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The aim of this study was to assess body shape trajectories in childhood and midlife in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer in a Mediterranean cohort.
The SUN Project is a dynamic prospective cohort study of university graduates initiated in 1999. With a group-based modelling approach, we assessed body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for breast cancer after the age of 40 years according to the body shape trajectory.
City of Pamplona, in the North of Spain.
6498 women with a mean age of 40 years (standard deviation: 9 years).
We identified four distinct body shape trajectories [‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ (19.9%), ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ (53%), ‘childhood heavy-midlife stable’ (21%), and ‘childhood heavy-midlife increase’ (6.1%)]. Among 54,978 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed 82 incident cases of breast cancer. Women in the ‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ group showed a higher risk of breast cancer (HR=1.84, 95%CI 1.11, 3.04) compared to women in the ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ category. This association was stronger for postmenopausal breast cancer (HR=2.42, 95%CI 1.07, 5.48).
This article reports on women’s experiences of career change following a breast cancer diagnosis and explores whether their illness represents the driving force to pursue previously unfulfilled career ambitions. The participants were four women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and had changed career direction after their treatment. Data were conducted through in-depth interviews and were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four themes prominent throughout each women’s narrative were identified: (i) a pre-diagnosis, unhappiness at work, (ii) a sense of stepping off the treadmill, (iii) a sharp focus upon their “self,” and subsequently (iv) a flourishing “work-life.” Further research is needed to investigate how common these findings are among women with breast cancer.
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous disease, which is usually seen in older ages. Rarely, radiotherapy (RT) has been reported as a localised trigger factor for BP.
We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent radical mastectomy and radiation therapy for breast cancer. Two months after the completion of RT with adjuvant Trastuzumab, a BP eruption developed in the irradiated area, spreading thereafter to other skin areas. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids and the lesions evolved favourably.
This case demonstrates a relatively benign skin reaction that could develop during the course of cancer treatment, which required co-management by oncologists, pathologists and dermatologists.
To compare the dosimetry and reproducibility of set-up with monoisocentric technique (MIT) and dual isocentric technique (DIT) in adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT).
Material and methods:
Breast cancer patients treated with MIT or DIT were retrospectively studied. The organ-at-risk dose was compared between two groups. All patients underwent set-up verification with an electronic portal imaging device, and set-up time was recorded for each fraction. Treatment reproducibility was assessed in terms of systematic and random error.
Twenty patients were included (11 right and 9 left-sided tumours) and ten received whole breast RT, while the rest received chest wall RT. Overall, the mean heart dose was less with MIT (0.40 versus 0.79, p = <0.001) as well as in left-sided tumours (0.37 versus 0.98, p = 0.003). The maximum dose at the field junction was significantly higher with DIT (43 Gy, 107%, p = 0.003). The maximum total error was 1 cm in lateral for supraclavicular field and 8 mm in superior–inferior in tangents for both techniques. There was no difference in set-up errors between the two techniques.
MIT resulted in better dose homogeneity at the field junctions and reduced mean heart dose as compared to DIT. MIT is safe for implementation in clinical practice for breast cancer treatment.
This study is one of the few studies comparing MIT with DIT in terms of the dosimetry and the first one to compare set-up errors between the two techniques. The ease of set-up and better dosimetry with MIT was achieved.
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) has gained popularity over recent years due to its impact on shortening the radiotherapy treatment time for early breast cancer. It has certainly proven effective as an exclusive treatment or when combined with whole breast irradiation (WBIR). Seroma is a common non-life-threatening complication that may delay treatment and impose challenges on radiological diagnostic follow-up.
To review and compare the occurrence of seroma in patients who received exclusive IORT or when combined with WBIR and to outline the diagnostic challenges encountered during radiological follow-up.
Materials and methods:
Based on strict selection criteria, all eligible patients who received IORT ± WBIR treatment between 2012 and 2019 in a university hospital setting were included. Demographic data, histological diagnosis, tumour size, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, nodal status, receptor status, treatment with neoadjuvant hormonal chemotherapy, applicator size, dose used, duration of radiotherapy treatment, timing of seroma development and duration of seroma were documented. Both clinical and radiological follow-up were exercised in all patients.
