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We study experimentally the motion and deformation of individual capsules transported by a constant volume-flux flow of low Reynolds number, through the T-junction of a channel with rectangular cross-section. We use millimetric ovalbumin-alginate capsules which we characterise independently of the flow experiment. Centred capsules travel at constant velocity down the straight channel leading to the T-junction, where they decelerate and expand in the spanwise direction before turning into one of the two identical daughter channels. There, non-inertial lift forces act to re-centre them and relax their shape until they reach a steady state of propagation. We find that the dynamics of fixed-size capsules within our channel geometry is governed by a capillary number
defined as the ratio of viscous shear forces to elastic restoring forces, which we quantify by statically compressing the capsule between parallel plates to 50 % of its initial diameter, in order to account for different membrane thickness, pre-inflation and nonlinear elastic deformation. We show that the maximum extension in the T-junction of capsules of different stiffness collapses onto a master curve in
. This provides a sensitive measure of the relative stiffness of capsules at constant flow rate, particularly for softer capsules. We also find that the T-junction can sort fixed-size capsules according to their stiffness because the position in the T-junction from which capsules are entrained into the daughter channel depends uniquely on
. We demonstrate that a T-junction can be used as a sorting device by enhancing this initial capsule separation through a diffuser.
We present a numerical analysis of the rheology of a suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) in a wall-bounded shear flow. The flow is assumed as almost inertialess. The suspension of RBCs, modelled as biconcave capsules whose membrane follows the Skalak constitutive law, is simulated for a wide range of viscosity ratios between the cytoplasm and plasma,
–10, for volume fractions up to
and for different capillary numbers (
). Our numerical results show that an RBC at low
tends to orient to the shear plane and exhibits so-called rolling motion, a stable mode with higher intrinsic viscosity than the so-called tumbling motion. As
increases, the mode shifts from the rolling to the swinging motion. Hydrodynamic interactions (higher volume fraction) also allow RBCs to exhibit tumbling or swinging motions resulting in a drop of the intrinsic viscosity for dilute and semi-dilute suspensions. Because of this mode change, conventional ways of modelling the relative viscosity as a polynomial function of
cannot be simply applied in suspensions of RBCs at low volume fractions. The relative viscosity for high volume fractions, however, can be well described as a function of an effective volume fraction, defined by the volume of spheres of radius equal to the semi-middle axis of a deformed RBC. We find that the relative viscosity successfully collapses on a single nonlinear curve independently of
except for the case with
, where the fit works only in the case of low/moderate volume fraction, and fails in the case of a fully dense suspension.
Fluid deformable surfaces are ubiquitous in cell and tissue biology, including lipid bilayers, the actomyosin cortex or epithelial cell sheets. These interfaces exhibit a complex interplay between elasticity, low Reynolds number interfacial hydrodynamics, chemistry and geometry, and govern important biological processes such as cellular traffic, division, migration or tissue morphogenesis. To address the modelling challenges posed by this class of problems, in which interfacial phenomena tightly interact with the shape and dynamics of the surface, we develop a general continuum mechanics and computational framework for fluid deformable surfaces. The dual solid–fluid nature of fluid deformable surfaces challenges classical Lagrangian or Eulerian descriptions of deforming bodies. Here, we extend the notion of arbitrarily Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulations, well-established for bulk media, to deforming surfaces. To systematically develop models for fluid deformable surfaces, which consistently treat all couplings between fields and geometry, we follow a nonlinear Onsager formalism according to which the dynamics minimizes a Rayleighian functional where dissipation, power input and energy release rate compete. Finally, we propose new computational methods, which build on Onsager’s formalism and our ALE formulation, to deal with the resulting stiff system of higher-order partial differential equations. We apply our theoretical and computational methodology to classical models for lipid bilayers and the cell cortex. The methods developed here allow us to formulate/simulate these models in their full three-dimensional generality, accounting for finite curvatures and finite shape changes.
We develop a new boundary integral method for solving the coupled electro- and hydrodynamics of vesicle suspensions in Stokes flow. This relies on a well-conditioned boundary integral equation formulation for the leaky-dielectric model describing the electric response of the vesicles and an efficient numerical solver capable of handling highly deflated vesicles. Our method is applied to explore vesicle electrohydrodynamics in three cases. First, we study the classical prolate–oblate–prolate transition dynamics observed upon application of a uniform DC electric field. We discover that, in contrast to the squaring previously found with nearly spherical vesicles, highly deflated vesicles tend to form buds. Second, we illustrate the capabilities of the method by quantifying the electrorheology of a dilute vesicle suspension. Finally, we investigate the pairwise interactions of vesicles and find three different responses when the key parameters are varied: (i) chain formation, where they self-assemble to form a chain that is aligned along the field direction; (ii) circulatory motion, where they rotate about each other; (iii) oscillatory motion, where they form a chain but oscillate about each other. The last two are unique to vesicles and are not observed in the case of other soft particle suspensions such as drops.
