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How the interface of state law and indigenous market laws contributes to peacebuilding in Nigeria is an unexplored question that demands attention. First, law, human security and peace are interrelated through the cultural ideas and norms that inform human behaviour. Second, the co-existence of normative orders in Africa favours a top-down approach that inadequately acknowledges indigenous law, neglects its economic, cultural and religious influences, and thereby affects human security. Based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observation of markets in southern Nigeria, this article finds that although indigenous market laws are much altered, their foundational values inform market union constitutions, bye-laws and dispute resolution mechanisms. Union officials draft these laws with the assistance of Western-trained legal practitioners and apply them in close co-operation with state organs, who recognize market tribunals as quasi-judicial bodies. The article urges policy attention on the manner people adapt indigenous market laws to socio-economic changes.
The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an important ecological and commercial species. It plays a fundamental role in the structure and function of coastal benthic food webs, with global catches of ~74,357 tons. This is the most exploited portunid species in Brazil. However, few studies about the ecology and population dynamics of C. sapidus have been published. This study aimed to analyse the preferred areas for the spatial distribution of juveniles and moulting individuals of C. sapidus in shallow areas of the Patos Lagoon estuary and the adjacent marine reproductive area, and their relation to water and sediment characteristics. Juveniles and moulting individuals preferred the embayment of the upper estuary, where the sediments are finer, with higher contents of organic matter and the presence of submerged vegetation. There was also a temporal variability in the abundance of juvenile size classes, with two marked increments of smaller individuals: (1) in late spring and summer and (2) in winter, indicating two recruitment peaks. Unusual environmental conditions in the summer of the first year, with an increase of fine sediments and organic matter, combined with low salinities in the adjacent marine area, allowed recruitment of individuals there. We suggest better attention to the embayment around the Marinheiros Island (considered here as upper estuary) for management and protection measures due to the overlapping of recruitment preferences of the blue crab, pink shrimp and fish species in this area.
In this chapter, we find that snow accumulation and its transformation to ice lead to stratigraphy that persists for thousands of years and can be used to date ice. A perturbation analysis is then used to show that net balances are sensitive to summer temperature in continental areas and to both winter balance and summer temperature in maritime ones. Radiation balance could play a role in either environment. Dynamic thickening or thinning, and terminus advance or retreat are found to be closely linked. A rapid advance accompanied by commensurate thinning does not change mass. However, an advance may result in rapid terminus melting and retreat. Calving and bottom melting are also important mass balance components. On tidewater glaciers calving can lead to retreats unrelated to climate. Calving is a dominant process of mass loss on ice sheets. Bottom melting is important on some valley glaciers and ice shelves. Variations in atmospheric circulation patterns may result in asynchronous mass-balance patterns on glaciers only a few hundred kilometers apart. Finally, estimates of global mass balance, and their contribution to sea level rise are summarized.
This chapter deals with the critical issue of developing an effective culture, to more readily allow for innovations, say in research or in pedagogy. Partly such a change-prone culture might be impacted from the Dean/President at the top. Partly also there must be a bottom-up focus at work. And, it is this positive tension between top-down and bottom-up that might lead to an effective change culture. Ethics are of course key here, to inspire “good can become even better”.
This chapter uses process tracing to argue that organizations that grant voice and veto power to activists in the decision-making process avoid oligarchization of the party. The FA presents an opportunity to analyze how party organization per se affects the performance of political parties. The FA is a successful case of party building and reproduction that sheds light on the role organizational structure plays in reproducing activists. The process tracing systematically describes and explains the formation and reproduction of the party. It shows how the party´s first steps as a political organization established a reproduction mechanism with a lock-in effect that explains the persistence of the party’s activism.
Perhaps what it most important from this chapter is the conclusion, from empirical data, that economic development is not an adversary of environmental protection, but rather that the two appear to be mutually reinforcing in many cases. Furthermore, there is no fundamental theoretical reason from a Law and Economics perspective that economic growth and environmental protections need be adversarial, especially if the lessons of Pigou, Coase, and Calabresi are well respected along the way.
