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The introduction demonstrates that the history of the defence of experimental medicine is a history of humanitarianism and humanitarian practice. It entangles the experience of laboratory practice and of practical teaching in science with the rise in importance of experimentation on animals, and suggests a historical definition of expertise that was derived through this entanglemnt. It situates the story in a context of utilitarianism and Darwinism.
The decolonization, a process that leads to the nominal independence and international recognition of states, gained momentum in the late-1950s, having its peak in 1960, the African year, when 18 colonies, protectorates, and trust territories became independent. This chapter explores the decolonization of Africa from three perspectives: of the colonial powers, of the colonial states, i.e. the colonies themselves, and of the international system. It argues that there is not one explanation to capture the decolonization. Only if we scrutinize decolonisation from all three perspectives, we are able to comprehend that process in its complexity.
This chapter examines the budgetary behavior of the former countries of the British Empire, now known as Commonwealth countries. Orginally created by the 1931 Statute of Westminister that recast the British Empire as a “Commonwealth of nations,” the modern Commonwealth consists of a fifty-four-country network of disparate people created in 1949. The chapter in particular examines the budgetary practices of the United Kingdom and India.
The Glastonbury Lake Village in Somerset, UK, is made up of 90 mounds comprising 40 roundhouses. Excavations between 1892 and 1907 revealed Iron Age structural and material remains unparalleled in Western Europe. The settlement's exact chronology, however, has remained uncertain. Here, the authors present a programme of radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating and chronological modelling on samples from recent excavations. The results indicate that the site was founded in the early second century cal BC, with the last structures being built just over a century later. This new, robust chronology can be used to date a wide range of associated material culture, and complements chronologies established for other Iron Age sites.
Pet cemeteries provide a unique opportunity to investigate the development of human-animal relationships, yet few archaeological studies of these cemeteries have been undertaken. This article presents an archaeological survey of gravestones at British pet cemeteries from the Victorian period to the present. These memorials provide evidence for the perceived roles of animals, suggesting the development of an often conflicted relationship between humans and companion animals in British society—from beloved pets to valued family members—and the increasing belief in animal afterlives. The results are discussed in the context of society's current attitude towards animals and the struggle to define our relationships with pets through the mourning of their loss.
Recent analysis of Early Bronze Age human remains from Staarvey Farm on the Isle of Man has revealed a rare bone knife pommel and 20 other bone objects, offering insight into the importance of bone ornaments and artefact fittings at this time. This article adopts a relational typological approach to analyse the Staarvey burial and comparable assemblages, identifying patterns in the deposition of knife pommels in central and southern Britain. In exploring regional interaction in Early Bronze Age Britain and Ireland, the authors refine and move beyond traditional typologies to trace types of both objects and practice. This approach allows them to consider multiple, overlapping spheres of funerary practice and their relation to identities at different regional scales.
Intentional facial disfigurement is documented in archaeological contexts around the world. Here, the authors present the first archaeological evidence for intentional facial mutilation from Anglo-Saxon England—comprising the removal of the nose, upper lip and possible scalping—inflicted upon a young adult female. The injuries are consistent with documented punishments for female offenders. Although such mutilations do not appear in the written record until the tenth century AD, the instance reported here suggests that the practice may have emerged a century earlier. This case is examined in the context of a wider consideration of the motivations and significance of facial disfigurement in past societies.
Chapter 6 demonstrates that projects for managing the natural world established in the colonial period enjoyed continued relevance after independence from Spain in 1821, as the new states of the federal republic of Central America embarked on renewed efforts to study nature. Focusing on the case study of Guatemala, the new republic maintained ‘useful patriotism’ as an ideal of citizenship and re-established colonial institutions such as the Economic Society. Even while undertaking self-consciously ‘modern’ mapping and surveying projects, statesmen drew heavily on the models of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Moreover, despite the economic importance of Britain in Central America at this time, and despite the often negative opinions that British scientists and governments expressed of Spanish American (colonial and independent) knowledges, British investors and geographers were heavily reliant not just on the new maps of the independent state, but colonial geographical material from Spanish archives too. Colonial-era reform projects, often through a material legacy of plans in an archive, had laid the groundwork for imagining a Central America built on ideas of useful knowledge, patriotic dedication, and connected scientific networks around the world.