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial diarrhoea worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the association between C. jejuni capsule types and clinical signs and symptoms of diarrhoeal disease in a well-defined birth cohort in Peru. Children were enrolled in the study at birth and followed until 2 years of age as part of the Malnutrition and Enteric Infections birth cohort. Associations between capsule type and clinical outcomes were assessed using the Pearson's χ2 and the Kruskal–Wallis test statistics. A total of 318 C. jejuni samples (30% from symptomatic cases) were included in this analysis. There were 22 different C. jejuni capsule types identified with five accounting for 49.1% of all isolates. The most common capsule types among the total number of isolates were HS4 complex (n = 52, 14.8%), HS5/31 complex (n = 42, 11.9%), HS15 (n = 29, 8.2%), HS2 (n = 26, 7.4%) and HS10 (n = 24, 6.8%). These five capsule types accounted for the majority of C. jejuni infections; however, there was no significant difference in prevalence between symptomatic and asymptomatic infection (all p > 0.05). The majority of isolates (n = 291, 82.7%) were predicted to express a heptose-containing capsule. The predicted presence of methyl phosphoramidate, heptose or deoxyheptose on the capsule was common.
In the microcirculation, a plasma layer forms near the vessel walls that is free of red blood cells (RBCs). This region, often termed as the cell-free layer (CFL), plays important haemorheological and biophysical roles, and has been the subject of extensive research. Many previous studies have considered the CFL development in single, isolated vessels that are straight tubes or channels, as well as in isolated bifurcations and mergers. In the body, blood vessels are typically winding and sequentially bifurcate into smaller vessels or merge to form larger vessels. Because of this geometric complexity, the CFL in vivo is three-dimensional (3D) and asymmetric, unlike in fully developed flow in straight tubes. The three-dimensionality of the CFL as it develops in a vascular network, and the underlying hydrodynamic mechanisms, are not well understood. Using a high-fidelity model of cellular-scale blood flow in microvascular networks with in vivo-like topologies, we present a detailed analysis of the fully 3D and asymmetric nature of the CFL in such networks. We show that the CFL significantly varies over different aspects of the networks. Along the vessel lengths, such variations are predominantly non-monotonic, which indicates that the CFL profiles do not simply become more symmetric over the length as they would in straight vessels. We show that vessel tortuosity causes the CFL to become more asymmetric along the length. We specifically identify a curvature-induced migration of the RBCs as the underlying mechanism of increased asymmetry in curved vessels. The vascular bifurcations and mergers are also seen to change the CFL profiles, and in the majority of them the CFL becomes more asymmetric. For most bifurcations, this is generally observed to occur such that the CFL downstream narrows on the side of the vessel nearest the upstream bifurcation, and widens on the other side. The 3D aspects of such behaviour are elucidated. For many bifurcations, a discrepancy exists between the CFL in the daughter vessels, which arises from a disproportionate partitioning between the flow rate and RBC flux. For most mergers, the downstream CFL narrows in the plane of the merger, but widens away from this plane. The dominant mechanism by which such changes occur is identified as the geometric focusing of the two merging streams. To our knowledge, this work provides the first simulation-based analysis of the 3D CFL structure in complex in vivo-like microvascular networks, including the hydrodynamic origins of the observed behaviour.
An exhaustive description of the dynamics under shear flow of a large number of red blood cells in a dilute regime is proposed, which highlights and takes into account the dispersion in cell properties within a given blood sample. Physiological suspending fluid viscosity is considered, a configuration surprisingly seldom considered in experimental studies, as well as a more viscous fluid that is a reference in the literature. Stable and unstable flipping motions well described by Jeffery orbits or modified Jeffery orbits are identified, as well as transitions to and from tank-treading motion in the more viscous suspending fluid case. Hysteresis loops upon shear rate increase or decrease are highlighted for the transitions between unstable and stable orbits as well as for the transition between flipping and tank-treading. We identify which of the characteristic parameters of motion and of the transition thresholds depend on flow stress only or also on suspending fluid viscosity.