Since its suggestion in the early 1990’s, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) supposition holds that beyond an early stage of economic development, that increasing levels of per capita income will be associated with improving environmental qualities or services – that economic development favors environmental protection. There are various assumptions of why this empirical relationship is found; (i) wealthier citizens are better educated and seek better environmental conditions, (ii) wealthier citizens seek to consume higher quality environmental services, (iii) higher level economies shift towards increasingly proportions of service based economies, which are lighter on environmental impacts, or (iv) the Porter Hypothesis, that greener technologies are actually more efficient in a capitalist sense and thus higher per capita income should be associated with greener economies.
While constant change characterises ecology, subtidal ecologists seem set to take a deep dive in to the biological processes that accelerate and compensate for environmental change. Similar to the technological and collaborative progress that benefited the present generation of authors, continuing progress may assist future generations of subtidal ecologists to figure out why kelp forests are characterised by global mosaics of long-term loss, gain and stasis. Where and how might kelp decline or flourish or simply persist future ocean change? Our review takes a biogeographic perspective to synthesise ecological patterns and the processes that create them. On this basis, we consider the modification of ecological processes by oceans undergoing physical and chemical change and, as a result, consider their future ecology. We find that future oceans will make life beyond the capacity of kelp to exist on many coasts, but not all coasts will be beyond the capacity of a kelp’s life. Consequently, this review provides a sign post for future research into the future decline or persistence or even increase of kelp forests.
The north-eastern Pacific rocky intertidal has become widely recognised as a natural laboratory for experimental ecologists and as a platform for more observationally focussed ecologists seeking to understand macroecological and biogeographical patterns. In this chapter, we focus on a couple of broad topics that are central to our current understanding of fundamental ecological, evolutionary and conservation topics that have benefited from north-eastern Pacific rocky intertidal case studies. The first half of the chapter deals with recent work on the biotic and abiotic factors influencing patterns of range wide abundance and distribution of species, and how such patterns are being affected by human impacts. The second half reviews the latest research on the role of direct (e.g., size-selective harvesting) and indirect human impacts (e.g., climate change, disease) on top-down (e.g., predator/prey dynamics) and bottom-up (e.g., upwelling dynamics) control of rocky intertidal community structure and functioning. Many of the case studies presented in this chapter are a result of decades of monitoring efforts throughout the region; highlighting the utility of long time series data for understanding the temporal variability of ecological interactions and species’ abundance and distribution patterns, while providing baseline data to predict future changes.
Benthic communities, critical to the health and function of marine ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic impacts such as pollution, eutrophication and climate change. In order to refine predictions of likely future changes in benthic communities resulting from these impacts, we must first better constrain their responses to natural seasonality in environmental conditions. Epibenthic time series data (July 2008–May 2014) have been collected from Station L4, situated 7.25 nautical miles south of Plymouth in the Western English Channel. These data were analysed to establish patterns in community abundance, wet biomass and composition, and to link any observed patterns to environmental variables. A clear response to the input of organic material from phytoplankton blooms was detected, with sediment surface living deposit feeders showing an immediate increase in abundance, while predators and scavengers responded later, with an increase in biomass. We suggest that this response is a result of two factors. The low organic content of the L4 sediment results in food limitation of the community, and the mild winter/early spring bottom water temperatures allow the benthos to take immediate advantage of bloom sedimentation. An inter-annual change in community composition was also detected, as the community shifted from one dominated by the anomuran Anapagurus laevis to one dominated by the gastropod Turitella communis. This appeared to be related to a period of high larval recruitment for T. communis in 2013/2014, suggesting that changes in the recruitment success of one species can affect the structure of an entire community.
