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We aimed to assess the effects of spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss on serum concentrations of follistatin (FST), myostatin (MST), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and body composition in competitive wrestlers. Forty competitive wrestlers (age: 22 (sem 2) years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: gradual weight loss + spirulina (SP; n 20) or gradual weight loss + placebo (PL; n 20). Subjects in both groups lost weight according to a designed diet over 12 d and were required to reduce baseline body mass (BM) by 4%. Subjects in the SP group received two tablets of spirulina, while subjects in the PL received two tablets of placebo before each meal. Concentrations of mentioned serum markers and body composition were measured before and after the interventions. BM (SP = −3·1 kg and PL = −2·9 kg), body fat percentage (BFP) (SP = −2·1 % and PL = −0·6 %), fat mass (FM) (SP = −2·2 kg and PL = −0·9 kg) and skeletal muscle mass (SP = −1·4 kg and PL = −1·5 kg) significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0·05). The changes in BFP and FM were significantly greater in SP compared with the PL group (P < 0·001). Additionally, MST (SP = −0·1 ng/ml), AST (SP = −2·1 u/l) and ALT (SP = −2·7 u/l) concentrations significantly diminished in SP group (P = 0·005), while FST (PL = −0·1 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (PL = −2·6 ng/ml) concentrations significantly decreased in PL group (P < 0·05). Spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss is beneficial in reducing BFP, FM, MST and liver enzymes while maintaining IGF-1 and FST concentrations in competitive wrestlers.
To determine whether food security, diet diversity and diet quality are associated with anthropometric measurements and body composition among women of reproductive age. The association between food security and anaemia prevalence was also tested.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) study. Food security and dietary data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Hb levels were measured using a HemoCue, and anaemia was classified as an altitude-adjusted haemoglobin level < 12·5 g/dl. Body size and composition were assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
The urban township of Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Non-pregnant women aged 18–25 years (n 1534).
Almost half of the women were overweight or obese (44 %), and 9 % were underweight. Almost a third of women were anaemic (30 %). The prevalence rates of anaemia and food insecurity were similar across BMI categories. Food insecure women had the least diverse diets, and food security was negatively associated with diet quality (food security category v. diet quality score: B = –0·35, 95 % CI –0·70, –0·01, P = 0·049). Significant univariate associations were observed between food security and total lean mass. However, there were no associations between food security and body size or composition variables in multivariate models.
Our data indicate that food security is an important determinant of diet quality in this urban-poor, highly transitioned setting. Interventions to improve maternal and child nutrition should recognise both food security and the food environment as critical elements within their developmental phases.
Overweight is increasing in the adolescent population and became a public health problem in the world. This study aimed to identify the body adiposity indices (BAI) with the best capacity to predict excess fat tissue and propose cut-off points for them, according to sex and adolescence period. This is a cross-sectional study. We calculated BMI, conicity index (CI), BAI, body roundness index (BRI), waist:height ratio (WtHR) and waist:hip ratio. Predictive capacity and cut-off points of adiposity indices were established by ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves. We determined AUC-ROC and CI, stratified by sex and adolescence period. The best index to identify excess body fat in 10-13-year-old female adolescents was the WtHR (AUC = 0·92), like the BAI in girls aged from 14 to 16 years old (AUC = 0·87) and 17 to 19 years old (AUC = 0·80). In male adolescents aged from 10 to 13 years old and 14 to 16 years old, the best index was the WtHR (AUC = 0·93 and AUC = 0·8, respectively), like the BAI in boys aged from 17 to 19 years old (AUC = 0·95). The use of indices with specific cut-off points for each period of adolescence and according to sex is important for the reliable diagnosis of excess body fat. It is advisable to use indices together to obtain a more accurate assessment. Thus, the WtHR and BAI are reproducible and reliable, with high sensitivity and specificity values, and can be used together with the BMI.
Patients with CHD exhibit reduced isometric muscle strength and muscle mass; however, little is known how these parameters relate. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the relation between isometric limb muscle strength and muscle mass for patients in comparison to age- and sex-matched control subjects.