The total number of patients treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) and IORT was 86. Age ranged between 31 and 75 years with the median age of 51 years. Patients treated exclusively with IORT were 39 (45%) while those who received the IORT as a boost were 47 (55%). Seroma was observed in 39(45%) of both IORT and IORT\WBIR patients. Those included 15(38%) of the exclusive IORT treated patients and 24 (62%) of those treated as a boost. Duration of asymptomatic seroma ranged from 6 months to 6 years. Repeated aspiration was performed in 2 (5%) patients. Postoperative seroma occurred independent of age histological diagnosis, tumour size, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, nodal status, receptor status, treatment with neoadjuvant hormonal\chemotherapy, applicator size, dose used or duration of radiotherapy treatment. All reviewed patients have shown increased risk of developing seroma; however, an increased incidence of seroma in the IORT + WBIR treated patients was higher than those who received exclusive IORT treatment.
Postoperative seroma is a common non-life-threatening entity that occasionally may lead to delay in the subsequent treatment plan. IORT is a safe modality with many benefits; however, it may increase the risk of seroma formation independent of the clinical parameters. Promoting the expertise in post IORT breast imaging aids in overcoming diagnostic challenges.
Olive oil consumption has been suggested to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk, probably due to its high MUFA and polyphenol content. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between olive oil and breast cancer risk, including assessing the potential for a dose–response association. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through June 2020, identifying ten observational studies (two prospective studies and eight case–control studies) for meta-analysis. We estimated summary OR and 95 % CI for the highest v. lowest olive oil intake category across studies using random effect models and assessed the dose–response relationship between olive oil and breast cancer risk using restricted cubic splines. The summary OR comparing women with the highest intake to those with the lowest category of olive oil intake was 0·48 (95 % CI 0·09, 2·70) in prospective studies and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·06) in case–control studies, with evidence of substantial study heterogeneity (prospective I2 = 89 %, case–control I2 = 82 %). There was no significant dose–response relationship for olive oil and breast cancer risk; the OR for a 14 g/d increment was 0·93 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·04). There may be a potential inverse association between olive oil intake and breast cancer; however, since the estimates are non-significant and the certainty level is very low, additional prospective studies with better assessment of olive oil intake are needed.
The objectives of this study are to describe patients’ experiences of family members’ reactions to diagnosis of breast cancer and investigate the role of family support in the management of breast cancer.
The study used the descriptive qualitative method in data collection and analysis. Fifteen participants, who were undergoing either radiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment at a private hospital, consented and participated in the study. Data were content analyzed under two specific themes on family members’ reactions and family support received.
The findings show that some participants reported negative reactions of some family members, and this affected them negatively. While some participants received support from their families, others did not.
Significance of findings
The findings of our study show the critical role of family support in the management of breast cancer; therefore, family members should be encouraged to give breast cancer patient the necessary support to help them manage their sick role behavior since their illness has no cure.
The time after a breast cancer diagnosis is a potential period for making positive dietary changes, but previous results are conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to study breast cancer patients’ dietary changes during the 12 months post-surgery and from 12 months pre-surgery to 12 months post-surgery with repeated administration of a 7-d pre-coded food diary and an FFQ, respectively. Women (n 506), mean age 55·3 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (stages I and II), were included. The dietary intake was quite stable over time, but the intake was lower for energy (0·3 and 0·4 MJ/d), alcohol (1·9 and 1·5 g/d) and vegetables (17 and 22 g/d) at 6 months than 3 weeks post-surgery (food diary) and at 12 months post-surgery than pre-surgery (FFQ), respectively. Furthermore, energy percentage (E%) from carbohydrates increased between 0·8 and 1·2 E% and E% from fat decreased between 0·6 and 0·8 E% over time, measured by both dietary assessment methods. We observed a higher intake of dairy products (11 g/d) at 6 months post-surgery (food diary), and a lower intake of dairy products (34 g/d) and red and processed meat (7·2 g/d) at 12 months post-surgery (FFQ). Moreover, 24 % of the patients claimed they made dietary changes, but mostly they did not change their diet differently compared with those patients who claimed no changes. In conclusion, breast cancer patients reported only minor dietary changes from 12 months pre-surgery and during the 12 months post-surgery.
To characterize the spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic germline variants in women from south-west Poland and west Ukraine affected with breast or ovarian cancer. Testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in these regions is currently mainly limited to founder mutations.
Unrelated women affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer from Poland (n = 337) and Ukraine (n = 123) were screened by targeted sequencing. Excluded from targeted sequencing were 34 Polish women who had previously been identified as carrying a founder mutation in BRCA1. No prior testing had been conducted among the Ukrainian women. Thus, this study screened BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the germline DNA of 426 women in total.
We identified 31 and 18 women as carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) genetic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. We observed five BRCA1 and eight BRCA2 P/LP variants (13/337, 3.9%) in the Polish women. Combined with the 34/337 (10.1%) founder variants identified prior to this study, the overall P/LP variant frequency in the Polish women was thus 14% (47/337). Among the Ukrainian women, 16/123 (13%) women were identified as carrying a founder mutation and 20/123 (16.3%) were found to carry non-founder P/LP variants (10 in BRCA1 and 10 in BRCA2).