The relative velocity and extra pressure drop of a single vesicle flowing through a square microchannel are quantified via boundary element simulations, lubrication theory and microfluidic experiments. The vesicle is modelled as a fluid sac enclosed by an inextensible, fluidic membrane with a negligible bending stiffness. All results are parametrized in terms of the vesicle sphericity (i.e. the reduced volume) and flow confinement (i.e. the ratio of the vesicle radius to the channel hydraulic radius). Direct comparison is made to previous studies of vesicle flow through circular tubes, revealing several distinct features of the square-channel geometry. Firstly, fluid in the suspending medium bypasses the vesicle through the corners of the channel, which in turn reduces the dissipation created by the vesicle. Secondly, the absence of rotational symmetry about the channel axis permits surface circulation in the membrane (tank treading), which in turn reduces the vesicle’s speed. At very high confinement, both theory and experiment indicate that the vesicle’s speed can be reduced below the mean speed of the suspending fluid through this mechanism. Finally, the contact area for lubrication is greatly reduced in the square-duct geometry, which in turn weakens the stress singularity predicted by lubrication theory. This fact directly leads to a breakdown of the lubrication approximation at low flow confinement, as verified by comparison to boundary element simulations. Since the only distinct property assumed of the membrane is its ability to preserve surface area locally, it is expected that the results of this study are applicable to other types of soft particles with immobilized surfaces (e.g. Pickering droplets, gel beads and biological cells).
The margination and adhesion of micro-particles (MPs) have been extensively investigated separately, due to their important applications in the biomedical field. However, the cascade process from margination to adhesion should play an important role in the transport of MPs in blood flow. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been explored in the past. Here we numerically study the margination behaviour of elastic MPs to blood vessel walls under the interplay of their deformability and adhesion to the vessel wall. We use the lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics to solve the fluid dynamics and particle dynamics (including red blood cells (RBCs) and elastic MPs) in blood flow, respectively. Additionally, a stochastic ligand–receptor binding model is employed to capture the adhesion behaviours of elastic MPs on the vessel wall. Margination probability is used to quantify the localization of elastic MPs at the wall. Two dimensionless numbers are considered to govern the whole process: the capillary number
, denoting the ratio of viscous force of fluid flow to elastic interfacial force of MP, and the adhesion number
, representing the ratio of adhesion strength to viscous force of fluid flow. We systematically vary them numerically and a margination probability contour is obtained. We find that there exist two optimal regimes favouring high margination probability on the plane
. The first regime, namely region I, is that with high adhesion strength and moderate particle stiffness; the other one, region II, has moderate adhesion strength and large particle stiffness. We conclude that the existence of optimal regimes is governed by the interplay of particle deformability and adhesion strength. The corresponding underlying mechanism is also discussed in detail. There are three major factors that contribute to the localization of MPs: (i) near-wall hydrodynamic collision between RBCs and MPs; (ii) deformation-induced migration due to the presence of the wall; and (iii) adhesive interaction between MPs and the wall. Mechanisms (i) and (iii) promote margination, while (ii) hampers margination. These three factors perform different roles and compete against each other when MPs are located in different regions of the flow channel, i.e. near-wall region. In optimal region I, adhesion outperforms deformation-induced migration; and in region II, the deformation-induced migration is small compared to the coupling of near-wall hydrodynamic collision and adhesion. The finding of optimal regimes can help the understanding of localization of elastic MPs at the wall under the adhesion effect in blood flow. More importantly, our results suggest that softer MP or stronger adhesion is not always the best choice for the localization of MPs.
Natural (red blood cells) and artificial biconcave-discoid-shaped capsules have immense biological (a cellular component of blood) and technological (as drug carrier) relevance, respectively. Their low reduced volume allows significant shape changes under external fields such as extensional flows (encountered at junctions and size-varying capillaries in biological flows) and electric fields (in applications such as electroporation and dielectrophoresis). This work demonstrates biconcave-discoid to capped-cylindrical and prolate-spheroid shape transitions of a capsule in uniaxial extensional flow as well as in DC and AC electric fields. The shape changes of a stress-free biconcave-discoid capsule in external fields are important in determining the momentum and mass transfer between the capsule and the medium fluid as well as dielectrophoresis and electroporation phenomena of a capsule in an electric field. The biconcave-discoid to capped-cylindrical/prolate-spheroid shape transition is demonstrated for both a capsule (with parameters relevant to drug delivery) as well as for a red blood cell (physiological conditions). However, significant differences are observed in this shape transition depending upon the applied external fields. In an extensional flow, the pressure-driven transition shows the equator being squeezed in and the poles being pulled out to deform into a capped cylinder at low capillary number and a prolate spheroid at high capillary number. On the other hand, in the transition driven by electric fields, the shoulders of the capsule seem to play a significant role in the dynamics. The shape transition in the electric fields depends upon the relative magnitude of the electric and the hydrodynamic response times, particularly relevant for the dynamics of red blood cells in physiological conditions. A new method of analysing the shape transition of red blood cells in AC electric fields is suggested, where a large separation of time scales is observed between the hydrodynamic and electric responses.
