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In the framework of a critical illustration of the contemporary history of economics, this chapter recalls the foundations of utilitarianism and the ethics of consequences and provides a survey of research on income inequalities. Then it provides a critical history of welfare economics. It illustrates Sen’s notion of capabilities. It opposes conservative, revolutionary and reformist views on the evolution of capitalism and, finally, discusses a rather unusual topic, the economists’ ethics.
Agricultural cooperatives’ economic performance and efficiency today have great economic and social relevance. Consistent with the recent literature, this article examines wine cooperatives and compares them with wine investor-owned firms, studying their innovation capabilities, Miles and Snow strategies, and performance. A survey was conducted in all the wineries in Spain, with 339 responses. The interactions between the independent variables and the dependent variable were analyzed using the logit regression model. The study points out that cooperatives do not have fewer innovation capabilities, nor are they more inefficient, than investor-owned firms, although the factors that modulate their economic performance are different. (JEL Classifications: L66, M10, P13, Q13)
This chapter provides a main argument for why business schools may be facing needs to fundamentally change perhaps more today than before. “New” pedagogy is available to make effective change happen, above all, so-called blended learning. But indeed several factors seem to slow down business schools’ capabilities and willingness to change, including a typically too strong focus on achieving favorable so-called ranking. It is the changing need of business itself, the key “customer”, that provides the main inputs for change, and the chapter concludes with a discussion of 10 such factors.
This chapter enlarges the boundary of racial justice by considering sexual racism as another form of private racism. Here too racial discrimination affects our private lives. This kind of discrimination concerns perhaps the most private of opportunities. It too is wrong, or so this chapter argues. I show that racism makes it more difficult for those who are not white to find intimacy, where intimacy is the opportunity to be in a romantic or sexual relationship. This chapter shows that racial discrimination, stereotypes, and intersectionality happen in our intimate lives, what I call “sexual racism.” Websites and platforms that steer its users to discriminate on the basis of race facilitate sexual racism. Because they are public accommodations, we should prohibit them from doing so. This is one way to address racism in our intimate lives.
This chapter is divided into three sections. 1) Corporate governance (ownership and management) influences; the influence of institutional investors, activist shareholders, and board of directors; the influence of top management teams in non-family firms or the dominant coalition of family firms determines the temporal orientation of key decision makers and the extent to which these decision makers identify with the firm. 2) The firm's strategic responses to market forces and regulatory influences. The relationship between firms’ generic and sustainability strategies and the impact of these strategies on a firms’ financial performance. 3) The importance of organizational capabilities that enable firms to achieve a balance between their economic and environmental performance. Family firms in which the controlling owners strongly identify with their family business and share a vision of corporate sustainability and long-term stewardship, are more likely to develop organizational capabilities needed to undertake a PES. In turn, such family firms will more likely enjoy positive performance on financial as well as socioemotional dimensions important to their dominant coalition.
This article contributes to the business ethics literature by applying and extending an emerging theoretical perspective—stakeholder capability enhancement (Westermann-Behaylo, Van Buren, & Berman, 2016)—to previously unexplored areas of business ethics inquiry related to work, dignity, and relationships between firms, ex-offenders, and other stakeholders. In particular, I direct attention to ex-offenders as critical community-based stakeholders pursuing employment opportunities with employers in these communities. I discuss how prevailing hiring practices in firms restrict opportunities for ex-offenders to obtain meaningful work and undermine stakeholder capabilities and dignity. I consider three primary pathways for expanding employment opportunities for ex-offenders, enhancing the capabilities and dignity of ex-offenders and other community-based stakeholders, and maintaining critical employer rights. The article concludes with a discussion of potential directions for future research.
This paper extends the resource-capability-based view in strategic management and discusses the capabilities for the firms to stay competitive in emerging economies. Faced with low levels of efficiency, technology, and skills, firms in emerging economies need to implement best management practices to overcome operational inefficiency while engage in innovation processes to address new opportunities. They have to develop the capabilities to enhance efficiency, the capabilities to undertake innovation, and the synthesis capabilities to combine the two to keep rivals at bay. The paper tests hypotheses against a data set of more than 20,000 firms from 36 emerging economies provided by the World Bank in 2012–2015 and finds strong evidence to support the arguments. The paper finds that the three sets of capabilities are positively related to productivity and, through it, financial performance.
