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This chapter explores the contexts of spousal violence, and considers the evolution of the legal discourses and judicial practices around this issue, and examines what this violence tells us about power, control and intimacy within marriages. It was widely believed in the nineteenth century that spousal assault was rare in Ireland, while it was thought to be a common practice in England. In the evolution of Irish national identity in post-Famine Ireland such beliefs distinguished the Irish from the English. Irish men were held to be morally superior to English men. But such beliefs were unfounded. More husbands abused and killed their wives, than wives did husbands. Husbands used their wives’ behaviour, their disobedience, intemperance, infidelity, lack of female virtue, inadequate fortunes, as excuses for causing a turn to violence or their wives’ deaths. Verbal and physical conflicts, could in the context of alcohol, spiral out of control. Money and property were also the causes of violence, as was the distribution of household resources. Some women feared the loss of their homes and other property and killed to protect their interests. Certain acts of violence were judged legitimate when particular contexts were taken into consideration. A drunken wife or a brutish and violent husband could, for example, see murder charges being reduced to manslaughter charges.
Chapter 7 explores what happened after the marriage was agreed. It looks first at the planning of the wedding festivities: the buying of a dress and the preparation of the wedding meal. The second section of the chapter, explores relationships between husbands and wives and the different ways in which patriarchy was expressed. To what extent did husbands exercise their authority under the laws of church and state to control their wife’s behaviour? What evidence is there that husbands were aware of their status as heads of household and anxious to enforce it? It is impossible to generalise about the implications for marital relations of large numbers of children but large, crowded households are, nonetheless, a constant throughout the period covered by the volume. There can be no generalising either about intimate relationships between married couples. Emotions shaped such relationships as clearly as economics and status did. Emotions might be expressed in words, in letters, but within an intimate life they find expression also in gesture, touch, in looks and in the more practical realms of support and care to be found in intimate relationship.
Marriage was often a way to contain the poverty of women and children and sometimes men. Men were expected to be the family breadwinners, earning enough to feed, clothe and house their wife and children. In reality, poorer women were always obliged to assist in supplementing or securing the family income, as were children. For many women, the desertion of a husband brought them and their children to destitution and they ended up in the workhouse. Desertion could occur at any point in a marriage, sometimes after a couple of days or even years later. The large number of newspaper notices placed by husbands cautioning the public that they would not pay any bills accumulated by their runaway wives testify to the way in which men and women took matters into their own hands to abandon a difficult marriage, without consulting a lawyer or, in many cases, their spouse. Sometimes spouses agreed to a desertion as a way of separating. The evolution of the law throughout the period saw the removal of legal constraints placed upon women granting them, for instance, greater property rights and economic autonomy. By the end of the nineteenth century, the law provided more substantial support to women who were deserted, or separated, particularly in the area of securing maintenance payments.
In this chapter we examine a particular sort of imaginative activity – imagining the impossible, or fantasy. We trace the development of children’s ability to distinguish between fantasy and reality in various contexts – in pretense and imaginative play, in reasoning about mythical beings, and in storybooks and television. Throughout, we explore three groups of factors that influence judgments about whether various entities and events are real or fantastical: (1) characteristics of the child, such as age and fantasy orientation; (2) characteristics of the entity or event, such as whether it is self-generated or a product of culture; and (3) features of the environment, such as the context in which the entity or event is encountered. We also explore the tools children use to make these distinctions, and consider effects of both engaging with fantasy and making the fantasy-reality distinction on cognitive development more broadly. We conclude with suggestions for future research.
