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This study aimed to determine anthropometric cut-points for screening diabetes and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Arab and South Asian ethnic groups in Kuwait and to compare the prevalence of the MetS based on the ethnic-specific waist circumference (WC) cut-point and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute WC criteria. The national population-based survey data set of diabetes and obesity in Kuwait adults aged 18–60 years was analysed. Age-adjusted logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to evaluate for 3589 individuals the utility of WC, waist:height ratio (WHtR) and BMI to discriminate both diabetes and ≥3 CVD risk factors. Areas under the ROC curve were similar for WC, WHtR and BMI. In Arab men, WC, WHtR and BMI cut-offs for diabetes were 106 cm, 0·55 and 28 kg/m2 and for ≥3 CVD risk factors, 97 cm, 0·55 and 28 kg/m2, respectively. In Arab women, cut-offs for diabetes were 107 cm, 0·65 and 33 kg/m2 and for ≥3 CVD risk factors, 93 cm, 0·60 and 30 kg/m2, respectively. WC cut-offs were higher for South Asian women than men. IDF-based WC cut-offs corresponded to a higher prevalence of the MetS across sex and ethnic groups, compared with Kuwait-specific cut-offs. Any of the assessed anthropometric indices can be used in screening of diabetes and ≥3 CVD risk factors in Kuwaiti Arab and Asian populations. ROC values were similar. The WC threshold for screening the MetS in Kuwaiti Arabs and South Asians is higher for women.
While the relationship between socioeconomic status and child health has been studied extensively in developed countries, evidence is limited for developing countries. This study makes an important contribution by examining the relationship between child health and household socioeconomic status in Vietnam, using household expenditure as an alternative measure. This also allows us to explore the mechanisms via which income affects child health, in which household consumption arguably plays a crucial role. We employ different measures of health that allow us to examine both long-run and short-run effects, and two alternative instrumental variables, the unemployment rate and rainfall deviation, to address the potential endogeneity of household expenditure. We find evidence of a strong positive impact of household expenditure on child health and the findings are consistent across age groups. Specifically, a 10% increase in expenditure will result in a weight gain of 213–541 g in a “typical” child. We also explore the effect of a range of exogenous adverse economic shocks on children's health.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the association between body mass index (BMI) and the intake of macronutrients varies along the BMI distribution of German adults. Based on a sample of 9214 men and women aged 18–80 years from the representative cross-sectional German National Nutrition Survey (NVS) II, quantile regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the intake of macronutrients independent of energy intake and other predictors. In both sexes, BMI was positively associated with the intake of total protein and animal protein over its entire range and negatively associated with vegetable protein. A negative association between BMI and the intake of polysaccharides was found along the entire range of BMI in men. There was a weak negative association between BMI and the intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids observed in normal-weight-range women only. In conclusion, the association between BMI and the intake of macronutrients varies along the BMI range. Animal protein intake is positively associated with BMI independent of energy intake in both sexes whereas only in men an inverse association of polysaccharide intake with BMI was shown.
Few longitudinal studies have evaluated the association between eating and drinking habits and the risk of obesity. Therefore, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal big data analysis for evaluating various eating and drinking habits and the risk of obesity. We analysed individuals without obesity who received medical check-ups from 2008 to 2012 and 5 years later from the JMDC Health check-up database. The primary outcome was the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), and the secondary outcome was the incidence of abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 85 cm for men and 90 cm for women). Age- and sex-adjusted, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of 123 182 individuals without obesity at baseline, the median age was 45 (interquartile range 40, 51) years and 76 965 (62·5 %) were men. After 5 years, 7133 (5·8 %) people developed obesity and 12 725 (10·3 %) people developed abdominal obesity. Among six eating and drinking habits, skipping breakfast was associated with a higher risk of obesity (OR 1·21; 99 % CI 1·10, 1·34). In contrast, occasional (OR 0·86; 99 % CI 0·78, 0·94) or daily (OR 0·79; 99 % CI 0·68, 0·91) drinking of alcoholic beverages was associated with a lower risk of obesity. According to the 5-year longitudinal data, eating and drinking habits such as mild to moderate alcohol consumption and avoiding skipping breakfast may result in better obesity prevention. However, excess alcohol consumption would be harmful and should be avoided.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects fertility. There are two types of PCOS; the normal/lean type and overweight/obese type. The aim of this study was to assess baseline characteristics, ovarian response, quality of oocytes, embryos, pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates in normal/lean and overweight/obese patients with PCOS undergoing ICSI compared with patients without PCOS. This retrospective case–control analytical study included 38 normal/lean and 17 overweight/obese patients with PCOS, and 98 normal/lean and 17 overweight/obese patients without PCOS. Parameters were observed based on baseline characteristics, ovarian response to dosage and duration of gonadotropin administered, number of oocytes, matured oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo quality and development, pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. Basal serum luteinizing hormone in normal/lean PCOS was significantly higher compared with non-PCOS groups. Total dosage of gonadotropin used was significantly lower in normal/lean PCOS compared with other groups. End estradiol levels in normal/lean PCOS was significantly higher compared with the non-PCOS groups. Number of follicles, retrieved oocytes and matured oocytes were significantly higher in PCOS groups compared with the non-PCOS groups. However, there were no differences in fertilized oocytes, cleavage, number of top-quality embryos, pregnancy, implantation, and live birth rates among groups. This present study suggests that normal/lean PCOS requires lower gonadotropin dosages and that patients with PCOS have more follicles and oocytes compared with patients without PCOS, however the number of fertilized oocytes and embryos from patients with PCOS were the same as those from patients without PCOS and suggested that the quality of retrieved oocytes in PCOS might be compromised.
