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Child characteristics, family factors, and preschool factors are all found to affect the rate of bilingual children's vocabulary development in heritage language (HL). However, what remains unknown is the relative importance of these three sets of factors in HL vocabulary growth. The current study explored the complex issue with 457 Singaporean preschool children who are speaking either Mandarin, Malay, or Tamil as their HL. A series of internal factors (e.g., non-verbal intelligence) and external factors (e.g., maternal educational level) were used to predict children's HL vocabulary growth over a year at preschool with linear mixed effects models.
The results demonstrated that external factors (i.e., family and preschool factors) are relatively more important than child characteristics in enhancing bilingual children's HL vocabulary growth. Specifically, children's language input quantity (i.e., home language dominance), input quality (e.g., number of books in HL), and HL input quantity at school (i.e., the time between two waves of tests at preschool) predict the participants’ HL vocabulary growth, with initial vocabulary controlled. The relative importance of external factors in bilingual children's HL vocabulary development is attributed to the general bilingual setting in Singapore, where HL is taken as a subject to learn at preschool and children have fairly limited exposure to HL in general. The limited amount of input might not suffice to trigger the full expression of internal resources. Our findings suggest the crucial roles that caregivers and preschools play in early HL education, and the necessity of more parental involvement in early HL learning in particular.
The Policy on Children published by the International Criminal Court (ICC) Office of the Prosecutor in 2016 represents a significant step toward accountability for harms to children in armed conflict and similar situations of extreme violence. This article describes the process that led to the Policy and outlines the Policy's contents. It then surveys relevant ICC practice and related developments, concluding that despite some salutary efforts, much remains to be done to recognize, prevent and punish the spectrum of conflicted-related crimes against or affecting children.
This study proposes a measure of reproductive losses starting from conception to age 15 as an assessment of childbearing ‘efficiency’. It is suggested that losses are due to miscarriages, abortions, stillbirths and deaths to age 15. Data were drawn from various sources for seven regions embracing 129 developing countries. Mortality is an important loss in severely disadvantaged regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, but the abortion rates are lower there. This is reversed in the more advanced regions, where mortality is low but abortion rates are higher. Total losses numerically depend upon the rates in combination with the numbers of conceptions. The general ‘efficiency’ in moving from conception to a surviving child aged 15 was estimated. The abortion component of wastage has apparently not improved over time, but the mortality component has done so. Abortion rates are found to drive reproductive efficiency downwards; but efficiency is positively correlated with contraceptive use once abortion is controlled for. This implies that as efficiency is improved more couples gain confidence to turn to contraceptive use to avoid unplanned pregnancies and births.
The aim of this study was to identify social and biological drivers of fetal growth by examining associations with household, preconception, and pregnancy factors in a cohort from Soweto, South Africa. Complete data and ultrasound scans were collected on 519 women between 2013 and 2016 at 6 time points during pregnancy (<14, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–33 weeks, and 34–38 weeks). Household-level factors, preconception health, baseline body mass index (BMI), and demographic data were collected at the first visit. During pregnancy, gestational weight gain (GWG; kg/week) was calculated. At 24–28 weeks of gestation, oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) status, and hypertension status was characterised. Longitudinal growth in head circumference, abdominal circumference, biparietal diameter, and femur length were modelled using the Superimposition by Translation and Rotation, a shape-invariant model which produces growth curves against gestational age. A priori identified exposure variables were then included in a series of sex-stratified hierarchical regression models for each fetal growth outcome. No household-level factors were associated with fetal growth. Maternal BMI at baseline was positively associated with all outcome parameters in males and females. Both GWG (in males and females) and GDM (in males) were significant positive predictors of abdominal growth. Males showed more responsiveness to abdominal growth, while females were more responsive to linear growth. Thus, fetal growth was largely predicted by maternal biological factors, and sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness of fetal biometry to biological exposures was evident.
Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the book, outlining the need for police investigators to engage in online identity assumption and justifying a linguistic contribution that can be made in terms of the variety of ways in which linguists and forensic linguists have approached questions of language and identity. We set out the context of online sexual abuse, in particular the abuse of children.