A thorough understanding of ethical issues, which are often encountered in the field of paediatric neurosurgery, can help neurosurgeons in decision-making regarding optimal treatment in children. Although ethical dilemmas in paediatric neurosurgical patients frequently share common characteristics with those seen in the management of adult patients, they also differ and are more complex. For example, because child patients do not have the ability to make decisions on their own due to their age, their parents are usually substitute decision makers. Ethical problems in paediatric neurosurgery may arise with prenatal diagnosis and continue to be encountered in various age groups with different characteristics during foetal, neonatal, infancy, playschool age, school age, and adolescence. Moreover, intrauterine foetal life involves the health and wellbeing of the mother, further complicating ethical decision-making. Collaborative communication and the exchange of information between the medical team and the family, which leads to a shared family-centered decision-making, are an increasingly preferred approach to paediatric medical decision-making. In addition, developmental maturation of the child allows for increasing longitudinal inclusion of the child’s opinion in medical decision-making in clinical and research practice. The child should always be informed in a respectful manner and using simple language adjusted to the childs age. Despite the limits of medicine at a specific time, clinicians should always respect a child with an incurable disease and show warm sympathy toward babies born with the fate of a short life.
The monitoring of the populations’ iodine status is an essential part of successful programmes of iodine deficiency elimination. The current study aimed at the evaluation of current iodine nutrition in school children, pregnant and lactating women as a marker of the effectiveness and sustainability of mandatory iodine prophylaxis in Poland.
The following iodine nutrition indicators were used: urinary iodine concentration (UIC) (all participants) and serum thyroglobulin (pregnant and lactating women).
The study was conducted in 2017 within the National Health Programme in five regions of Poland.
The research included 300 pregnant women, 100 lactating women and 1000 school children (aged 6–12 years).
In pregnant women, median UIC was 111·6 µg/l; there was no significant difference in median UIC according to the region of residence. In 8 % of pregnant women, thyroglobulin level was >40 ng/ml (median thyroglobulin 13·3 ng/ml). In lactating women, median UIC was 68·0 µg/l. A significant inter-regional difference was noted (P = 0·0143). In 18 % of breastfeeding women, thyroglobulin level was >40 ng/ml (median thyroglobulin 18·5 ng/ml). According to the WHO criteria, the investigated sample of pregnant and lactating women was iodine-deficient. Median UIC in school children was 119·8 µg/l (with significant inter-regional variation; P = 0·0000), which is consistent with iodine sufficiency. Ninety-four children (9·4 %) had UIC < 50 µg/l.
Mandatory iodisation of household salt in Poland has led to a sustainable optimisation of iodine status in the general population. However, it has failed to assure adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.
In this paper we consider the order of emergence of comprehension of wh-questions and polar-questions. We argue that considerations of complexity and input favour the earlier emergence of polar questions; on the other hand, if one assumes that question understanding emerges as a consequence of interactive learning this favours (certain) wh-questions, as well as a small subclass of polar questions. We offer corpus evidence from the Providence corpus that (a certain class of) wh-questions are in fact understood earlier than the polar-questions. We test this observation using elicitation studies on German and Chinese speaking children. Our results confirm the finding from the corpus study and are in line with an interactive learning perspective for the emergence of understanding of questions.
This study investigates how phonological neighborhood density (PND) affects word production and recognition in 4-to-6-year-old Russian children in comparison to adults. Previous experiments with English-speaking adults showed that a dense neighborhood facilitated word production but inhibited recognition whereas a sparse neighborhood inhibited production but facilitated recognition. Importantly, these effects are not universal because a reverse PND pattern was found in Spanish-speaking adults. Probably, PND effects depend on the morphological properties of language.
This study focuses on PND effects in word production and recognition in terms of facilitation and inhibition in Russian. Our results are consistent with those in Spanish: Russian-speaking adults produced words with dense neighborhoods more slowly and recognized them faster than words with sparse neighborhoods. Russian children showed the same PND effect in recognition and no effect was found in production. The findings support the hypothesis that PND effects in word production and recognition are influenced by the morphological system of language.
The present study aims at measuring the association between household food insecurity and psychological distress in adolescents in Inuit communities, concurrently and overtime from childhood to adolescence.
