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Western values influence cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as it was primarily developed and practised in the West. As understanding the cultural context has been linked to better therapy outcomes, it has been suggested that CBT might need modification to non-Western clients’ cultural backgrounds. Previously we developed a cost-effective approach to adapt CBT for clients in China and Pakistan. In this study, we applied the same methodology for local clients suffering from depression and anxiety in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. This study aimed to understand the views of patients with depression and anxiety, caregivers and mental health professionals about CBT to develop guidelines for culturally adapting CBT for depression and anxiety. We conducted semi-structured interviews with the patients (n = 42), caregivers (n = 11), and psychiatrists and psychologists (n = 16). The data were analysed using a thematic framework analysis by identifying emerging themes and categories. The themes emerging from the analyses of interviews by each interviewer were compared and contrasted with those of other interviewers. The results highlighted barriers of access to and strengths of CBT while working with these patient groups. Patients and their caregivers in both countries use a bio-psycho-spiritual-social model of illness and seek help from multiple sources. Therapists emphasized the need for using local idioms, culturally appropriate translation and minor adjustments in therapy. There were no thematic differences between the two sites. These findings will be used to culturally adapt a CBT manual, which will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.
Key learning aims
After reading this article, readers will be able to:
(1)Understand the need for cultural adaptation of CBT.
(2)Identify the necessary steps to adapt CBT for the Muslim Arab population.
(3)Understand the modifications required to deliver culturally adapted CBT for the Muslim Arab population.
A small body of research shows that the working alliance mediates the relation between outcome expectancy and treatment response, but this model has not been applied to the treatment of social anxiety disorder. The present study tests the hypothesis that the working alliance mediates the relation between outcome expectancy and symptom improvement within a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder. A sample of 54 individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder completed eight sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy or exposure group therapy. Participants completed standardized self-report measures of outcome expectancy at the first session, of the working alliance at each session, and three measures of social anxiety symptoms at pre- and post-treatment. The working alliance did not mediate the relation between outcome expectancy and symptom improvement across time points, dependent measures, and treatment type. Bayes factors were calculated for the relation between the working alliance and symptom reduction, while controlling for outcome expectancy and therapist effects. Results were inconclusive. These null findings are intriguing and urge further study of the mechanisms through which common factors relate to treatment response. Utilization of Bayesian analyses may help to clarify the nature of these relations.
Key learning aims
(1)Readers will consider the role of common factors in treatment for social anxiety disorder.
(2)Readers will learn about how different common factors may interact with each other.
(3)Readers will be encouraged to consider how the therapeutic relationship may manifest in a unique manner in treatment for social anxiety.
Previous research has shown that psychoeducation for bipolar disorder (BD) improves symptoms and reduces relapse risk, but there is little research on how this impacts stigma, perceived recovery and views about diagnosis. The aim of this study was to explore whether a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)-based 12-week BD psychoeducation group conducted in a community mental health team for adults impacted perceived stigma, diagnosis-related self-esteem, recovery and views about diagnosis. The case series pre- and post-group had 23 participants across three groups. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, views on Manic Depression Questionnaire, Bipolar Recovery Questionnaire and author-constructed questions were completed pre and post. Twenty participants completed the group. An intent-to-treat repeated measures multiple analysis of variance showed significantly improved perceived recovery and improvements in sense of control and understanding around their diagnosis. Other specific questions such as understanding of triggers and impact of thinking patterns also improved. However, there was no change in the perceived stigma or self-esteem associated with living with BD. CBT-based psychoeducation groups may help improve perceived recovery and factors such as sense of control in BD. However, there appears to be no impact on stigma and self-esteem, and the role of non-specific factors needs to be examined further.
Key learning aims
(1)To raise awareness of the impact of stigma and self-esteem in bipolar disorder.
(2)To understand the content and structure of CBT-based psychoeducation groups.
(3)To consider the potential benefits of CBT-based psychoeducation groups beyond symptoms and relapse reduction on factors such as perceived recovery.
Cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia (CBTi) has emerged as the first-line treatment for insomnia where available. Clinical trials of digital CBTi (dCBTi) have demonstrated similar efficacy and drop-out rates to face-to-face CBTi. Most patients entering clinical trials are carefully screened to exclude other sleep disorders. This is a case series review of all those referred to a dCBTi within an 18-month time period. Those initially screened, accepted after exclusion of other sleep disorders, commencing and completing therapy were assessed to understand patient population referred from general practice in the UK. 390 patient referrals were analysed. 135 were suitable for dCBTi with a high rate of other sleep disorders detected in screening. 78 completed therapy (20.0%) and 44.9% had significant improvement in sleep outcomes, achieving ≥20% improvement in final sleep efficiency. dCBTi can be used within the UK NHS with good benefit for those who are selected as having insomnia and who then complete therapy. Many referrals are made with those likely to have distinct primary sleep disorders highlighting the need for education regarding sleep and sleep disorders prior to dCBTi therapy.
Key learning aims
(1)The use of unsupported digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (dCBTi) requires proper patient selection.
(2)There are many insomnia mimics and also previously unrecognized sleep and psychiatric disturbances that are under-diagnosed in the primary care setting that are contraindications for unsupported dCBTi.
(3)The use of a stepped care approach similar to the UK’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) model using dCBTi could be feasible in the public health setting.
The SUPEREDEN3 study, a phase II randomized controlled trial, suggests that social recovery therapy (SRT) is useful in improving functional outcomes in people with first episode psychosis. SRT incorporates cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques with case management and employment support, and therefore has a different emphasis to traditional CBT for psychosis, requiring a new adherence tool.
This paper describes the SRT adherence checklist and content of the therapy delivered in the SUPEREDEN3 trial, outlining the frequency of SRT techniques and proportion of participants who received a full therapy dose. It was hypothesized that behavioural techniques would be used frequently, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of SRT.
Research therapists completed an adherence checklist after each therapy session, endorsing elements of SRT present. Data from 1236 therapy sessions were reviewed to determine whether participants received full, partial or no therapy dose.
Of the 75 participants randomized to receive SRT, 57.3% received a full dose, 24% a partial dose, and 18.7% received no dose. Behavioural techniques were endorsed in 50.5% of sessions, with cognitive techniques endorsed in 34.9% of sessions.
This report describes an adherence checklist which should be used when delivering SRT in both research and clinical practice. As hypothesized, behavioural techniques were a prominent feature of the SRT delivered in SUPEREDEN3, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of the approach. The use of this adherence tool would be considered essential for anyone delivering SRT looking to ensure adherence to the model.
Insomnia disorder in adolescence is prevalent, persistent and associated with adverse outcomes, including reduced quality of life. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) has shown promise as an effective treatment for adolescents. Recent research has highlighted the role of emotion regulation in insomnia, suggesting that the inclusion of emotion regulation techniques may enhance CBT-i.
To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a CBT-i treatment program for insomnia in early adolescence, augmented with emotion regulation strategies, using a case-series design.
Three participants (mean 11.67 years) completed the program that consisted of seven, weekly individual therapy sessions and parental participation. Participants monitored their sleep daily during the intervention, and insomnia diagnostic status and severity, use of emotion regulation strategies and quality of life were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-week follow-up.
At post-treatment, none of the participants met criteria for insomnia and all reported statistically reliable reductions in symptoms. Improvements were maintained at follow-up for two participants. Sleep onset latency was reduced and improvements in quality of life were evident. There were no changes in the use of emotion regulation strategies following treatment. Adolescents and parents reported high program satisfaction.
This preliminary evaluation provides support for the effectiveness of the CBT-i program tested. However, given that emotion regulation did not change and yet improvements in sleep were evident, the usefulness of augmenting the program with emotion regulation strategies requires further evaluation.