This chapter summarizes the key arguments in the book. The chapter explains why a specific children’s rights focus is granted within the broader business and human rights debates and seeks to move beyond legal fiction to situate businesses as children’s rights duty-bearers. The chapter summarizes the arguments and analysis on how children and their rights are treated within existing normative frameworks on business and human rights. The legalization of business duties and norms specifically related to children’s rights within that context are sketched out. Insights from the four case illustrations are used in refining and defining the need for a forward-looking proposal on duty-bearing, which concludes the chapter.
Somatization is a common phenomenon that can severely complicate youths’ functioning and health. The burden of somatization on pediatric acute care settings is currently unclear; better understanding it may address challenges clinicians experience in effectively caring for somatizing patients. In this study, we estimate the prevalence of somatization in a pediatric emergency department (ED).
We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of visits for non-critical, non-mental health-related concerns (n = 150) to a quaternary-level pediatric ED between July 2016 and August 2017. Demographic and clinical visit details were collected through chart review and used by two reviewing clinicians to classify whether each visit had a “probable,” “unclear” (possible), or “unlikely” somatizing component.
Approximately 3.33% (n = 5) of youth displayed probable somatization, and an additional 13.33% (n = 20) possibly experienced a somatizing component but require additional psychosocial and visit documentation to be certain. Longer symptom duration and multiple negative diagnostic tests were associated with a higher likelihood of either probable or possible somatization.
A considerable proportion of non-mental health-related visits may involve a somatizing component, indicating the burden of mental health concerns on the ED may be underestimated. A higher index of suspicion for the possibility of somatization may support clinicians in managing somatizing patients.
One of the most important social relationships in any community is that of parent and child. Parents and primary caregivers are typically tasked with raising their children; however, they are but one of many social agents and structures that contribute to childrens’ overall socialisation. Children’s beliefs, values and behaviours are influenced by the broader social systems in which they are raised, including social and economic ideologies. This commentary aims to build an argument based on a broad collection of literature and research, that Australia’s current variegated form of neoliberalism has the potential to create friction within the parent–child relationship, and questions about the social morality of this position are raised.
This paper compares how rules of international humanitarian law and rules of Islamic law protect children in armed conflict. It examines areas of convergence and divergence, and areas where there is room for clarification between these two legal systems. This comparative exercise spotlights four key topics marking the wartime experience of children: the unlawful recruitment and use of children by armed forces and armed groups, the detention of children, their access to education, and the situation of children separated from their families.
When children ask questions, learning may occur, a connection that has led some researchers to posit that children’s questions are a mechanism of cognitive development. There is an implicit assumption of universality in this view. Yet much of the research on this topic has been conducted in cultural settings where children’s questions are encouraged and supported. In this chapter, we discuss children’s questions as a form of social and cultural behavior. We draw on theories of language socialization to emphasize how, over development, children learn to use language in ways that are appropriate in the sociocultural setting in which they live. We describe evidence from a sample of 96 three- and five-year–old children living in four traditional communities, Garifuna (Belize), Logoli (Kenya), Newars (Nepal), and Samoans (American Samoa), that suggests there may be substantial differences across developmental contexts in children’s question-asking behavior, especially questions that seek explanation. We do not take issue with the idea that children have great curiosity about the world, a characteristic that leads them to seek out opportunities for learning. Rather, we are concerned with the form this curiosity takes and its relation to the social and cultural context of development.
Young children’s questions are ubiquitous around the world, yet question–asking and –answering are cultural practices; we must investigate cultural variation in how these practices develop rather than assume that certain practices are universal. We question an assumption in the literature that children from families of lower income or schooling have “deficits” in cognitive development. In this chapter, we critique deficit approaches and review cross–cultural studies of children’s questions within the frame of avoiding deficit assumptions. We then present findings regarding children’s questions from two studies of family conversation in different communities: a diary study of children’s spontaneous conversations about nature, and a study of parent–child conversations in a sink–and–float prediction task. In both studies, contrary to deficit ideas, we found evidence that children whose parents have lower levels of schooling showed evidence of more science–related reasoning in their questions than did those from the higher schooling group – children in the “basic schooling” group asked more explanation-seeking (not fact–seeking) questions in one study, and more conceptual (not procedural) questions in the other. Asking questions may be a cultural universal, yet our findings reveal diversity and raise questions about normativity, as well as how to define sophisticated reasoning.