The bottom of the pyramid (BoP) consists of 1.4 billion people living less than 1.25 USD per day. Fulfilling unmet needs of BoP people involves the design of products as a main activity. Designing products for the BoP faces two main problems. First, there is a general lack of understanding of the needs of users and second, traditional design methods may be limited in addressing the BoP context. Frugal innovation is positioned as a very interesting approach with the potential to adequately respond to the design challenges of the products for the BoP. However, studies in engineering design based on frugal innovation are still limited. In response to these issues, through an analysis and review of the literature, an exploratory mapping of the proposals in frugal innovation and the characteristics of the BoP was conducted. On the basis of the results, this paper defines a set of eight frugal criteria design and an identification of three dimensions that characterize a BoP context and two roles of BoP people. Finally, an association of BoP dimensions and roles with the key criteria of frugal design is proposed.
This chapter focuses on tides in coastal seas and basins, where nonlinear and frictional effects are generally important. The depth-averaged shallow-water constituents are derived (Appendix B). The origin of shallow-water constituents is explained. A simple example is analyzed of tidal flow over a bank to explain the principles behind tide-induced residual circulation. Implications for chaotic stirring are discussed. Co-oscillation and resonance in tidal basins are analyzed for simple configurations, including the effects of frictional and radiation damping. The Helmholtz oscillator is explained. Finally, the focus shifts from depth-averaged currents to the vertical structure (Ekman dynamics, tidal straining, strain-induced periodic stratification in estuaries). The decomposition of tidal currents in phasors (rotary components) is elucidated.
A bottom-feed omni-directional CP (circularly polarized) antenna array is proposed in this letter. The antenna array is composed of four elements (two printed ZPS (zero-phase-shift) line loops and two half-wavelength dipoles). The four elements are fed with the same phase and amplitude. The ZPS line loops provide the horizontal polarization while the dipoles provide the vertical polarization. Therefore, omni-directional circular polarization is formed in the far field. The feeding network consists of a 1–4 T-shaped power divider formed by parallel strip lines. In order to balance the amplitude of the feeding coaxial cable, the structure is used in the bottom to transfer parallel strip line to micro-strip line. Besides, the loops and the dipoles are placed on the different side of the network to guarantee the omni-directional radiation property. The measured impedance bandwidth of the fabricated antenna is 0.13 GHz (2.40–2.53 GHz) and the measured maximum CP gain at 2.45 GHz is 4.8 dBic.
Human resource development (HRD) approaches aim to increase service users’ labour market prospects through training and upskilling. However, research on activation policy implementation suggests that individualised, tailored measures may be difficult to implement because of organisational structures, standardised procedures, contradictory professional interests, and broad framework laws. This qualitative study explored the institutional framing of the Norwegian Qualification Programme and how that framing created barriers in service users’ trajectories towards labour market inclusion. The study applied a bottom-up perspective to analyse how these barriers are entangled in a multidimensional web of interrelated and sometimes contradictory relations. Highlighting the service users’ perspective, the study aimed to examine how institutional framing may interfere with the activation policy goal of qualifying service users for the labour market. The results point to how institutional framing governs local practice and creates barriers that ultimately may impede activation policy goals.
Studies investigating the underlying mechanisms of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia suggest that an imbalance in top-down expectations v. bottom-up processing underlies these errors in perception. This study evaluates this hypothesis by testing if individuals drawn from the general population who have had auditory hallucinations (AH) have more misperceptions in auditory language perception than those who have never hallucinated.
We used an online survey to determine the presence of hallucinations. Participants filled out the Questionnaire for Psychotic Experiences and participated in an auditory verbal recognition task to assess both correct perceptions (hits) and misperceptions (false alarms). A hearing test was performed to screen for hearing problems.
A total of 5115 individuals from the general Dutch population participated in this study. Participants who reported AH in the week preceding the test had a higher false alarm rate in their auditory perception compared with those without such (recent) experiences. The more recent the AH were experienced, the more mistakes participants made. While the presence of verbal AH (AVH) was predictive for false alarm rate in auditory language perception, the presence of non-verbal or visual hallucinations were not.