These results indicate that genetic testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Poland and Ukraine should not be limited to founder mutations. Extended testing will enhance risk stratification and management for these women and their families.
Continuing to utilize healthcare as needed during an epidemic outbreak is significant, in general, and especially for cancer patients. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with health services utilization among breast cancer patients during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak.
A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 151 women with breast cancer. Participants completed measures of perceived health status, perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, anxiety, coping resources, health services utilization (contact with healthcare professionals and cancellation of an appointment to the oncology/hematology clinic), and socio-demographic questionnaires. A multiple hierarchical regression was calculated; contact with healthcare professionals was the dependent variable. In addition, a logistic regression was calculated; cancellation of an appointment to the oncology/hematology clinic because of the COVID-19 was the dependent variable.
Breast cancer patients’ contact with healthcare professionals was lower than their contact prior to the pandemic. A higher extent of contact with healthcare professionals was related to patients’ perception of health as bad/reasonable, lower perceived susceptibility, a lower sense of mastery, and higher social support. In addition, the odds of cancelling an appointment to the oncology/hematology clinic were higher in the presence of additional chronic illnesses and a higher sense of mastery.
Significance of results
The results could provide public health agencies with a more complete picture of the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic among breast cancer patients. This is significant because, in the event that COVID-19 re-emerges, the findings of the current study could help guide public health officials and possibly prevent the future avoidance of health services’ use among this high-risk population.
This study investigated relationships among spirituality, hope, and overall quality of life in Muslim women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
A cross-sectional descriptive design with a convenience sample of 145 Malay patients was used. The mediating role of hope in the relationship between spirituality and quality of life as well as the moderating effect of education level on the spirituality hope link were examined.
Participants with higher self-reported spirituality reported more hope (b = 6.345, p < 0.001) and higher levels of quality of life (b = 1.065, p < 0.001). Higher educational attainment weakened relationships between spirituality and hope (b = −1.460, p < 0.001).
Significance of results
The role of advanced education in contributing to lessened hope in relation to spirituality emphasizes the importance of skilled and personalized spiritual counseling in the respective socio-cultural religious context.
Mastectomy is a treatment option for patients diagnosed with breast cancer. There is very limited research into the psychosocial impact of mastectomy on female breast cancer patients, especially in the sub-Saharan African setting which has unique cultural norms. The study aimed at assessing the psychosocial impact of mastectomy on female breast cancer patients attending a radiotherapy/oncology centre in Ghana.
A cross-sectional design was used to undertake this study. A total of 80 female mastectomy breast cancer patients participated in this study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection over a 5-month period, January to May 2018. The data collected were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22.
Most of the participants were adversely affected psychologically and emotionally by mastectomy. In particular, many (56·7%) agreed that they felt less feminine, and 71% reported they experienced psychological distress as a result of their mastectomy, while 63% of them reported loss of self-confidence. A large proportion of them (51, 63·8%) agreed that their lifestyles had changed following mastectomy, while 58% of them admitted that they felt treated as outcasts by society, and 75% resorted to the use of breast prostheses to reduce attention.
The study revealed that mastectomy for breast cancer patients had a negative impact on their psychological, emotional and social well-being. The availability of affordable breast prostheses, involvement of clinical psychologists in the care of post-mastectomy women, provision of emotional, psychological and even financial support could alleviate the psychosocial impact of affected women.
A significant proportion of adjuvant-treated breast cancer patients experience cognitive decline, challenging the person’s ability to return to normal activities after treatment. However, not every patient experiences cognitive problems, and even in patients with impairments, determining clinically important cognitive decline remains challenging. Our objective was to explore differences in neuropsychological performance following adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in patients with breast cancer.
We conducted a prospective observational study in an Oncology Breast Clinic and assessed neuropsychological performance before and after adjuvant CT and in non-CT-treated women with breast cancer and healthy controls (HCs). Standardised between-group differences and regression-based change scores were calculated.
CT-treated patients (n = 66) performed significantly different from non-CT-treated patients (n = 39) and HCs (n = 56). There was a significant effect on verbal fluency (p = .0013). CT performed significantly worse than non-CT and HC [effect size (ES) = .89, p < .001 and ES = .61, p ≤ .001, respectively] and from HCs with regard to proactive interference (ES = .62, p ≤ .001). Regression-based scores revealed more severe cognitive decline in the CT-treated group [24.24% (16/66)] than in the non-CT-treated group [15.20% (6/39)] and HC group [7.14% (4/56)]. Patients who underwent CT and showed cognitive decline were less educated and older, with significantly lower baseline scores.
