration (log-rank test P < 0·001 and P = 0·032). Decreased serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were associated with cardiac prognosis and CVD mortality in a Chinese population with HF independent of other baseline HF markers.
Kádár and Ran’s chapter examines one of the key areas in which Sifianou has enriched politeness research and pragmatics: the relationship between globalisation and politeness. They demonstrate clear differences between academic and lay understandings of the effect of globalisation on politeness, in particular when this issue is examined across cultures. The authors explore the relationship between politeness and globalisation from a Chinese perspective, focusing on popular metadiscursive tendencies that surround politeness and globalisation in Chinese cultural contexts. The metapragmatic phenomena they target are (i) metalexicon/metalanguage: words/expressions that interactants use about im/politeness and ‘globalisation’ and (ii) metadiscourse: discourses on im/politeness and globalisation. Their dataset consists of Chinese online texts, mostly informal news articles and blogs written by Chinese authors. Kádár and Ran provide historical contextualisation for the development of Chinese perceptions of guojihua (‘internationalisation’, a term that is used instead of ‘globalisation’ in the Chinese context) as a beneficial factor for the development of politeness.
Culpeper, O’Driscoll and Hardaker’s chapter probes into British people’s understandings of politeness and contrasts them with the understandings of people in North America. Such overarching generalisations, the authors argue, are commonly found in lay persons’ assessments of politeness and thus constitute fertile ground for studies of metapragmatic politeness. Furthermore, the results of a survey of studies focusing on either British culture or North American culture as reified entities indicated a scarcity of emic studies of these cultures in the field of politeness. The authors’ study aims to fill this gap. To that end, they apply corpus linguistic tools to the Oxford English Corpus and subject to scrutiny the lexeme ‘polite’ and the associated clusters of collocates. The results are then triangulated with geolocated Twitter data. Findings partly support both the British and the North American politeness stereotypes, but also show that, contrary to expectations, friendliness and involvement are an important feature of understandings of politeness in both the UK and the USA.
The Huá-yí-yì-yǔ is a general name for the various wordbooks between the Chinese language and its neighbouring languages compiled from the beginning of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). It has broadly 4 different classes. In the wordbooks of the third class the words of each foreign language were transliterated only in Chinese characters and the letters of the language in question were not used. To this third class belongs the manuscript in the collection of the library of Seoul National University. Its seventh volume is for the Uighur language. It contains 19 categories. In this paper the first category of astronomy with 85 entries is treated.
There are many scribal errors in these materials. Apart from the shortcomings of the Chinese characters, this may be the main reason why the Uighur word materials in the wordbooks of this class are not highly regarded.
Attachment dimensions refer to how interpersonal emotion regulation strategies are utilised and have a profound impact in adulthood. Its measurement has attracted a large amount of research attention. The Experiences in Close Relationships — Revised (ECR-R) Questionnaire is one of the most widely used and researched self-report questionnaires to measure romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance in multiple language groups, despite inconsistent evidence regarding its factorial structure. The 20-item Experiences in Close Relationships — Revised — General Short Form (ECR-R-GSF) was developed based on the ECR-R to measure attachment experiences in all relationships (not just romantic ones) in an English-speaking sample. However, no short form of the ECR-R is available for the Chinese population. In order to cross-validate the first Chinese version of the ECR-R-GSF, specifically the proposed two-factor structure, against the English version, an Australian university student sample (n = 426) and a Chinese university student sample from China (n = 626) were recruited. The Anxiety and Avoidance scales were found to have good internal reliability in both samples. However, the proposed two-factor model only provided an acceptable fit even after adding modifications in the Australian sample, and the fit was not satisfactory in the Chinese sample. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that partial metric but not scalar invariance was achieved across cultures. Implications for relationship and cross-cultural research and practice were discussed.
Decoding and language comprehension skills have been found to be the core components of reading comprehension across many writing systems. The present study examined the contributions of vocabulary and some discourse-level skills to reading comprehension in Chinese in addition to that of decoding. One hundred and seventeen Chinese second and third graders in Hong Kong were tested on decoding, vocabulary, discourse-level skills, and verbal working memory. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that the discourse-level skills contributed an additional 5% of variance to reading comprehension over decoding, vocabulary, and other control variables, and all factors accounted for a total of 70% variance in reading comprehension. Further path analysis showed that all the direct paths of word reading, vocabulary, text-structure knowledge, and topic knowledge to reading comprehension were significant. Vocabulary also contributed to reading comprehension through indirect paths to discourse-level knowledge. The present findings support the simple view of reading with elaborations on the language comprehension component, namely, (a) vocabulary is a foundational language skill for text comprehension through its role on discourse-level knowledge, and (b) some discourse-level knowledge also plays an important role in passage comprehension.
In this article, we present an analytical approach that focuses on how transnational and translingual learners mobilize their multilingual, multimodal, and multisemiotic repertoires, as well as their learning and work experiences, as resources in language learning. The approach is that of translanguaging, which seeks to push the boundaries not only between different named languages but also between different modalities and across language scripts and writing systems. We base our arguments on a study of self-directed learning of Chinese via online platforms in the context of mobility and aim to demonstrate the transformative capacity of translanguaging. In doing so, we highlight the need for a transdisciplinary approach to language learning that transcends the boundaries between linguistics, psychology, and education, and in particular, the need to go beyond the artificial divides of the different modalities of language learning to strengthen the connections between research on bilingualism and multilingualism and research on language teaching and learning.