Seventy-four patients (35.6 ± 14.3 years, women n = 22) and 74 matched controls were included. Isometric muscle strength in elbow flexion, knee extension, and hand grip was assessed using dynamometers. Lean mass, reflecting skeletal muscle mass, in the arms and legs was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Compared to controls, patients had lower muscle strength in elbow flexion, knee extension, and hand grip, and lower muscle mass in the arms (6.6 ± 1.8 kg versus 5.8 ± 1.7 kg, p < 0.001) and legs (18.4 ± 3.5 kg versus 15.9 ± 3.2 kg, p < 0.001). There was no difference in achieved muscle force per unit muscle mass in patients compared to controls (elbow flexion 0.03 ± 0.004 versus 0.03 ± 0.005 N/g, p = 0.5; grip strength 0.008 ± 0.001 versus 0.008 ± 0.001 N/g, p = 0.7; knee extension 0.027 ± 0.06 versus 0.028 ± 0.06 N/g, p = 0.5). For both groups, muscle mass in the arms correlated strongly with muscle strength in elbow flexion (patients r = 0.86, controls, r = 0.89), hand grip (patients, r = 0.84, controls, r = 0.81), and muscle mass in the leg to knee extension (patients r = 0.64, controls r = 0.68).
The relationship between isometric muscle strength and limb muscle mass in adults with CHD indicates that the skeletal muscles have the same efficiency as in healthy controls.
To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in adulthood.
Retrospective cohort. Undergraduates of nutrition or nutritionists were recruited at the baseline of the Nutritionists’ Health Study between 2014 and 2017. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and current life aspects were self-reported through online questionnaires. Three body compartments were dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-determined. The following variables were obtained: body fat (%), fat mass index (FMI) (kg/m2), android-to-gynoid fat ratio, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (cm3), appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) (kg/m2), total bone and femur mineral content (g) and density (g/cm2). Linear regression adjusted according to directed acyclic graphs recommendation was performed.
São Paulo, Brazil.
Healthy non-pregnant women (aged 20–45 years) (n 150).
Median age and BMI were 22 years (IQR = 20, 29) and 22·3 kg/m2 (IQR = 20·4, 25·3), respectively. Pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was reported by 14·7 % of mothers. In fully adjusted models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with their daughters’ body fat % (β = 0·31; 95 % CI 0·0004, 0·63), FMI (β = 0·17; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·30), android-to-gynoid ratio (β = 0·01; 95 % CI 0·004, 0·02) and VAT (β = 0·09; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·16), but not with total bone density (β = 0·001; 95 % CI –0·003, 0·006) and content (β = 7·13; 95 % CI –4·19, 18·46). Direct association with ASMI was also detected, but lost statistical significance when participants whose mothers were underweight were excluded.
Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was directly associated with offspring general and visceral adiposity but seems not to be associated with bone mass. Results reinforce importance of avoiding excess of maternal adiposity, as an attempt to break the vicious cycle of obesity transmission.
South Asians, who are at a disproportionately greater risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD), represent a rapidly growing population in the USA. The relationship between dairy products, a major component of South Asian diets, and body composition – an established risk factor for ASCVD, is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between dairy intake and multiple measures of body composition (BMI, waist and hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, abdominal lean mass, subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular fat areas) among South Asian adults in the USA. A baseline analysis was conducted using existing data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America cohort. In women, the highest (>1·9 servings/d) v. lowest (<1 serving/d) tertile of dairy intake was associated with 53 % lower odds of a waist circumference >80 cm (95 % CI 0·25, 0·89, Pfor trend<0·05). No associations were observed between dairy intake and measures of body composition. However, >3 servings of low-fat yogurt/week was associated with a 9·9 cm2 lower visceral fat area (95 % CI –19·07, –0·72, P<0·05) and 2·3 cm2 lower intermuscular fat area (95 % CI –3·76, –0·79, P<0·05) as compared with those with three servings/week. Milk and cheese were not associated with body composition measures. These analyses suggest that higher consumption of low-fat yogurt is associated with lower visceral and intermuscular fat in the whole sample, and women with higher dairy intake have lower waist circumference. Our study supports dietary incorporation of dairy products, and recognises the utility of multidimensional measures of central adiposity.