Losing one's only child is a major traumatic life event that may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the underlying mechanisms of its psychological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated subregional hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) networks based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and the deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults who had lost their only child.
A total of 144 Han Chinese adults who had lost their only child (51 adults with PTSD and 93 non-PTSD adults [trauma-exposed controls]) and 50 controls without trauma exposure were included in this fMRI study (age: 40–67 years). FCs between hippocampal subdivisions (four regions in each hemisphere: cornu ammonis1 [CA1], CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus [DG]) and methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene were compared among the three groups.
Trauma-exposed adults, regardless of PTSD diagnosis, had weaker positive FC between the left hippocampal CA1, left DG, and the posterior cingulate cortex, and weaker negative FC between the right CA1, right DG, and several frontal gyri, relative to healthy controls. Compared to non-PTSD adults, PTSD adults showed decreased negative FC between the right CA1 region and the right middle/inferior frontal gyri (MFG/IFG), and decreased negative FC between the right DG and the right superior frontal gyrus and left MFG. Both trauma-exposed groups showed lower methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene.
Adults who had lost their only child may experience disrupted hippocampal network connectivity and NR3C1 methylation status, regardless of whether they have developed PTSD.
Maternal and child health are intrinsically linked. With accumulating evidence over the past two decades supporting the developmental origins of health and diseases hypothesis, it is now widely recognised that nutrition in the first 1000 d sets the foundation for long-term health. Maternal diet before, during and after pregnancy can influence the developmental pathways of the fetus and lead to health consequences later in life. While maternal and infant mortality rates have declined significantly in the past two decades, the growing burden of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases in women of reproductive age and children is on a rapid rise worldwide, in developed and developing countries. A key contributory factor is malnutrition, which is a consequence of consuming poor quality diets. Suboptimal macronutrient balance and micronutrient inadequacies can lead to undesirable maternal body composition and metabolism, in turn influencing the health of the mother and leading to longer-term metabolic and cognitive health consequences in the infant. The GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) study, a mother–offspring multi-ethnic cohort study in Singapore, has contributed to this body of evidence over the past 10 years. This review will illustrate how nutritional epidemiological research through a birth cohort has illuminated the importance and urgency of maternal and child nutrition and health in a modern, industrialised setting. It underscores the importance of a number of critical nutrients during pregnancy, in combination with healthy dietary patterns and appropriate meal timing, for optimal maternal and child health.
The double burden of overnutrition and undernutrition is rapidly becoming a public health concern in low- and middle-income countries. We explored the occurrence of mother−child pairs of over- and undernutrition and the contributing factors using the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data. A weighted sample of 7830 mother−child pairs was analysed. The children's nutritional status was determined using the WHO 2006 reference standards while maternal nutritional status was determined with BMI. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. The proportion of overweight and obese mothers was 26 % (18·8 % overweight and 7·2 % obese). The prevalence of child stunting, underweight and wasting was 26·3, 12·8 and 5·1 %, respectively. Out of the overweight/obese mothers (weighted n 2034), 20 % had stunted children, 5·4 % underweight children and 3·1 % wasted children. Overweight/obese mother−stunted child pairs and overweight/obese mother−underweight child pairs were less likely to occur in the rural areas (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0·43; P < 0·01) in comparison with those residing in the urban areas (aOR = 0·54; P = 0·01). Children aged more than 6 months were more likely to be in the double burden dyads compared with children below 6 months of age (P < 0·01). The double burden mother−child dyads were more likely to be observed in wealthier households. Mother−child double burden is a notable public health problem in Kenya. Household wealth and urban residence are determinants of the double burden. There is need for target-specific interventions to simultaneously address child undernutrition and maternal overweight/obesity.
This book begins with an introduction to the role of mental health clinicians in working with children and adolescents with presenting concerns associated with medical needs. Readers will first explore the foundational principles and theoretical underpinnings of pediatric psychological care. Following a review of the current research on these aforementioned topics, the reader will then be provided with anecdotal “golden nuggets” that provide practical tips and strategies for clinicians new to working with pediatric medical conditions, as well as an emphasis on common ethical dilemmas that may arise in this context. Readers subsequently will be provided with a sample intake template to help guide the types of questions and information that should be solicited for assistance in creating holistic treatment plans and case conceptualizations.