CT-treated patients showed more vulnerability on cognitive control and monitoring than non-CT-treated breast cancer patients and HCs. Older patients with less education and lower baseline cognitive performance represent a group at risk for cognitive decline following CT. Identification of patients at risk for decline could improve targeted support and rehabilitation.
Cruciferous vegetables contain high levels of glucosinolates (GSL) and isothiocyanates (ITC). ITC are known to induce glutathione S-transferases (GST) and thus exert their anticarcinogenic effects. This study explored the combined effects of cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intake and GST polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. A total of 737 breast cancer cases and 756 controls were recruited into this case–control study. OR and 95 % CI were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Higher cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with adjusted OR of 0·48 (95 % CI 0·35, 0·65), 0·54 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·74) and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·84), respectively. Compared with women carrying the GSTP1 rs1695 wild AA genotype and high cruciferous vegetable, GSL or ITC intake, carriers of the AA genotype with low cruciferous vegetable, GSL and ITC intake had greater risk of breast cancer, with adjusted OR of 1·43 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·87), 1·34 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·75) and 1·37 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·80), respectively. Persons with the GSTM1-null genotype and lower intake of cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC had higher risk of breast cancer than those with the GSTM1-present genotype and higher intake, with OR of 1·42 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·95), 1·43 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·96) and 1·45 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·98), respectively. Among women possessing the GSTT1-present genotype, low intake of cruciferous vegetables, GSL or ITC was associated with higher risk of breast cancer. But these interactions were non-significant. This study indicated that there were no significant interactions between cruciferous vegetable, GSL or ITC intake and GST polymorphisms on breast cancer risk.
Thromboembolic disorders are the second leading cause of death in breast cancer. Antiplatelet therapy combined with cancer therapy is a potential treatment strategy against cancer-associated thromboembolic disorders; however, the efficacy of such dual treatment has not been established. This study reports novel findings on the response of hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF7/T47D) following 24 h treatment with Anastrozole, combined with Aspirin and Clopidogrel cocktail; and Atopaxar. Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays were conducted to assess viability and cytotoxicity respectively. Flow cytometric Annexin-V/PI assay was used to assess the mode of cell death. Morphological alterations were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica V13. Definitive outcomes were established with flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine exposure and propidium iodide staining, complemented with ultrastructural analysis. Results showed that a few cells were undergoing death mainly through secondary necrosis. Morphological features suggesting induced cell motility (pseudopodia/ruffled membranes) were observed in both cell lines; notably, T47D cells presented pronounced features than MCF7 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that such combined treatment may differentially promote cell survival, inducing a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype.
To assess the cost effectiveness from a Canadian perspective of index patient germline BRCA testing and then, if positive, family members with subsequent risk-reducing surgery (RRS) in as yet unaffected mutation carriers compared with no testing and treatment of cancer when it develops.
A patient level simulation was developed comparing outcomes between two groups using Canadian data. Group 1: no mutation testing with treatment if cancer developed. Group 2: cascade testing (index patient BRCA tested and first-/second-degree relatives tested if index patient/first-degree relative is positive) with RRS in carriers. End points were the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and budget impact.
There were 29,102 index patients: 2,786 ovarian cancer and 26,316 breast cancer (BC). Using the base-case assumption of 44 percent and 21 percent of women with a BRCA mutation receiving risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and risk-reducing mastectomy, respectively, testing was cost effective versus no testing and treatment on cancer development, with an ICER of CAD 14,942 (USD 10,555) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), 127 and 104 fewer cases of ovarian and BC, respectively, and twenty-one fewer all-cause deaths. Testing remained cost effective versus no testing at the commonly accepted North American threshold of approximately CAD 100,000 (or USD 100,000) per QALY gained in all scenario analyses, and cost effectiveness improved as RRS uptake rates increased.
Prevention via testing and RRS is cost effective at current RRS uptake rates; however, optimization of uptake rates and RRS will increase cost effectiveness and can provide cost savings.
Arkansans have some of the worst breast cancer mortality to incidence ratios in the United States (5th for Blacks, 4th for Whites, 7th overall). Screening mammography allows for early detection and significant reductions in mortality, yet not all women have access to these life-saving services. Utilization in Arkansas is well below the national average, and the number of FDA-approved screening facilities has decreased by 38% since 2001. Spatial accessibility plays an important role in whether women receive screenings.