The study used measures of internalising behaviours (anxiety, withdrawn attitude, somatic complaints and depression) as indicators of psychological distress during adolescence, a concurrent measure of household food insecurity in adolescence and an assessment of longitudinal patterns of household food insecurity from childhood to adolescence. We collected descriptive information at birth, childhood and adolescence on potential confounders.
Inuit communities of Nunavik in northern Quebec, Canada
The study consisted of 212 participants from the Nunavik Child Development Study, who have been assessed at birth, childhood (mean age = 11 years, range = 9–13 years) and adolescence (mean age = 18 years, range = 16–21 years).
Concurrent severe household food insecurity in adolescence was associated with higher measures of psychological distress: depression (βstd = 0·26, P < 0·01) and withdrawn attitude (βstd = 0·20, P = 0·04). Persistent household food insecurity (both at childhood and adolescence) was associated with higher levels of adolescent depression (βstd = 0·18, P = 0·02) and anxiety (βstd = 0·17, P = 0·03).
Adolescents from Nunavik living with higher food insecurity and those having experienced food insecurity in both childhood and adolescence were more likely to report symptoms of psychological distress. Considering the high level of distress experienced by young Inuit, existing initiatives to reduce food insecurity in Nunavik communities should be targeted to include children and adolescents.
To assess the frequency, healthfulness and promotional techniques of television food advertising to children and adolescents in the Russian Federation.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to monitor food and beverage television advertising. For the five most popular TV channels among children and adolescents, TV broadcasts were recorded for two weekdays and two weekends (320 h) during March–May 2017. Recordings were screened for advertisements. Food advertisements were categorised by food categories and as either ‘permitted’ or ‘not permitted’ for advertising to children in accordance with World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profile Model (NPM), and promotional techniques in advertisements were recorded.
Overall, 11 678 advertisements were coded. Across all channels, food and drink (19·2 %) were the most frequently advertised product type. The most common food categories advertised were beverages (except juices, milk drinks and energy drinks) (24·1 %); yoghurts and other dairy foods (15 %); and chocolate and confectionery (12·3 %). A majority (64·2 %) of food and drink products advertised should not be permitted for advertising to children according to the NPM. The most frequently used persuasive appeals in the food advertisements were low price (15·4 %), product novelty (11·8 %) and enjoyment (10·0 %).
Children and adolescents in the Russian Federation are likely exposed to a substantial number of unhealthy food advertisements. There is a need to consider policies to restrict children’s exposure to unhealthy food advertising on television in the Russian Federation.
Children in armed conflict are frequently deprived of basic needs, psychologically supportive environments, educational and vocational opportunities, and other resources that promote positive psychosocial development and mental health. This article describes the mental health challenges faced by conflict-affected children and youth, the interventions designed to prevent or ameliorate the psychosocial impact of conflict-related experiences, and a case example of the challenges and opportunities related to addressing the mental health needs of Rohingya children and youth.
Even during armed conflict and other situations of violence, all children are entitled to their rights and protections as children without distinction based on their age, gender, religion, or whether they are associated with an armed group. Despite this, millions of children in conflict zones face discrimination, ostracization and stigmatization. This is particularly true for children affiliated with groups designated as “terrorist”, who face a range of challenges in reintegrating into society.
Civil society can play an important role at the international, regional and domestic levels in helping children formerly associated with armed groups, or otherwise affected by armed conflict, to rejoin communities. Mira Kusumarini is a professional in the peace and security field in Indonesia who works to address the problems of women and children who have been associated with armed groups, and to help them reintegrate them into society. She is the Executive Director of the Coalition of Civil Society Against Violent Extremism (C-SAVE), a collaborative network of civil society organizations.
In this interview, she discusses the challenges involved in the reintegration of children who have been associated with extremist groups in Indonesia and the stigma they face, as well as the importance of empathy in helping communities to heal.