Very little clinical work or research to date has focused on the prioritization of suicidal imagery intervention in the stabilization of risk. Current Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP) does not specifically address suicidal imagery as a priority intervention. This paper prioritizes imagery modification as the central task of therapy with the suicidal client. This is a single subject case review describing specific imagery interventions used to destabilize the comforting component of suicidal images, de-glamourize the suicidal image as a problem-solving method and the reconstruction of new images to offset the emotional grasp of both ‘flash-forward’ violent suicidal images and suicidal ‘daydreaming’ rumination. It is hypothesized that when suicidal images become less emotionally charged, the desire to act upon suicide decreases. Focusing on imagery intervention as a priority aims to stabilize risk in a more clinically specific and targeted way. Rob is a 19-year-old depressed young man with chronic suicidal ideation/images with repeated suicide attempts. All GP referrals are of a crisis nature since the age of 16. He was referred to a CBT clinician with specific training and experience in CBT-SP who proposed the following brief imagery intervention. Socialization to treatment rationale was pivotal at the outset to help facilitate strong therapeutic alliance, ‘buy-in’ to the intended de-glamourization of suicide planning/daydreaming/rumination and the effects of intrusive ‘flash-forward’ images on emotional well-being. Therapy was facilitated weekly, supported by telephone contact, on an out-patient basis in the HSE (Health Service Executive) Irish Adult Mental Health service. The care plan and interventions were supported by access to the 24-hour acute Adult Mental Health services, as required. There was no requirement for direct client engagement with the acute services. Rob engaged with five treatments of CBT-SP imagery intervention and full stabilization of risk to self by suicide was achieved. At the time of writing, Rob is alive, has no engagement with the services and no further GP referral requests for intervention. Despite Rob leaving therapy before full completion, brief targeted suicidal imagery intervention was observed to stabilize the risk of suicidal behaviour. This young man has completed his schooling, engaged in ‘life’ planning rather than ‘death’ planning and has not required further intervention from this service. Further research is required to engage frontline clinicians on the merits of suicidal imagery assessment in routine clinical practice.
Key learning aims
(1)To assess for imagery and violent day dreaming in suicidal patients.
(2)Conceptualizing suicidal rumination and daydreaming as being a maladaptive problem-solving technique in overcoming psychological pain.
(3)Use of suicide-specific assessment.
(4)Ask about the presence of suicidal imagery as part of routine mental health assessment with the suicidal client.
Post-traumatic stress but also aggressive attitudes and behaviour can be found in adolescents living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence in the low-income urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa.
We investigated the long-term effects (15–20 months after therapy) of (a) Narrative Exposure Therapy for Forensic Offender Rehabilitation (FORNET) and (b) the cognitive behavioural intervention ‘Thinking for a Change’ (CBT) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and aggression compared with a waiting list.
Fifty-four young males participated in the treatment trial, of which 17 completed the FORNET intervention, 11 the CBT intervention, and 26 were on a waiting list. The primary outcome was the change score for the Appetitive Aggression Scale; secondary outcomes were the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview change scores, and the number of perpetrated violent event types.
The reduction in scores for PTSD that had been observed in FORNET completers at the first follow-up were still significant at the second long-term follow-up (Cohen’s d = 0.86). In this treatment arm (FORNET), the scores for appetitive aggression were also significantly reduced (Cohen’s d = 1.00). There were no significant changes observed for CBT or for the waiting list.
The study indicates that FORNET can successfully reduce post-traumatic stress as well as the attraction to violence even for individuals living under conditions of continuous traumatic stress.
Transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy (T-CBT) provides potential for improving psychotherapy services in countries with limited resources. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential benefits of using T-CBT in Saudi Arabia to treat adult emotional disorders in a naturalistic open trial. A secondary aim was to measure the effect of this approach when delivered by junior psychologists as a low-intensity intervention. The overall sample consisted of 198 patients (160 in the low-intensity group). Only 33 (16.7%) patients had completed the treatment plan, 55 (27.3%) were still active in treatment, and 109 (55%) had disengaged from the treatment. The pre- and post-assessments for the clients who completed the treatment showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures. This result held true for the whole sample and the low-intensity group. This study provides initial evidence that T-CBT is suitable for clients with emotional disorders in Saudi Arabia. The study also provides support for the effect of T-CBT as a low-intensity intervention delivered by junior psychologists. However, one of the study limitations was the sample size for the group who completed the treatment and was properly discharged from service. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
Key learning aims
(1)To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of using T-CBT in Saudi Arabia.
(2)To measure the effect of T-CBT as low-intensity interventions delivered by junior psychologists.
(3)To establish evidence-based practice for T-CBT in Saudi Arabia.
‘DISCOVER’ one-day cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) workshops have been developed to provide accessible, developmentally sensitive psychological support for older adolescents experiencing emotional difficulties. Previous school-based evaluations of the DISCOVER model have shown positive outcomes.
The current study aimed to test the model for clinically referred adolescents, in real-world settings.
A randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessed feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcomes of the DISCOVER intervention, in comparison with usual care, for 15- to 18-year-olds with emotional difficulties. Participants were recruited from outpatient clinic waiting lists in UK child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). Research feasibility indicators included rates of recruitment, randomization, intervention participation (group workshops and individualized follow-up telephone calls), and data collection (at baseline and 8-week follow-up). Intervention acceptability was assessed using a structured service satisfaction questionnaire and semi-structured qualitative interviews with intervention participants. Preliminary clinical outcomes were explored using adolescent-reported validated measures of depression, anxiety and well-being.
n = 24 participants were randomized to intervention and usual care groups. Workshop attendance was good and high levels of treatment satisfaction were reported, although feasibility challenges emerged in recruitment and randomization. Trends were found towards potential improvements in anxiety and well-being for the intervention group, but the effect estimate for depression was imprecise; interpretability was also limited due to the small sample size.
DISCOVER appears to be a feasible and acceptable intervention model for clinically referred 15- to 18-year-olds with emotional difficulties. A full-scale RCT is warranted to evaluate effectiveness; protocol modifications may be necessary to ensure feasible recruitment and randomization procedures.
Previous research suggests that CBT focusing on worry in those with persecutory delusions reduces paranoia, severity of delusions and associated distress. This preliminary case series aimed to see whether it is feasible and acceptable to deliver worry-focused CBT in a group setting to those with psychosis. A secondary aim was to examine possible clinical changes. Two groups totalling 11 participants were run for seven sessions using the Worry Intervention Trial manual. Qualitative and quantitative data about the experience of being in the group was also collected via questionnaires, as was data on number of sessions attended. Measures were delivered pre- and post-group and at 3-month follow-up. These included a worry scale, a measure of delusional belief and associated distress and quality of life measures. Of the 11 participants who started the group, nine completed the group. Qualitative and quantitative feedback indicated that most of the participants found it acceptable and helpful, and that discussing these issues in a group setting was not only tolerable but often beneficial. Reliable Change Index indicated that 6/7 of the group members showed reliable reductions in their levels of worry post-group and 5/7 at follow-up. There were positive changes on other measures, which appeared to be more pronounced at follow-up. Delivering a worry intervention in a group format appears to be acceptable and feasible. Further research with a larger sample and control group is indicated to test the clinical effectiveness of this intervention.
Key learning aims
(1)To understand the role of worry in psychosis.
(2)To learn about the possible feasibility of working on worry in a group setting.
(3)To be aware of potential clinical changes from the group.
(4)To consider acceptability for participants of working on worries in a group setting.
Conversations around improving access to psychological therapies for BAME (Black, Asian and minority ethnic) service users have been ongoing for many years without any conclusion or resolution. BAME service users are often under-represented in primary care mental health services, and often have worse outcomes, leading to them being portrayed as ‘hard to reach’, and to deterioration in their mental health. They are over-represented in secondary care mental health services. The authors of this article argue that more resources are required in order to understand the barriers to accessing mental health services, and improve both access and recovery for BAME service users. This paper examines concepts such as race, ethnicity and culture. It aims to support service managers and therapists to develop their confidence to address these issues in order to deliver culturally competent psychological therapies to service users from BAME communities, with a focus on primary care. It is based on our experiences of working with BAME communities and the feedback from our training events on developing cultural competence for CBT therapists. The paper also discusses the current political climate and the impact it may have on service users and the need for therapists to take the wider political context into consideration when working with BAME service users. Finally, the paper stresses the importance of addressing structural inequalities at a service level, and developing stronger ethical guidelines in the area of working with diversity for CBT therapists in the UK.
Key learning aims
(1)To examine concepts such as race, ethnicity and culture and to provide a shared understanding of these terms for CBT therapists.
(2)To assist CBT therapists and supervisors to develop their confidence in addressing issues of race, ethnicity and culture with BAME service users within the current political climate and to deliver culturally competent therapy.
(3)To assist service managers to promote equality of access and of outcomes for service users from BAME communities.
(4)To understand how unequal expectations of therapists in services impacts on CBT therapists from BAME communities.
(5)To widen understanding of some of the structural inequalities at service level which the CBT community needs to overcome, including recommending stronger ethical guidelines around working with diversity in the UK.
Research suggests that paranoia and social anxiety can be understood as part of the same continuum, having shared processes such as the anticipation of threat, cognitive biases, poor self-concept, worry and safety-seeking behaviours. There is limited research on whether evidence-based interventions for social anxiety could be used with individuals who experience paranoia; however, an existing brief intervention study using techniques taken from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for social anxiety has had promising results.