We use constrained optimization models within a geographic information system (GIS) to probabilistically allocate women to nearby screening facilities, accounting for facility capacity and patient travel time. We examine accessibility results by rurality derived from rural–urban commuting area (RUCA) codes.
Under most models, screening capacity is insufficient to meet theoretical demand given travel constraints. Approximately 80% of Arkansan women live within 30 minutes of a screening facility, most of which are located in urban and suburban areas. The majority of unallocated demand was in Small towns and Rural areas.
Geographic disparities in screening mammography accessibility exist across Arkansas, but women living in Rural areas have particularly poor spatial access. Mobile mammography clinics can remove patient travel time constraints to help meet rural demand. More broadly, optimization models and GIS can be applied to many studies of healthcare accessibility in rural populations.
The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and spiritual-religious intervention in improvement coping responses and quality of life among women surviving from breast cancer.
This was a semi-experimental study. Forty-five breast cancer survivor referred to cancer research center at Shahid Beheshti university of medical Sciences in Tehran, assigned in 3 groups randomly (CBT group, spiritual-religious group and control group). The interventions were eight sessions cognitive-behavioral therapy and spiritual-religious intervention. The participants were evaluated through quality of life questionnaire published by european organization for research and treatment of cancer (QLQ-30C-ver3) and coping responses inventory (CRI). The data were analyzed using covariance.
Although both intervention groups improved in coping and quality of life, it was not statistically significant(P < 0.08).
Although both intervention groups improved in coping and quality of life but there is no differences between two groups.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of the Varian portal dosimetry (PD) system as a quality assurance (QA) tool for breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans.
Materials and methods:
Four hundred portal dose images from 200 breast cancer patient IMRT treatment plans were analysed. The images were obtained using Varian PortalVision electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) on Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Three patient plans were selected, and the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) positions were randomly altered by a mean of 0·5, 1, 1·5 and 2 mm with a standard deviation of 0·1 mm on 50, 75 and 100% of control points. Using the improved/global gamma calculation algorithm with a low-dose threshold of 10% in the EPID, the change in gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm and 1%/1 mm criterion was analysed as a function of the introduced error. The changes in the dose distributions of clinical target volume and organ at risk due to MLC positioning errors were also analysed.
Symmetric and asymmetric breast or chest wall plan fields are different in delivery as well as in the QA. An average gamma passing rate of 99·8 ± 0·5 is presented for 3%/3 mm symmetric plans and 96·9 ± 4·5 is presented for 3%/3 mm asymmetric plans. An average gamma passing rate of 98·4 ± 4·3 is presented for 2%/2 mm symmetric plans and 89·7 ± 9·5 is presented for 2%/2 mm asymmetric plans. A large-induced error in MLC positioning (2·0 mm, 100% of control points) results in an insignificant change in dose that would be delivered to the patient. However, EPID portal dosimetry is sensitive enough to detect even the slightest change in MLC positioning error (0·5 mm, 50% of control points).
Stricter pre-treatment QA action levels can be established for breast IMRT plans utilising EPID. For improved sensitivity, a multigamma criteria approach is recommended. The PD tool is sensitive enough to detect MLC positioning errors that contribute to even insignificant dose changes.
Due to the growing interest in the role of dietary patterns (DPs) on chronic diseases, we assessed the association between a posteriori identified DPs in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project – a prospective cohort study in a Mediterranean country – and breast cancer (BC) risk.
DPs were ascertained through a principal component analysis based on 31 predefined food groups. BC cases were initially identified through self-report or, if deceased, from death certificates or by notification by the next kin. Women reporting BC were asked to provide a copy of their medical report and diagnoses for confirmation purposes. We fitted Cox regression models to assess the association between adherence to the identified DPs and BC risk.
Spanish university graduates.
We included 10 713 young and middle-aged – mainly premenopausal – women.
After a median follow-up of 10·3 years, we identified 100 confirmed and 168 probable incident BC cases. We described two major DPs: ‘Western dietary pattern’ (WDP) and ‘Mediterranean dietary pattern’ (MDP). A higher adherence to a WDP was associated with an increased risk of overall BC (multivariable-adjusted HR for confirmed BC Q4 v. Q1 1·70; 95 % CI 0·93, 3·12; P for trend = 0·045). Contrarily, adherence to a MDP was inversely associated with premenopausal BC (multivariable-adjusted HR Q4 v. Q1 0·33; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·91). No significant associations were observed for postmenopausal BC.
Whereas a higher adherence to the WDP may increase the risk of BC, a higher adherence to the MDP may decrease the risk of premenopausal BC.