Eradicating and addressing child marriage in situations of armed conflict requires that stakeholders increase their attention, knowledge, evidence-based protection measures, and resources in a coordinated fashion. To this end, this article examines what constitutes child marriage within the international legal framework. It then presents a concise analysis of what is known about child marriage in development contexts, before moving on to discuss the (limited) state of knowledge on child marriage in humanitarian settings, and the global response. It presents information on different married child populations, including child brides and grooms, girls forcibly married to armed actors, child widows, and child marriage within natural disasters. It concludes with ideas on the information and knowledge that is still needed to inform effective response.
Coronavirus disease (also known as COVID-19), continues to spread throughout the world. In Turkey, which has a strong health system, most hospitals have been turned into pandemic hospitals, elective procedures have been postponed and doctors have been re-assigned to treat COVID-19. Efforts to limit spread of COVID-19 have been effective in reducing the spread of COVID-19. Behind this success was not only the intrinsic strength of the health system but also the strict changes in everyday life wrought by the crisis. It is an inescapable fact that these new measures, such as the imposition of curfew and lockdown, have had a significant effect on the mental health of the general population. Anxiety caused by COVID-19 has spread to the mental state of everyone. Although coronavirus-related diseases will end soon, it is predicted that serious psychiatric disorders will be a lasting consequence of the pandemic. Despite the many negatives brought by COVID-19, it has led to a positive unity between the public and healthcare professionals, and in spite of significant risks to their own health, healthcare workers have risen to the challenge of COVID-19.
In 2014, a Nutrition Report Card (NRC) was developed as a sustainable, low-cost framework to assess the healthfulness of children’s food environments and highlight action to support healthy eating. We summarise our experiences in producing, disseminating, evaluating and refining an annual NRC in a Canadian province from 2015 to 2019.
To produce the NRC, children’s food environment indicator data are collected, analyzed and compiled for consensus grading by an Expert Working Group of researchers and practitioners. Knowledge translation activities are tailored annually to the needs of target audiences: researchers, practitioners, policymakers and the public. Evaluation of reach is conducted through diverse strategies, including tracking media coverage and website traffic. Assessment of impact on diets and health outcomes is planned.
The grading process has facilitated refining the NRC to enhance its relevance and utility as a tool for its target audiences. Its public release consistently captures media interest and policymakers’ attention. The importance of partnerships in revealing data sources and in strategising to enhance policy approaches to improve food environments is apparent. The NRC has benchmarked progress and stimulated dialogue regarding healthy food environments for children.
The NRC may help to foster a supportive climate for improving the quality of children’s food environments. As an engaging and accessible document, the NRC represents a key mechanism for collating data related to children’s food environments and ensuring it reaches the audiences best positioned to use it. Efforts are underway to expand the NRC across Canada.
Advanced cancer in young parents (PWAC) can increase dying concerns, the fluctuating thoughts, or feelings, conscious, or unconscious, about an approaching death by a person facing a terminal illness or a family member coping with the impending death of a loved one. However, limited research has been conducted to identify dying concerns in an ill parent as the research has focused on older adults.
Our goal was to identify dying concerns that PWAC are expressing and to understand how these concerns affect measurable outcomes.
CINHAL, MEDLINE, PsychARTICLES, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection were searched. Articles included were samples of PWAC, peer-reviewed, and published within the last 10 years. Elderly or pediatric populations, PWAC with adult children, and early-stage cancer were excluded. The initial search resulted in 1,526 articles, 18 were identified as potentially relevant. Fourteen articles were identified and reviewed.
PWAC expressed concerns for their children (n = 11), concerns for their co-parent (n = 4), and personal concerns (n = 11). Additionally, PWAC have decreased quality of life, have significant emotional and psychological distress, and have increased family dysfunction in relation to their concerns. Samples limit the generalizability of the findings. Majority of the articles consisted of White, upper, middle-class (n = 8) women (n = 7) diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 11) within nuclear families (n = 11).
Significance of results
Dying concerns are described in the literature from a fairly narrow sample of PWAC. Future research should focus on recruiting participants from diverse backgrounds, genders, diagnosis types, and non-nuclear families. Identifying concerns for the co-parent would also add to the understanding of dying concerns.