This paper uses a single-case experimental design to explore whether using a clinical model of the maintenance of paranoia followed by CBT for social anxiety can be an effective formulation and intervention method in cases where social anxiety processes appear to be maintaining paranoid thoughts. This may be an effective formulation and intervention method, resulting in a reduction in anxiety and a reduction in the distress associated with paranoid thoughts. The clinical implications are discussed along with limitations and recommendations for further research.
Key learning aims
(1)To describe shared processes in social anxiety and paranoia.
(2)To identify the benefits and limitations of using a clinical model of paranoia and CBT for social anxiety for formulation and intervention with individuals experiencing paranoia.
(3)To identify areas where further research is warranted in treatment for individuals experiencing paranoia.
The cognitive restructuring of maladaptive beliefs within many cognitive behavioural psychotherapies typically encourages the client to undertake self-reflection. However, whilst self-consciousness can aid self-regulation, it is also implicated in a broad Grange of psychopathologies. The extent to which self-consciousness is associated with psychological distress is yet to be fully determined, but recent literature suggests that irrational beliefs, as proposed within rational emotive behaviour theory (REBT) may play an important role.
The aim of the study was to test the mediational effects of self-consciousness, specifically reflection and rumination, on the relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. Based on past research, it was hypothesized that reflection and rumination would mediate the positive relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. We expected irrational beliefs to interact with rumination to positively predict psychological distress, and irrational beliefs to interact with reflection to negatively predict psychological distress.
The present research tested a structural equation model (SEM) in which rumination and reflection mediated the relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress.
Results indicated that rumination mediates the positive relationship between irrational beliefs and psychological distress. However, in contrast to our hypotheses, significant mediation did not emerge for reflection.
This study is the first to show how irrational beliefs and rumination interact to predict psychopathology using advanced statistical techniques. However, future research is needed to determine whether similar mediational effects are evident with rational beliefs as opposed to irrational beliefs.
We sought to investigate situation-specific inflated sense of responsibility and explanatory style in social anxiety disorder (SAD) according to the cognitive model. Participants aged 17–68 years (mean = 31.9, SD = 11.1) included waiting list patients referred to a primary care mental health service for cognitive behavioural therapy for SAD (n = 18) and non-anxious control participants (n = 65). A battery of psychometric measures, including a bespoke measure of responsibility beliefs, was used. Compared with controls, participants with SAD were more likely to demonstrate an inflated sense of responsibility (p ≤ 0.001), and to adopt a negative explanatory style specific to social interaction (p ≤ 0.01). Inflated sense of responsibility was found to correlate with SAD symptomatology (r = 0.47, p ≤ 0.05), and with increased usage of safety behaviours (r = 0.47, p ≤ 0.05). Caseness (β = 1.45, p ≤ 0.01) and stability of causal attribution (β = 0.25, p ≤ 0.001) were found to predict inflated responsibility in our sample. To our knowledge this study represents the first attempt to investigate inflated responsibility within the context of SAD. Our results support the notion of inflated responsibility as a feature of SAD.
Key learning aims
(1)To understand the cognitive behavioural components of Clark and Wells’ model of SAD, and their bi-directional nature.
(2)To understand what the term ‘inflated sense of responsibility’ refers to, and how it relates to CBT.
(3)To understand what the term ‘explanatory style’ refers to, and how this concept can also relate to CBT.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective psychological treatment for major depressive disorder, although some patients experience a return of symptoms after finishing therapy. The ability to predict which individuals are more vulnerable to deterioration would allow for targeted interventions to prevent short-term relapse and longer-term recurrence.
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify factors associated with an increased risk of relapse and/or recurrence (RR) after CBT for depression.
We reviewed 13 relevant papers, of which a small set of unique samples were eligible for meta-analysis (k = 5, N = 369). Twenty-six predictor variables were identified and grouped into seven categories: residual depressive symptoms; prior episodes of depression; cognitive reactivity; stressful life events; personality factors; clinical and diagnostic factors; demographics.
Meta-analyses indicated that residual depressive symptoms (r = 0.34 [0.10, 0.54], p = .01) and prior episodes (r = 0.19 [0.07, 0.30], p = .002) were statistically significant predictors of RR, but cognitive reactivity was not (r = 0.18 [−0.02, 0.36], p = .08). Other variables lacked replicated findings. On average, 33.4% of patients experienced RR after CBT.