The past decade has witnessed an intensification of research into the use of pottery by hunter-gatherers. Long viewed by Western scholars as a marginal practice among these groups, pottery production is now known to have been widespread among prehistoric hunter-gatherers, many of whom practised no other activities associated with agriculture. In emphasising the centrality of ceramics to these communities, however, we risk marginalising those who did not adopt pottery. Here, the authors critically examine a series of different models proposed for hunter-gatherer pottery innovation and adoption within the context of the aceramic communities who inhabited Britain and Ireland during the fifth millennium cal BC.
This paper concerns the architecture of formal burials from the La Tène period in north-western Gaul and southern Britain. The research focuses on the shape and dimensions of sepulchral pits containing inhumed or burnt human remains, on the different materials used for the internal elements, and the external constructions and structures covering, framing, or marking the burials. The study of these data exposes the preferred choices in the funerary architecture of Gallic and British communities during the last five centuries bc. The results reveal different regional funerary groups within three main cross-Channel zones according to the architectural elements of the graves and the main treatments of the body. The distinct characteristics of these groups highlight their common features and relationships with neighbouring areas of the Continental and Atlantic zones.
Cremated and unburnt human remains have been recovered from a variety of British Bronze and earliest Iron Age archaeological contexts (c. 2500–600 BC). Chronological modelling of 189 new and extant radiocarbon dates from a selection of these deposits provides evidence for the curation of human remains for an average of two generations following death, while histological analysis of bone samples indicates mortuary treatment involving both excarnation and the exhumation of primary burials. Curated bones came from people who had been alive within living or cultural memory, and their power probably derived from relationships between the living and the dead.
Past trackways and the mobility associated with them have long been a neglected topic of research in Britain—a lack of attention attributable to the publication of Alfred Watkins's The old straight track in 1925. Yet, new interdisciplinary approaches, including from the perspectives of social theory and the sciences, can allow us to move forward. Here the authors offer the first steps towards a positive approach to understanding past mobility.
During the Second World War some 600,000 women were absorbed into the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, the Auxiliary Territorial Service, and the Women's Royal Naval Service. These women performed important military functions for the armed forces, both at home and overseas, and the jobs they undertook ranged from cooking, typing and telephony to stripping down torpedoes, overhauling aircraft engines, and operating the fire control instruments in anti-aircraft gun batteries. In this wide-ranging study, which draws on a multitude of sources and combines organisational history with the personal experiences of servicewomen, Jeremy Crang traces the wartime history of the WAAF, ATS and WRNS and the integration of women into the British armed forces. Servicewomen came to play such an integral wartime role that the military authorities established permanent regular post-war women's services and, in so doing, opened up for the first time a military career for women.
This chapter examines the intersection between Trucial States, Iran, and the British during the interwar years with a particular emphasis on the crises of 1926‒1929. The events surrounding Iran's reoccupation of Hengam in 1928 and capture of an Arab dhow off the coast of Greater Tunb Island can serve as an apt example of how the Arab rulers and merchants of the Gulf perceived Iran and the British during the interwar years. The chapter concludes with an examination of the shifting power distribution within the shaykhdoms in the 1930s, due to the collapse of the pearl industry and the rise of revenues from air and oil agreements, with particular attention to the position of the Iranian immigrant communities in the Trucial States
This chapter analyzes Iran’s policy toward the Persian Gulf during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi. The analysis is roughly divided into three periods: the years of 1925‒1932, during which time Reza Shah's court minister, Teymurtash, tried unsuccessfully to regularize the situation in the Persian Gulf through negotiations with the British government; the year of 1933 during which time various crises in the Persian Gulf arising from local challenges to British authority became part of the negotiation process; and the period of 1934‒1941 during which time Iran, encouraged by British withdrawal from Hengam and Basidu, strengthened its reliance on the tactics of deception, bluff, and intrigue in pursuit of its aspiration to obtain a paramount position in the Persian Gulf. This analysis is preceded by a brief discussion of the nature of the Pahlavi state because it provides the necessary context for Iran’s policy toward the Persian Gulf.