Mannheimia haemolytica is the major cause of severe pneumonia in bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Early M. haemolytica bacterins were either ineffective or even enhanced disease in vaccinated cattle, which led to studies of the bacterium's virulence factors and potential immunogens to determine ways to improve vaccines. Studies have focused on the capsule, lipopolysaccharide, various adhesins, extracellular enzymes, outer membrane proteins, and leukotoxin (LKT) resulting in a strong database for understanding immune responses to the bacterium and production of more efficacious vaccines. The importance of immunity to LKT and to surface antigens in stimulating immunity led to studies of individual native or recombinant antigens, bacterial extracts, live-attenuated or mutant organisms, culture supernatants, combined bacterin-toxoids, outer membrane vesicles, and bacterial ghosts. Efficacy of several of these potential vaccines can be shown following experimental M. haemolytica challenge; however, efficacy in field trials is harder to determine due to the complexity of factors and etiologic agents involved in naturally occurring BRD. Studies of potential vaccines have led current commercial vaccines, which are composed primarily of culture supernatant, bacterin-toxoid, or live mutant bacteria. Several of those can be augmented experimentally by addition of recombinant LKT or outer membrane proteins.
Minimally invasive surgery is a developing direction of modern medicine. With the successful development of controllable capsule endoscopies, capsule robots are very popular in the field of gastrointestinal medicine. At present, the study of intestinal robots is aimed at the pipeline environment of a single-phase liquid flow. But there exist food residues (i.e. solid particles) or liquid foods in the actual intestine, so intestinal fluid should be liquid–solid or liquid–liquid two-phase mixed fluid. For inner spiral capsule robots with different internal diameters and outer spiral capsule robots, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the operational performance indicators (i.e. axial thrust force, circumferential resisting moment and maximum pressure to pipeline wall) of spiral capsule robots are numerically calculated in the liquid–solid or liquid–liquid two-phase mixed fluid. By the orthogonal experimental optimization method, the optimum design of spiral capsule robots is obtained in the liquid–solid mixed fluid. The experimental verification has been also carried out. The results show that in the liquid–solid two-phase fluid, the axial thrust force and circumferential resisting moment of the spiral capsule robots decrease with the increase of the size or concentration of solid particles. In the same liquid–solid or liquid–liquid mixed fluid, the operational performance indicators of outer spiral robots are much higher than those of inner spiral robots, and the operational performance indicators of inner spiral robots with bigger internal diameters are higher than those with smaller internal diameters. Adding solid particles of high concentration in the pipeline containing liquid will reduce the drive performance of spiral capsule robots, but adding another liquid of high viscosity will improve the drive performance of spiral capsule robots.
Observations in experiments and simulations show that the kinematic behaviour of an elastic capsule, suspended and rotating in shear flow, depends upon the flow strength, the capsule membrane material properties and its at-rest shape. We develop a linear stability description of the periodically rotating base state of this coupled system, as represented by a boundary integral flow formulation with spherical harmonic basis functions describing the elastic capsule geometry. This yields Floquet multipliers that classify the stability of the capsule motion for elastic capillary numbers
to 5. Viscous dissipation rapidly damps most perturbations. However, for all cases, a single component grows or decays slowly, depending upon
, over many periods of the rotation. The transitions in this stability behaviour correspond to the different classes of rotating motion observed in previous studies.