Patients with the above risk factors could be offered evidence-based continuation-phase interventions to enhance the longer-term effectiveness of CBT.
The principles of the Armed Forces Covenant state that Armed Forces Veterans should be at no disadvantage resulting from their service compared with a general adult population. However, despite being at increased risk of experiencing common mental health difficulties, evidence indicates that 82% of Armed Forces Veterans receive no treatment, compared with 63% of the general adult population.
To gain a better appreciation of factors that inform the type of adaptations to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions for depression and mainstream service promotion materials to enhance acceptability for Armed Forces Veterans.
This is a qualitative study employing a focus group of 12 participants to examine the main impacts of depression on Armed Forces Veterans alongside attitudes towards terminology and visual imagery. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes and sub-themes with rigour established through two researchers independently developing thematic maps to inform a final agreed thematic map.
A behavioural activation intervention supporting re-engagement with activities to overcome depression had good levels of acceptability when adapted to reflect an Armed Forces culture. Preferences regarding terminology commonly used within CBT adapted for Armed Forces Veterans were identified. Concerns were expressed with respect to using imagery that emphasized physical rather than mental health difficulties.
There is the need to consider the Armed Forces community as a specific institutional culture when developing CBT approaches with potential to enhance engagement, completion and recovery rates. Results have potential to inform the practice of CBT with Armed Forces Veterans and future research.
Kleptomania is a disease that shares features with obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCD) and with substance abuse disorders (SAD). This is underlined by therapeutic approaches in kleptomania ranging from cognitive behavioural therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that are effective in OCD, and opioid antagonists that are currently being used in SAD. However, almost no literature exists about exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy in kleptomania. Furthermore, there is a clear lack of objective markers that would allow a therapeutic monitoring.
To show the effectiveness of ERP therapy in kleptomania in a single case report.
An ERP therapy under real-world conditions and later augmentation with the opioid antagonist naltrexone is described. Continuous measurements of galvanic skin response (GSR) before, during and after therapy sessions are reported in association with changes of the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (KSAS) self-questionnaire.
While KSAS scores showed a clear treatment response to ERP sessions, the GSR was significantly lower during ERP treatment in comparison with baseline measures. However, during augmentation with naltrexone, GSR measures increased again and clinical severity did not further improve.
This case shows the possible usefulness of ERP-like approaches and therapy monitoring using electrophysiological markers of arousal for individualized treatment in kleptomania.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but predictors of treatment outcome are lacking, and little is known about its neural mechanisms. We recently identified longitudinal changes in neural correlates of conscious emotion regulation that scaled with clinical responses to CBT for MDD, using a negative autobiographical memory-based task.
We now examine the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during viewing of emotionally salient images as predictors of treatment outcome with CBT for MDD, and the relationship between longitudinal change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses and clinical outcomes. Thirty-two participants with current MDD underwent baseline MRI scanning followed by 14 sessions of CBT. The fMRI task measured emotional reactivity and emotion regulation on separate trials using standardized images from the International Affective Pictures System. Twenty-one participants completed post-treatment scanning. Last observation carried forward was used to estimate clinical outcome for non-completers.
Pre-treatment emotional reactivity Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal within hippocampus including CA1 predicted worse treatment outcome. In contrast, better treatment outcome was associated with increased down-regulation of BOLD activity during emotion regulation from time 1 to time 2 in precuneus, occipital cortex, and middle frontal gyrus.
CBT may modulate the neural circuitry of emotion regulation. The neural correlates of emotional reactivity may be more strongly predictive of CBT outcome. The finding that treatment outcome was predicted by BOLD signal in CA1 may suggest overgeneralized memory as a negative prognostic factor in CBT outcome.
Recently there have been a number of developments in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) that have led to cultural adaptations of specific interventions and a greater awareness of how in general CBT might be adapted for Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) service users. These developments, however, involve change at the level of the individual therapist and particular treatment approach, but involve very few considerations of what needs to happen at the levels of teams or services in order to best meet the mental health needs of British South Asian and other BME populations. This paper summarizes the way that services need to understand how minority populations use services and how to involve those populations in developing services in order to ensure their needs are best met.