The presence of AVH predicted false alarm rate in auditory language perception, whereas the presence of non-verbal auditory or visual hallucinations was not, suggesting that enhanced top-down processing does not transfer across modalities. More false alarms were observed in participants who reported more recent AVHs. This is in line with models of enhanced influence of top-down expectations in persons who hallucinate.
Eighty-six new acoustic survey lines along and across the Japan Trench revealed active sediment creep deformation on a deep-sea terrace at water depths of 400–1200 m in an area of arcuate-shaped depressions that are probably associated with tectonic erosion. The most active region of creep is located on the top at the surface of the depression south of 38° N. The area of creep deformation is characterized by arcuate-shaped topographic lineaments with active folds and active normal faults stepping down trenchward. In contrast to the southern region, normal faults at the top of the depression north of 38° N cut a sedimentary sequence (Unit 1) that is acoustically transparent with continuous weak reflectors, and this is covered by the undeformed layered sediment sequence of Unit 2. Unit 2 corresponds to the period of rising sea level that extended from the latest Pleistocene to the early Holocene (14–6 ka). Thus, creep is ongoing at the top of the depression south of 38° N in the surface layer, whereas it stopped north of the depression between 14 and 6 ka. These observations might indicate that the active region jumped from north to south due to probably retrogressive sliding.
A promising candidate to initiate dust formation in oxygen-rich AGB stars is alumina (Al2O3) showing an emission feature around ∼13μm attributed to Al−O stretching and bending modes (Posch+99,Sloan+03). The counterpart to alumina in carbon-rich AGB atmospheres is the highly refractory silicon carbide (SiC) showing a characteristic feature around 11.3μm (Treffers74). Alumina and SiC grains are thought to represent the first condensates to emerge in AGB stellar atmospheres. We follow a bottom-up approach, starting with the smallest stoichiometric clusters (i.e. Al4O6, Si2C2), successively building up larger-sized clusters. We present new results of quantum-mechanical structure calculations of (Al2O3)n, n = 1−10 and (SiC)n clusters with n = 1−16, including potential energies, rotational constants, and structure-specific vibrational spectra. We demonstrate the energetic viability of homogeneous nucleation scenarios where monomers (Al2O3 and SiC) or dimers (Al4O6 and Si2C2) are successively added. We find significant differences between our quantum theory based results and nanoparticle properties derived from (classical) nucleation theory.
Recent governments have introduced a plethora of reforms seeking to decentralise power to local government in England. Invariably, however, these have fallen short of stated objectives, leaving councils at the mercy of central supervision and with insufficient local autonomy. This paper explores the reasons underpinning this concern. It identifies a top-down approach to localism and considers the culture of centralism that persists as a consequence. It then discusses how a bottom-up approach might be achieved, exploring how political and legal mechanisms can protect councils from centralised interference in the future.
This paper describes how the Logic Programming System XSB combines top-down and bottom-up computation through the mechanisms of variant tabling and subsumptive tabling with abstraction, respectively.
It is well known that top-down evaluation of logical rules in Prolog has a procedural interpretation as recursive procedure invocation (Kowalski 1986). Tabling adds the intuition of short-circuiting redundant computations (Warren 1992). This paper shows how to introduce into tabled logic program evaluation a bottom-up component, whose procedural intuition is the initialization of a data structure, in which a relation is initially computed and filled, on first demand, and then used throughout the remainder of a larger computation for efficient lookup. This allows many Prolog programs to be expressed fully declaratively, programs which formerly required procedural features, such as assert, to be made efficient.
In line with the thinking of Laurence Louppe calling for a reevaluation and problematisation of oral sources within a dance history framework, this paper sets out to examine the extensive archive of the Bennington Summer School of the Dance Oral History Project, conducted between 1978 and 1979 and housed today at Columbia University. By taking as a starting point the dancer's voice at the heart of the educational project conceived by Martha Hill and Mary Jo Shelly, a different dance history of the thirties begins to emerge, bringing to the fore the dancer's evolving experience that constitutes a true Bennington archive, set against the backdrop of the “Big Four” ultimately not part of the project.