Lutein is considered as a major biologically active carotenoid, with potential benefits for obesity and cardiometabolic health. This double-blind, randomised controlled trial aimed to assess whether the consumption of lutein along with a low-calorie diet (LCD) can influence anthropometric indices, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese middle-aged individuals. After a 2-week run-in period with an LCD, forty-eight participants aged 45–65 years were randomly assigned to consume 20 mg/d lutein or placebo along with the LCD for 10 weeks. Dietary intake, anthropometric indices, body composition, lipid profile, glucose homoeostasis parameters, NEFA and appetite sensations were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. After 10 weeks, body weight and waist circumference significantly decreased in both groups, although between-group differences were not significant. There was more of a decrease in the percentage of body fat in the lutein group v. the placebo group. Moreover, the placebo group experienced a significant reduction in fat-free mass (FFM), whereas the lutein group preserved FFM during calorie restriction, although the between-group difference did not reach statistical significance. Visceral fat and serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased only in the lutein group, with a statistically significant difference between the two arms only for TC. No significant changes were observed in the TAG, HDL-cholesterol, glucose homoeostasis parameters, NEFA and appetite sensations. Lutein supplementation in combination with an LCD could improve body composition and lipid profile in obese middle-aged individuals.
The extensive interacting matrix of variables associated with population variation in growth, development, and maturation are reviewed. Secular trends in growth and maturation are described and interpreted. Human growth under adversity is explained and hope for the future is offered.
Our study aimed to describe body phenotypes (BP) estimated by multivariate analysis and their association with body mass.
Body phenotypes were defined based on demographic variables, anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds and circumferences), body composition (phase angle measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol ratio/Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), haemoglobin and sexual maturation (pubic hair and breasts or gonads). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to verify the differences between skin colour and the stages of pubertal development, body phenotypes, body composition, anthropometric, and biochemical variables.
Cities of São Paulo-SP, Piracicaba-SP and Florianópolis-SC from Brazil and the United States.
9269 adolescents aged between 10 to 15 years old.
The composition of BP was similar in all surveys, which are: BP1 was composed by skinfolds, body mass and circumferences variables; BP2 by pubic hair, breast in girls or gonad in boys, height and age; BP3 by cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose; and BP4 by phase angle, haemoglobin and glucose (negative loading). There was a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p <0.001) between BP1 and body mass index.
We highlighted independence observed between biochemical parameters, anthropometry, body composition and sexual maturation. BP may support the calculation of scores for diagnosis of obesity based on anthropometric variables and overcome ambiguity in the isolated use of body mass index.
Muscle mass may play an important role in the metabolic profile of individuals with or without excess weight. Metabolic phenotypes classify individuals as healthy or unhealthy based on certain metabolic conditions. We investigated the association between skeletal mass indices (SMI) and the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. A total of 660 adults aged 20 to 59 years were assessed by a population-based cross-sectional study. Muscle mass of the limbs or appendicular lean mass (ALM) adjusted for weight (SMIweight) and BMI (SMIBMI) was used to evaluate SMI. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the association between SMIweight, SMIBMI and metabolic phenotypes of normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were older in both sexes. Metabolically unhealthy men had lower SMI values and higher fat percentage than metabolically healthy men. SMIweight was inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype, both in normal-weight men (OR 0·49, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·99, P = 0·04) and in overweight/obese men (OR 0·32, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·64, P = 0·001). SMIBMI was inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in overweight/obese men (OR 0·36, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·72, P = 0·004), but not in normal-weight men (OR 0·70, 95 % CI 0·34, 1·43, P = 0·33). Among women, SMI showed no significant association with the phenotypes. In conclusion, the SMI are inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in men, especially among overweight/obese men.