This chapter focuses on the intersection between Bahrain, Iran, and the British during the interwar years and the influence that contacts with Iran and Iranians had on the process of nation and state building in Bahrain. It analyzes the role of Iran and the role of the Iranian immigrant communities in the evolution of the Bahrain administration and the emergence of Arab nationalist sentiments in Bahrain. It depicts how different elements of the Iranian communities viewed Iran, the Al Khalifa ruling family, and the British. And it explores how the Al Khalifa and different segments of Bahraini society regarded Bahrain residents of Iranian origin and nationality. The analysis is preceded with a background on politics and society in Bahrain with special attention to the growth and characteristics of the Iranian immigrant communities.
This chapter discusses British policy in the Persian Gulf during the interwar period. A focus is placed on the way in which the British government coped with the challenges to its dominant position during key junctures of the interwar years. First it provides an analysis of how British policy evolved in relation to the emerging challenges in the region, namely the coming to the fore of Reza Khan and the consolidation of power by Ibn Sa‘ud. Then it provides an analysis of Britain’s negotiations with Iran toward the conclusion of a comprehensive treaty between the two countries. An analysis of these negotiations, which ultimately failed to produce an agreement, provides valuable insights into the positions of both governments on issues in the Persian Gulf during the interwar years. The last section sheds light on how local actors perceived Britain's role in the Gulf, an inquiry that forms a vital precursor to the topic of Arab-Iranian relations in the Persian Gulf during the interwar period.
The interwar period marked a transition from a Gulf society characterized by symbiosis and interdependency to a sub-region characterized by national divisions, sectarian suspicions, rivalries and political tension. In this study, Chelsi Mueller tells the story of a formative period in the Gulf, examining the triangular relationship between Iran, Britain and the Gulf Arab shaykhdoms. By doing so Mueller reveals how the revival of Iranian national ambitions in the Gulf had a significant effect on the dense web of Arab-Iranian relations during the interwar period. Shedding new light on our current understanding of the present-day Arab-Iranian conflict, this study, which pays particular attention to Bahrain and the Trucial states (United Arab Emirates), fills a significant gap in the literature on the history of Arab-Iranian relations in the Gulf and Iran's Persian Gulf policy during the Reza Shah period.
Especially after World War II, the British visibly improved, in Hong Kong, on what was already a successful authoritarian–legality-based governance structure dating back to 1842. As one looks more closely at this extended, political–legal experience, it becomes clear these prominent governance achievements were built on particular British constitutional foundations forged over many centuries. Due to the largely unwritten nature of the British Constitution, the way was left open for a scholar possessed of remarkable understanding to analyze and describe – indeed, reveal – the essence of this historically tempered set of resilient governance principles. That scholar was Professor A. V. Dicey. Our analysis draws pointedly on the work of John Rawls as we analyze how “Diceyan constitutionalism” fundamentally shaped the development of governance institutions within the new British colony – working in conjunction with what has come to be known as “Chinese familialism.” Our aim in this chapter is to examine: how Hong Kong’s authoritarian–legality governance system has come to pass; the essence of that system; how thoroughly it has been stress-tested; and how well it may be placed to cope with tests yet to come.
The perforated stone battle-axes and axe-hammers of Early Bronze Age Britain have been used either to interpret the status of individuals they were buried with or have been overlooked; this is especially the case with axe-hammers. Previous understandings have assumed battle-axes were purely ceremonial, while the rougher axe-hammers were neither functional nor prestigious, being too large and too crude to be prestige items. Studies of the 20th century were focused on creating a typology and understanding the manufacture and petrological sources of the stone, concluding that haphazard exploitation of stone was used to create a variety of different shapes of both implements. This paper revisits the question of how these artefacts were used. It presents the results of the first large-scale application of use-wear analysis to British Early Bronze Age battle-axes and axe-hammers, from northern Britain and the Isle of Man. Combining the results of the wear analysis with experimental archaeology and contextual analysis, it is argued that these objects were functional tools, some of which saw prolonged use that might have spanned multiple users. The evidence shows that the few implements found in burial contexts were both functional and symbolic; their inclusion in burial contexts drawing upon relational links which developed through the itineraries of these objects. It is also apparent that use and treatment were similar across all types of battle-axe and axe-hammer, with some regional variation in the deposition of axe-hammers in south-west Scotland. It is concluded that battle-axes and axe-hammers had varied and multiple roles and significances and that it is possible to discover what each artefact was used for by deploying a use-wear analysis methodology.