This cross-sectional study evaluated the dietary characteristics of snacks, the contribution of snacks to daily nutrient intake and the association of energy intake (EI) from snacks with the prevalence of nutritional inadequacy in Japanese nursery school children.
Foods and nutrients consumed in each eating occasion were assessed by 3-d dietary records. The prevalence of inadequate intake of twenty nutrients assessed by the age- and sex-specific reference values in the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes was compared according to tertile categories of EI from snacks.
A multi-regional dietary survey based on nursery schools in Japan.
A total of 187 boys and 191 girls aged 3–6 years.
EI from snacks accounted for 19·5 % (sd 6·9) of total daily EI. Confectionaries accounted for the largest part of EI from snacks (35·3 %), followed by milk (19·5 %). Relative to their energy contribution, snacks accounted for a small proportion for all nutrients examined, except for free sugar, calcium, SFA and riboflavin. Although a higher EI from snacks was associated with favourable profiles for intakes of calcium, iron, thiamine and riboflavin, excessive intakes of free sugar and Na were more prevalent among children with a higher EI from snacks.
Although snacks are effective in meeting the requirement of some nutrients among Japanese nursery school children, snacks are generally not nutrient-dense and have an impact on excessive intake of some nutrients. There is hence room for improvement in food choices at snack time.
Schneider and Ingram’s (1993) theory of social construction of target populations has received extensive scholarly attention. It has rarely been applied to populations of children and youth, however. In this article we: (1) describe the original framework; (2) apply each of Schneider and Ingram’s four categories to examples relevant to children and youth; (3) identify adjustments to the model to guide further understanding of young people’s policy treatment; and, (4) discuss how these observations might inform policies targeted toward children and youth. By providing a more focused analysis of this theory’s application to the social construction of children and youth, we aim to contribute to the scholarly understanding of policymaking and inform potential policy design strategies that may result in positive outcomes for children and youth.
Most childhood disabilities are caused by congenital factors such as birth defects. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of periconceptional nutrition intervention on the prevention of congenital disability among Chinese children using the National Birth Defects Intervention Project as a natural experiment. We obtained individual-level data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability, a nationally representative survey, and 110,365 children born between Sep. 1999 and Aug. 2003 were included for analysis. Difference-in-differences estimates of the project effects on congenital disability were captured by exploiting temporal variation in the timing of project exposure across four birth cohorts along with geographical variation in project category at the province level. The findings contribute to an emerging body of evidence showing that prenatal micronutrient intervention before and during early pregnancy could substantially reduce the risk of congenital disability in childhood (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57–0.94). The National Birth Defects Intervention Project improved the awareness of reproductive health and disability prevention in the population. It highlights the need for a potential policy change focusing on early-life health investment in China.
To (i) identify and synthesise findings from interventions to improve the dietary intake, physical activity and weight status of children aged 0–6 years attending family day care services; and (ii) assess the impact of interventions on family day care environments, intervention cost and adverse outcomes.
Medline in Process, PsycINFO, ERIC, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Scopus databases were searched in March 2019. Studies were included if they (i) evaluated an intervention to improve the diet, physical activity and/or weight of children aged 0–6 years; (ii) were delivered in family day care services; (iii) targeted child diet, physical activity and/or weight; and (iv) used a parallel control group design. Screening was undertaken by two reviewers with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer.
Family day care services, also known as family childcare homes.
Children aged 0–6 years attending family day care services.
In total, 8977 titles were retrieved, and 199 full-texts reviewed. No studies met the inclusion criteria for the primary outcome; however, two studies reporting on the secondary outcome of family day care environments were included. The 4-year community-wide obesity prevention programme and the 12-month train-the-trainer programme both reported statistically significant improvements in the healthy eating and physical activity environments of family day care, compared to cross-sectional state-average control groups.
Findings highlight few existing interventions in family day care services and a need for high-quality controlled trials to identify effective interventions to improve children’s diet, activity and weight in this setting.