We evaluated the effects of fish oil and/or probiotic supplementation in a randomised placebo-controlled intervention pilot trial on gestational weight gain (GWG) and body composition. Additionally, the influence of gestational diabetes (GDM) on GWG and body composition was assessed. We randomised 439 overweight women into intervention groups: fish oil + placebo, probiotics + placebo, fish oil + probiotics and placebo + placebo (fish oil: 1·9 g DHA and 0·22 g EPA and probiotics: Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420, 1010 colony-forming units each). GDM was diagnosed with oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography at randomisation (mean 13·9) and in late pregnancy (mean 35·2 gestational weeks). Intervention did not influence mean GWG or change in body fat mass/percentage (P > 0·17). Body composition in early pregnancy did not differ between the women who did or did not develop GDM (adjusted P > 0·23). Compared with the normoglycaemic women (n 278), women diagnosed with GDM (n 119) gained less weight (7·7 (sd 0·4) v. 9·3 (sd 0·4) kg, adjusted mean difference −1·66 (95 % CI −2·52, −0·80) and fat mass (0·4 (sd 0·4) v. 1·8 (sd 0·3) kg, adjusted mean difference −1·43 (95 % CI −2·19, −0·67) during the follow-up. In conclusion, adiposity of pregnant overweight women was not affected by supplementation with fish oil and/or probiotics, nor did it predict the development of GDM. However, adiposity was reduced in women with GDM compared with normoglycaemic women irrespective of the dietary intervention.
Physical growth is a fundamental feature of an infant’s first year, evident as the average neonate triples their weight and becomes 50% taller, rapidly outgrowing clothing while uttering their first words, enduring eruption of their first teeth, and taking their first steps. This remarkable transition in form continues a journey that began roughly 270 days earlier (Jukic, Baird, Weinberg, McConnaughey, & Wilcox, 2013) when a 0.5 micron fertilized egg cell initiated a series of differentiation, proliferation, and expansion events. Within days of consolidating the genetic material from maternal and paternal germ cells, the new zygotic genome becomes activated (Braude, Bolton, & Moore, 1988), replacing a sole reliance on proteins from the mother’s egg and reproductive tract. The first cell undergoes successive mitotic cycles resulting in cell proliferation within the original membrane formed by the fusion of the sperm and egg. By the end of the first week, the contiguous mass of new cells is compressed by the emergence of a fluid-filled cavity, creating an inner cell mass within the membrane.
During menopause, women undergo a series of physiological changes that include a redistribution of fat tissue. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 10 g of cocoa-rich chocolate to the habitual diet of postmenopausal women daily on body composition. We conducted a 6-month, two-arm randomised, controlled trial. Postmenopausal women (57·2 (sd 3·6) years, n 132) were recruited in primary care clinics. Participants in the control group (CG) did not receive any intervention. Those of the intervention group (IG) received 10 g daily of 99 % cocoa chocolate in addition to their habitual diet for 6 months. This quantity comprises 247 kJ (59 kcal) and 65·4 mg of polyphenols. The primary outcomes were the between-group differences in body composition variables, measured by impendancemetry at the end of the study. The main effect of the intervention showed a favourable reduction in the IG with respect to the CG in body fat mass (–0·63 kg (95 % CI –1·15, –0·11), P = 0·019; Cohen’s d = –0·450) and body fat percentage (–0·79 % (95 % CI –1·31, –0·26), P = 0·004; Cohen’s d = –0·539). A non-significant decrease was also observed in BMI (–0·20 kg/m2 (95 % CI –0·44, 0·03), P = 0·092; Cohen’s d = –0·345). Both the body fat mass and the body fat percentage showed a decrease in the IG for the three body segments analysed (trunk, arms and legs). Daily addition of 10 g of cocoa-rich chocolate to the habitual diet of postmenopausal women reduces their body fat mass and body fat percentage without modifying their weight.