Studies suggest that the relationship between psychosocial well-being and type 1 diabetes (T1D) is bidirectional, with T1D typically having a negative influence on psychological functioning, which in turn negatively affects the course of T1D. Here, we investigate the potential role of the capacity for mentalizing, or reflective functioning, in children and their mothers in diabetes control. We tested differences in mentalizing as assessed by the Reflective Functioning Scale in two groups of mother–son dyads with good (GDC) versus poor (PDC) diabetes control. Fifty-five boys (8–12 years old) and their mothers were recruited from the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation in Santiago, Chile. The mothers were interviewed with the Parental Development Interview and the children with the Child Attachment Interview, and both were scored for reflective functioning by using the Reflective Functioning Scale. Self-report measures of stress and diabetes outcomes were completed by the mothers and children, and levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assessed as an index of diabetes control. The results showed that both maternal and child reflective functioning were higher in the GDC than the PDC group and were negatively correlated with HbA1c in the total sample. Our findings suggest an important role for mentalizing in diabetes outcomes, but further prospective research is needed.
Postpartum depression is common in the perinatal period and poses a risk for the development of the infant and the mother–infant relationship. Infancy is a critical developmental period of life and supportive parenting is crucial for healthy development, however, the effects of interventions aimed at improving parenting among mothers with depression are uncertain.
To assess the effects of parenting interventions on parent–child relationship and child development among mothers with depressive symptoms with 0–12-month-old infants.
We conducted a systematic review with the inclusion criteria: (a) randomised controlled trials of structured psychosocial parenting interventions for women with depressive symptoms and a child aged 0–12 months in Western Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, (b) minimum three sessions with at least half of these delivered postnatally and (c) outcomes relating to the parent–child-relationship and/or child development. Publications were extracted from 10 databases in September 2018 and supplemented with grey search and hand search. We assessed risk of bias, calculated effect sizes and conducted meta-analysis.
Eight papers representing seven trials were included. We conducted meta-analysis on the post-intervention parent–child relationship. The analysis included six studies and showed no significant effect. For individual study outcomes, no significant effects on the majority of both the parent–child relationship and child development outcomes were reported.
No evidence of the effect of parenting interventions for mothers with depressive symptoms was found on the parent–child relationship and child development. Larger studies with follow-up assessments are needed, and future reviews should examine the effects in non-Western countries.
Uganda’s touring orphan choirs engage in a form of charity that is dependent on the mobility not only of money, but also of people and sentiments. Boyd considers the moral economies that underlie this ongoing project of compassionate “circulation.” If a key finding of the work on humanitarian affect has been how such “affective surpluses” mask inequalities between donors and recipients, this article considers how participants in charitable relationships conceive of dependency and indebtedness differently. These differences compel us to understand how moral and religious sentiments give shape to the inequalities inherent in dominant forms of global humanitarian “care.”
Coronary artery fistulas are relatively rare congenital or iatrogenic heart defects that can present with or without symptoms. Symptomatic patients manifest as myocardial ischaemia, arrhythmia, or heart failure. We present a asymptomatic child with a large left anterior descending coronary artery to right ventricular fistula.
In recent years there has been increasing policy focus on keeping mature-age people engaged in the labour market. At the same time, grandparents play an important role as regular child-care providers for many families. Yet, little research has explored how grandparents negotiate these dual, often competing demands of paid employment and intergenerational care. Drawing on focus groups with 23 grandparents and an online survey of 209 grandparents providing regular child care for their grandchildren in Australia, this paper addresses this gap in the literature by examining how Australian grandparents experience and negotiate competing responsibilities as older workers and intergenerational care providers. The paper draws on the concept of gendered moral rationalities to examine the way in which grandparents’ decisions about participation in paid work are deeply embedded in idealised forms of parenting and grandparenting that are highly gendered. The paper suggests that, as the rate of both maternal and mature-age participation in the paid labour market continues to rise, inadequate attention is being paid to how time spent undertaking unpaid care is compressed, reorganised and redistributed across genders and generations as a result.