The inertialess motion of lipid-bilayer vesicles flowing through a circular tube is investigated via direct numerical simulation and lubrication theory. A fully three-dimensional boundary integral equation method, previously used to study unbounded and wall-bounded Stokes flows around freely suspended vesicles, is extended to study the hindered mobility of vesicles through conduits of arbitrary cross-section. This study focuses on the motion of a periodic train of vesicles positioned concentrically inside a circular tube, with particular attention given to the effects of tube confinement, vesicle deformation and membrane bending elasticity. When the tube diameter is comparable to the transverse dimension of the vesicle, axisymmetric lubrication theory provides an approximate solution to the full Stokes-flow problem. By combining the present numerical results with a previously reported asymptotic theory (Barakat & Shaqfeh, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 835, 2018, pp. 721–761), useful correlations are developed for the vesicle velocity
and extra pressure drop
. When bending elasticity is relatively weak, these correlations are solely functions of the geometry of the system (independent of the imposed flow rate). The prediction of Barakat & Shaqfeh (2018) supplies the correct limiting behaviour of
near maximal confinement, whereas the present study extends this result to all regimes of confinement. Vesicle–vesicle interactions, shape transitions induced by symmetry breaking, and unsteadiness introduce quantitative changes to
. By contrast, membrane bending elasticity can qualitatively affect the hydrodynamics at sufficiently low flow rates. The dependence of
on the membrane bending stiffness (relative to a characteristic viscous stress scale) is found to be rather complex. In particular, the competition between viscous forces and bending forces can hinder or enhance the vesicle’s mobility, depending on the geometry and flow conditions.
We computationally study the motion of an initially spherical capsule flowing through a straight channel with an orthogonal lateral branch, using a three-dimensional immersed-boundary lattice-Boltzmann method. The capsule is enclosed by a strain-hardening membrane and contains an internal fluid of the same viscosity as the fluid in which it is suspended. Our primary focus is to study the influence of the geometry of the side branch on the capsule path selection. Specifically, we consider the case where the side branch cross-section is half that of the straight channel and study various bifurcation configurations, where the branch is rectangular or square, centred or not on the straight channel axis. The capsule is initially centred on the axis of the straight channel. We impose the flow rate split ratio between the two downstream branches of the bifurcation. We summarise the results obtained for different capsule-to-channel size ratios, flow Reynolds number
(based on the parent channel size and average flow speed) and capsule mechanical deformability (as measured by the capillary number) in phase diagrams giving the critical flow rate split ratio above which the capsule flows into the side branch. A major finding is that, at equal flow rate split between the two downstream branches, the capsule will enter a branch which is narrow in the spanwise direction, but will not enter a branch which is narrow in the flow direction. For
, this novel intriguing phenomenon primarily results from the background flow, which is strongly influenced by the side branch geometry. For higher values of
, the capsule relative size and deformability also play specific roles in the path selection. The capsule trajectory does not always obey the classical Fung’s bifurcation law, which stipulates that a particle (in Fung’s case, a red blood cell) enters the bifurcation branch with the highest flow rate. We also consider the same branched channels operating under constant pressure drop conditions and show that such systems are difficult to control due to the transient additional pressure drop caused by the capsule. The present results obtained for dilute systems open new perspectives on the design of microfluidic systems, with optimal channel geometries and flow conditions to enrich cell and particle suspensions.
The dynamics of a spherical elastic capsule, containing a Newtonian fluid bounded by an elastic membrane and immersed in another Newtonian fluid, in a uniform DC electric field is investigated. Discontinuity of electrical properties, such as the conductivities of the internal and external fluid media as well as the capacitance and conductance of the membrane, leads to a net interfacial Maxwell stress which can cause the deformation of such an elastic capsule. We investigate this problem considering well-established membrane laws for a thin elastic membrane, with fully resolved hydrodynamics in the Stokes flow limit, and describe the electrostatics using the capacitor model. In the limit of small deformation, the analytical theory predicts the dynamics fairly satisfactorily. Large deformations at high capillary number, though, necessitate a numerical approach (axisymmetric boundary element method in the present case) to solve this highly nonlinear problem. Akin to vesicles, at intermediate times, highly nonlinear biconcave shapes along with squaring and hexagon-like shapes are observed when the outer medium is more conducting. The study identifies the essentiality of parameters such as high membrane capacitance, low membrane conductance, low hydrodynamic time scales and high capillary number (the ratio of the destabilizing electric force to the stabilizing elastic force) for observation of these shape transitions. The transition is due to large compressive Maxwell stress at the poles at intermediate times. Thus such shape transition can be seen in spherical globules admitting electrical capacitance, possibly irrespective of the nature of the interfacial restoring force.
Previous studies on capsule dynamics in shear flow have dealt with Newtonian fluids, while the effect of fluid viscoelasticity remains an unresolved fundamental question. In this paper, we report a numerical investigation of the dynamics of capsules enclosing a viscoelastic fluid and which are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid under simple shear. Systematic simulations are performed at small but non-zero Reynolds numbers (i.e.