Obesity caused by excessive deposited fat is generally classified as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Research regarding the association between dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGE) and obesity is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between dAGE and obesity and body composition in Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study included 265 adults aged 18–75 years from Tehran, Iran. dAGE were estimated using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ, according to the published food carboxymethyl lysine–AGE database for 549 routinely consumed food items for the Northeastern American multiethnic urban population, and were reported by dividing total energy intake. Dietary intake, sociodemographic data and physical activity status were collected using validated questionnaires, and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and obesity was defined based on WHO guidelines. The intake of fat and meat was significantly increased in higher tertiles, compared with the first tertile of dAGE (P < 0·001). No association between dAGE and body composition measures and obesity was observed; however, there was a significant negative association between dAGE and BMI (BMI; P = 0·01), waist circumference (P = 0·01), waist:hip ratio (P = 0·03), fat-free mass (P = 0·02) and muscle mass index (P = 0·01) in non-linear models. In conclusion, higher consumption of dAGE was associated with increased intake of fat and meat and was negatively related to changes in body composition measurements. Therefore, dAGE may connect obesity to diet by energy imbalance.
There is a need for accurate, inexpensive and field-friendly methods to assess body composition in children. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a promising approach; however, there have been limited validation and use among young children in resource-poor settings. We aim to develop and validate population-specific prediction equations for estimating total fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM) and percentage body fat (PBF) in Vietnamese children (4–7 years) using reactance and resistance from BIA, anthropometric variables and demographic information. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 120 children. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BIA and anthropometry. To develop prediction equations, we split all data into development (70 %) and validation datasets (30 %). The model performance was evaluated using predicted residual error sum of squares, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and R2. We identified a top performing model with the least number of parameters (age, sex, weight and resistance index or resistance and height), low RMSE (FM 0·70, FFM 0·74, PBF 3·10), low MAE (FM 0·55, FFM 0·62, PBF 2·49), high R2 (FM 0·95, FFM 0·92, PBF 0·82) and the least difference between predicted values and actual values from DXA (FM 0·03 kg or 0·01 sd, FFM 0·06 kg or 0·02 sd, PBF 0·27 % or 0·04 sd). In conclusion, we developed the first valid and highly predictive equations to estimate FM, FFM and PBF in Vietnamese children using BIA. These findings have important implications for future research on the double burden of disease and risks associated with overweight and obesity in young children.
Eggs are considered a high-quality protein source for their complete amino acid profile and digestibility. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of whole egg (WE) v. egg white (EW) ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on the skeletal muscle regulatory markers and body composition in resistance-trained men. Thirty resistance-trained men (mean age 24·6 (sd 2·7) years) were randomly assigned into the WE + RT (WER, n 15) or EW + RT (EWR, n 15) group. The WER group ingested three WE, while the EWR group ingested an isonitrogenous quantity of six EW per d immediately after the RT session. Serum concentrations of regulatory markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Significant main effects of time were observed for body weight (WER 1·7, EWR 1·8 kg), skeletal muscle mass (WER 2·9, EWR 2·7 kg), fibroblast growth factor-2 (WER 116·1, EWR 83·2 pg/ml) and follistatin (WER 0·05, EWR 0·04 ng/ml), which significantly increased (P < 0·05), and for fat mass (WER –1·9, EWR –1·1 kg), transforming growth factor-β1 (WER –0·5, EWR −0·1 ng/ml), activin A (WER –6·2, EWR –4·5 pg/ml) and myostatin (WER –0·1, EWR –0·06 ng/ml), which significantly decreased (P < 0·05) in both WER and EWR groups. The consumption of eggs absent of yolk during chronic RT resulted in similar body composition and functional outcomes as WE of equal protein value. EW or WE may be used interchangeably for the dietary support of RT-induced muscular hypertrophy when protein intake is maintained.
This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the effects of different rates of weight loss (WL), but equivalent total WL, on body composition and RMR. Studies examining gradual v. rapid WL on body composition and RMR in participants with overweight/obesity published up to October 2019 were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Ovid databases. Meta-analysis was carried out using a fixed or random effects model as appropriate. Although the magnitude of WL was similar (mean difference 0·03 kg, 95 % CI –0·65, 0·71), gradual WL promoted greater reductions in fat mass (FM) (–1 kg, 95 % CI –1·70, –0·29) and body fat percentage (BFP) (–0·83 %, 95 % CI –1·49, –0·17). Gradual WL significantly preserved RMR compared with rapid WL (407·48 kJ, 95 % CI 76·76, 118·01). However, there was no significant difference in waist and hip circumferences, waist:hip ratio and fat-free mass (FFM) between gradual and rapid WL. The present systematic review and meta-analysis indicates beneficial effects of gradual WL, as compared with rapid WL, on FM, BFP and RMR in individuals with overweight/obesity. However, FFM changes and anthropometric indices did not significantly differ following different rates of WL.