Social enterprises implement business-like approaches to address social problems. Scale-up of these enterprises beyond one geographical context can extend their impact to better match the scope of problems being addressed. Unfortunately, many social enterprises start but relatively few expand to new contexts, making scale-up one of the most important but least understood outcomes of social entrepreneurship. We explore this outcome empirically, extending existing research that is predominantly conceptual. The study adopts a multicase study research design. A dynamic capabilities framework reveals how resources are amassed and configured for expansion, a process that can be more difficult for social compared to commercial enterprises. Findings suggest scale-up may be a second act of social entrepreneurship because dissimilarities between initial and scale-up contexts necessitate product modification, different partnerships, and idiosyncratic resource configurations. We thus call into question existing literature’s focus on standardization – generic resource configurations – for scaling-up social enterprises to new geographical contexts.
Unquestionably, the last six decades of research on various animal models have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the many complex characteristics of amblyopia as well as provided promising new avenues for treatment. While animal models in general have served an important purpose, there nonetheless remain questions regarding the efficacy of particular models considering the differences across animal species, especially when the goal is to provide the foundations for human interventions. Our discussion of these issues culminated in three recommendations for future research to provide cohesion across animals models as well as a fourth recommendation for acceptance of a protocol for the minimum number of steps necessary for the translation of results obtained on particular animal models to human clinical trials. The three recommendations for future research arose from discussions of various issues including the specific results obtained from the use of different animal models, the degree of similarity to the human visual system, the ability to generate animal models of the different types of human amblyopia as well as the difficulty of scaling developmental timelines between different species.
In Mexico during the protectionist economic regime a process of industrial modernization was carried out which led to the incorporation of different types of technologies into the structures and processes of production or consumption. The patent policy was implemented with the interest of encouraging the attraction of novel technologies, but their contribution was quite limited due to the nature, design and operation, with which it was conformed. Therefore, the patent policy did not drive patenting activity in a high and sustained manner. It was ineffective to contribute to the development of technologies generated by local actors, and marginally propitiated the productive exploitation of patents.
Justice can be approached from many angles in ethical and political debates, including those involving healthcare, biomedical research, and well-being. The main doctrines of justice are liberal egalitarianism, libertarianism, luck egalitarianism, socialism, utilitarianism, capability approach, communitarianism, and care ethics. These can be further elaborated in the light of traditional moral and social theories, values, ideals, and interests, and there are distinct dimensions of justice that are captured better by some tactics than by others. In this article, questions surrounding these matters are approached with the hermeneutic idea of a distinction between “American” and “European” ways of thinking.
In management studies, systems theory is an underexplored construct consistent with the dynamic capabilities framework. The systems approach received attention from management scholars in the middle of the last century, but, since then, has been largely abandoned. Meanwhile, academic disciplines have continued to narrow their focus. The capabilities and systems frameworks both adopt a holistic view that calls for all elements of an organization to be in alignment, and both recognize the importance of some form of learning for the purpose of adaptation. Dynamic capabilities go further by recognizing that organizations not only adapt to the business environment, they often try to shape it, too. While systems theory emphasizes internal stability over time and homogeneity across similar systems, dynamic capabilities include an explicit role for management/leadership that allows systemic change to start from within, which is the source of heterogeneity across firms. Dynamic capabilities are part of a system that includes resources and strategy. Together they determine the degree of competitive advantage an individual enterprise can gain over its rivals.
This paper focuses on the importance of dynamic capabilities in shaping the nature of international strategies of emerging market multinationals from mid-range economies. We argue that dynamic capabilities theory provides an insightful approach to understanding the internationalization of emerging market multinationals and their strategic choices. Drawing on dynamic capability theory and unpacking dynamic capabilities into four distinct but related dimensions or facets, we develop a typology of three internationalization strategies available to emerging market multinationals in their international expansion: sequential international ambidexterity (from exploitation to exploration, and vice versa) and structural international ambidexterity (simultaneous exploration and exploitation). Success factors associated with each of the ambidextrous internationalization strategies are also considered. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the dynamic capabilities framework for theoretical implications and fruitful areas for future research endeavors.