) using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model, in which the fluid viscoelasticity is introduced via the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We demonstrate that the internal fluid viscoelasticity presents significant effects on the deformation behaviour of initially spherical capsules, including transient evolution and equilibrium values of their deformation and orientation. Particularly, the capsule deformation decreases slightly with the Deborah number De increasing from 0 to
. In contrast, with De increasing within high levels, i.e.
, the capsule deformation increases continuously and eventually approaches the Newtonian limit having a viscosity the same as the Newtonian part of the viscoelastic capsule. By analysing the viscous stress, pressure and viscoelastic stress acting on the capsule membrane, we reveal that the mechanism underlying the effects of the internal fluid viscoelasticity on the capsule deformation is the alterations in the distribution of the viscoelastic stress at low De and its magnitude at high De, respectively. Furthermore, we find some new features in the dynamics of initially non-spherical capsules induced by the internal fluid viscoelasticity. Particularly, the transition from tumbling to swinging of oblate capsules can be triggered at very high viscosity ratios by increasing De alone. Besides, the critical viscosity ratio for the tumbling-to-swinging transition is remarkably enlarged with De increasing at relatively high levels, i.e.
, while it shows little change at low De, i.e. below
A variety of numerical methods exist for the study of deformable particles in dense suspensions. None of the standard tools, however, currently include volume-changing objects such as oscillating microbubbles in three-dimensional periodic domains. In the first part of this work, we develop a novel method to include such entities based on the boundary integral method. We show that the well-known boundary integral equation must be amended with two additional terms containing the volume flux through the bubble surface. We rigorously prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. Our proof contains as a subset the simpler boundary integral equation without volume-changing objects (such as red blood cell or capsule suspensions) which is widely used but for which a formal proof in periodic domains has not been published to date. In the second part, we apply our method to study microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. The ideal drug delivery agent should stay away from the biochemically active vessel walls during circulation. However, upon reaching its target it should attain a near-wall position for efficient drug uptake. Though seemingly contradictory, we show that lipid-coated microbubbles in conjunction with a localized ultrasound pulse possess precisely these two properties. This ultrasound-triggered margination is due to hydrodynamic interactions between the red blood cells and the oscillating lipid-coated microbubbles which alternate between a soft and a stiff state. We find that the effect is very robust, existing even if the duration in the stiff state is more than three times lower than the opposing time in the soft state.
The translation of a bubble under the action of an acoustic forcing finds applications in fields ranging from drug delivery to sonoluminescence. This phenomenon has been widely studied for cases where the amplitude of the forcing remains constant over time. However, in many practical applications, the duration of the forcing is not long enough for the bubble to attain a constant translational velocity, mainly due to the effect of the history force. Here, we develop a formulation, valid in the limit of very viscous flow and small-amplitude acoustic forcing, that allows us to describe the transient dynamics of bubbles driven by acoustic pulses consisting of finite numbers of cycles. We also present an asymptotic solution to this theory for the case of a finite-duration sinusoidal pressure pulse. This solution takes into account both the history integral term and the transient period that the bubble needs to achieve steady radial oscillations, the former being dominant during most of the acceleration process. Moreover, by introducing some additional assumptions, we derive a simplified formula that describes the time evolution of the bubble velocity fairly well. Using this solution, we show that the convergence to the steady translational velocity, given by the so-called Bjerknes force, occurs rather slowly, namely as
is the time made dimensionless with the viscous time scale of the bubble, which explains the slow convergence of the bubble velocity and stresses the importance of taking the history force into account.
A singular perturbation theory is developed for the steady, inertialess motion of a lipid-bilayer vesicle flowing through a narrow tube. The vesicle is treated as a sac of fluid enclosed by an inextensible membrane that admits a bending stiffness. Matched asymptotic expansions are developed in terms of a clearance parameter
in order to calculate the flow field and vesicle shape. Mild restrictions are applied to the ratio of viscosities
and the ratio of bending stresses to viscous stresses
; in particular, the theory holds for
. The ratio of the vesicle length to the tube radius
is included as a parameter and asymptotic solutions in the limit of negligible bending stiffness are developed for long, cylindrical vesicles and short, spherical vesicles. The main result of the theory is a prediction for the vesicle speed and extra pressure drop due to the presence of the vesicle in the tube. The effects of confinement, vesicle length, and membrane bending elasticity are examined. The theoretical predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements reported for vesicles and red blood cells in highly confined channel flow. Previously reported models for red blood cells (Secomb et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 163, 1986, pp. 405–423; Halpern & Secomb, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 203, 1989, pp. 381–400) are clarified and extended in light of the new theory.