Normal-weight obesity (NWO) syndrome is associated with metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of a high-protein (HP) v. a standard protein (SP) diet on appetite, anthropometry and body composition in NWO women. In this clinical trial, fifty NWO women were randomly allocated to HP (n 25) or SP (n 25) diet groups. Women in the HP and SP groups consumed 25 and 15 % of their total energy intake from protein for 12 weeks. Weight, fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), waist circumference (WC) and appetite were evaluated at baseline and following their 3-month intervention. After 12 weeks, the LBM was higher in HP compared with no significant changes in the SP group (mean between-group difference = 1·5 kg; 95 % CI 3·1, 0·01; effect size (d) = 0·4). Furthermore, the HP group had lower FM (mean between-group difference –1·1 kg; 95 % CI 1, –3·3; d = –0·2), body fat percentage (BFP) (mean between-group difference –2 %; 95 % CI 0·7, –5·2; d = –0·3) and WC (mean between-group difference –1·4 cm; 95 % CI 0·6, –3·6; d = –0·2) at the end of the study in comparison with the SP group. In both groups, weight and appetite were unchanged over time without significant differences between groups. Twelve weeks of euenergetic diets with different dietary protein contents resulted in no significant weight loss in women with NWO. However, an HP diet significantly improved body composition (LBM, FM, BFP and WC) in this population.
Maternal nutrition is an environmental determinant for offspring growth and development, especially in critical periods. Nutritional imbalances during these phases can promote dysregulations in food intake and feeding preference in offspring, affecting body composition. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the effects of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on offspring feeding behavior and body composition. A search was performed in the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and LILACS databases. Inclusion criteria were studies in rodents whose mothers were submitted to HFD that assessed outcomes of food or caloric intake on offspring and food preference associated or not with body weight or body composition analysis. At the end of the search, 17 articles with the proposed characteristics were included. In these studies, 15 articles manipulated diet during pregnancy and lactation, 1 during pregnancy only, and 1 during lactation only. Maternal exposure to a HFD leads to increased food intake, increased preference for HFDs, and earlier food independence in offspring. The offspring from HFD mothers present low birthweight but become heavier into adulthood. In addition, these animals also exhibited greater fat deposition on white adipose tissue pads. In conclusion, maternal exposure to HFD may compromise parameters in feeding behavior and body composition of offspring, impairing the health from conception until adulthood.
To propose a new anthropometric index that can be employed to better predict percent body fat (PBF) among young adults and to compare with current anthropometric indices.
All measurements were taken in a controlled laboratory setting in Seoul (South Korea), between 1 December 2015 and 30 June 2016.
Eighty-seven young adults (18–35 years) who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used for analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop a body fat index (BFI) using simple demographic and anthropometric information. Correlations of DXA measured PBF (DXA_PBF) with previously developed anthropometric indices and the BFI were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to compare the ability of anthropometric indices to identify obese individuals.
BFI showed a strong correlation with DXA_PBF (r = 0·84), which was higher than the correlations of DXA_PBF with the traditional (waist circumference, r = 0·49; waist to height ratio, r = 0·68; BMI, r = 0·36) and alternate anthropometric indices (a body shape index, r = 0·47; body roundness index, r = 0·68; body adiposity index, r = 0·70). Moreover, the BFI showed higher accuracy at identifying obese individuals (area under the curve (AUC) = 0·91), compared with the other anthropometric indices (AUC = 0·71–0·86).
The BFI can accurately predict DXA_PBF in young adults, using simple demographic and anthropometric information that are commonly available in research and clinical settings. However, larger representative studies are required to build on our findings.