The literature on capability development has focussed on either the content or process of capability development. Such a partial explanation of the capability development phenomenon has created some flaws in the literature. This paper argues that integrating the content and process of capability development is the way ahead in theorising in this field. Analysis of the methodological development in parallel to theory development reveals the critical role of microprocesses in such integration. To develop an integrative view of capability development we propose a conceptualisation of capability development processes through internal and external strategic fit and emphasise the role of knowledge and innovation processes. We also argue that a critical realism approach is of high relevance to researching such an integrative view.
How firms’ dynamic capabilities lead to their competitive advantage and improved firm performance has been a core issue and full of debates. In this research, we theorize that dynamic capabilities, which could be defined by three distinct dimensions (sensing capability, integration capability, and reconfiguration capability), facilitate different types of innovation that in turn improve firm performance. Based on a sample of 204 Chinese firms, results from partial least squares structural equation modeling analyses generally support our arguments despite some nuanced differences existing among different dimensions of dynamic capabilities. This study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by reducing the scarcity of empirical research and by uncovering the mechanisms through which dynamic capabilities influence firm performance.
This study describes findings from an assessment conducted to identify perceived knowledge gaps, information needs, and research priorities among state, territorial, and local public health preparedness directors and coordinators related to public health emergency preparedness and response (PHPR). The goal of the study was to gather information that would be useful for ensuring that future funding for research and evaluation targets areas most critical for advancing public health practice.
We implemented a mixed-methods approach to identify and prioritize PHPR research questions. A web survey was sent to all state, city, and territorial health agencies funded through the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement program and a sample of local health departments (LHDs). Three focus groups of state and local practitioners and subject matter experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were subsequently conducted, followed by 3 meetings of an expert panel of PHPR practitioners and CDC experts to prioritize and refine the research questions.
We identified a final list of 44 research questions that were deemed by study participants as priority topics where future research can inform PHPR programs and practice. We identified differences in perceived research priorities between PHEP awardees and LHD survey respondents; the number of research questions rated as important was greater among LHDs than among PHEP awardees (75%, n=33, compared to 24%, n=15).
The research questions identified provide insight into public health practitioners’ perceived knowledge gaps and the types of information that would be most useful for informing and advancing PHPR practice. The study also points to a higher level of information need among LHDs than among PHEP awardees. These findings are important for CDC and the PHPR research community to ensure that future research studies are responsive to practitioners’ needs and provide the information required to enhance their capacity to meet the needs of the communities and jurisdictions they serve. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:552–561)
There have been numerous initiatives by government and private organizations to help hospitals become better prepared for major disasters and public health emergencies. This study reports on efforts by the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration, Office of Emergency Management’s (OEM) Comprehensive Emergency Management Program (CEMP) to assess the readiness of VA Medical Centers (VAMCs) across the nation.
This study conducts descriptive analyses of preparedness assessments of VAMCs and examines change in hospital readiness over time.
To assess change, quantitative analyses of data from two phases of preparedness assessments (Phase I: 2008-2010; Phase II: 2011-2013) at 137 VAMCs were conducted using 61 unique capabilities assessed during the two phases. The initial five-point Likert-like scale used to rate each capability was collapsed into a dichotomous variable: “not-developed=0” versus “developed=1.” To describe changes in preparedness over time, four new categories were created from the Phase I and Phase II dichotomous variables: (1) rated developed in both phases; (2) rated not-developed in Phase I but rated developed in Phase II; (3) rated not-developed in both phases; and (4) rated developed in Phase I but rated not- developed in Phase II.
From a total of 61 unique emergency preparedness capabilities, 33 items achieved the desired outcome – they were rated either “developed in both phases” or “became developed” in Phase II for at least 80% of VAMCs. For 14 items, 70%-80% of VAMCs achieved the desired outcome. The remaining 14 items were identified as “low-performing” capabilities, defined as less than 70% of VAMCs achieved the desired outcome.
Measuring emergency management capabilities is a necessary first step to improving those capabilities. Furthermore, assessing hospital readiness over time and creating robust hospital readiness assessment tools can help hospitals make informed decisions regarding allocation of resources to ensure patient safety, provide timely access to high-quality patient care, and identify best practices in emergency management during and after disasters. Moreover, with some minor modifications, this comprehensive, all-hazards-based, hospital preparedness assessment tool could be adapted for use beyond the VA.
Der-MartirosianC, RadcliffTA, GableAR, RiopelleD, HagigiFA, BrewsterP, DobalianA. Assessing Hospital Disaster Readiness Over Time at the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Prehsop Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):46–57.