Binge eating behaviour (BE) is the major symptom of binge eating disorder (BED). This study aimed to compare the nutritional intake in the presence or absence of BE, with a particular focus on dietary n-6:n-3 ratio, to assess the association between BE and impulsivity and the mediating effect of BMI on this association. A total of 450 university students (age 18–28 years) participated. The self-administered questionnaires were a semi-quantitative FFQ and the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale and the binge eating scale. The average BE score was 11·6 (se 7·388), and 20 % of the total participants scored above the cut-off of 17, thus presenting BE with 95 % CI of 16·3, 23·7 %. Our study revealed that greater BMI, higher total energy intake, greater negative urgency and positive urgency scores were significantly associated with BE. Participants with high value of dietary n-6:n-3 ratio were 1·335 more at risk to present a BE compared with those with a lower value of this ratio (P = 0·017). The relationship between BE score and UPPS domains score was not mediated by the BMI. This is the first study reporting a link between high dietary n-6:n-3 ratio and BE as well as the fact that BE was linked to both, negative and positive urgencies, and that the association between BE and impulsivity was not mediated by BMI. These findings can help to deal more efficiently with people suffering from BE, a symptom that can precede the development of BED.
To assess the association between perceived stress and adiposity among Chinese adults.
Cross-sectional study. Perceived stress was assessed using the 14-item perceived stress scale. Associations between quintiles of perceived stress and BMI and waist circumference were assessed using linear regression models and multinomial regression models. Estimates were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics.
2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey: 12 provinces covering a variety of geographic, economic development and health indicator situations.
A total of 8385 adults of both sexes, aged 18–99 years, were included.
Overall, the mean perceived stress score was 22·7 (6·2), mean BMI was 24·3 (3·6) kg/m2 and prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was 6·0 %. There were inverse associations between perceived stress quintiles with continuous BMI (P < 0·001), BMI categories (P = 0·015) and waist circumference (P = 0·047). Compared to adults in the lowest quintile of perceived stress, adults in the highest quintile of perceived stress had 0·44 kg/m2 lower mean BMI (95 % CI: −0·67, −0·21), 0·72 times the prevalence of obesity (95 % CI: 0·55, 0·94) and 0·73 times the prevalence of abdominal obesity (95 % CI: 0·61, 0·88). Results were similar when using Chinese-specific cut-points.
Our results showed inverse associations between perceived stress quintiles and adiposity among Chinese adults. Future studies should aim to better understand the directionality of the observed associations and the potential biological and behavioural mechanisms underlying these associations in the Chinese population.
The identification of early-life determinants of overweight is crucial to start early prevention. As weight gain accelerates between 2 and 6 years, we studied the association between diet quality in children aged 3 years and the change in BMI and overweight incidence in the following 7 years. From the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort, 1001 children born in 2006 or 2007 with complete data on diet (food frequency questionnaire at the age of 3 years) and growth at the age of 3 and 10 years were included. Diet quality was estimated with the evidence-based Lifelines Diet Score (LLDS). Measured height and weight at the age of 3 and 10 years were used to calculate BMI z-scores standardized for age and sex. The associations of the LLDS (in quintiles) with BMI-z change and overweight incidence were studied with linear and logistic regression analyses. Overweight prevalence in the total study population increased from 8.3% at the age of 3 years to 16.7% at the age of 10 years. The increase in overweight prevalence ranged from 14.7% in Q1 to 3.5% in Q5. Children with a better diet quality (higher quintiles of LLDS) increased significantly less in BMI-z (confounder adjusted βLLDS = −0.064 (−0.101; −0.026)). Children with a poor diet quality at the age of 3 years had a considerably higher risk for overweight at the age of 10 years (confounder adjusted OR for Q1 vs. Q5 was 2.86 (95% CI 1.34–6.13). These results show the importance of diet in healthy development in the early life following the first 1000 days when new habits for a mature diet composed of food groups with lifelong importance are developed, providing a relevant window for overweight prevention early in life.
The prevalence of central obesity in the total population has been reported in numerous studies. However, information on the prevalence of central obesity within normal-category BMI is scant. In the present study, we examined the profiles of central obesity among normal-weight children and adolescents. A total of 29 516 (14 226 boys and 15 290 girls) normal-weight children and adolescents (excluding underweight, overweight and obesity) aged 7–18 years were included in the final analysis. Central obesity was defined by the international age- and sex-specific cut-offs of waist circumference (WC) and threshold of waist:height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0·5). All subjects were classified into four groups (Q1–Q4) according to the age- and sex-specific quartiles of BMI, those in the upper fourth (Q4) were defined as ‘high-normal BMI’ and those in the lower fourth (Q1) were defined as ‘low-normal BMI’. The prevalence of central obesity as measured by WC was 9·90 (95 % CI 9·41, 10·39) % for boys and 8·11 (95 % CI 7·68, 8·54) % for girls; by WHtR was 2·97 (95 % CI 2·69, 3·25) % for boys and 2·44 (95 % CI 2·20, 2·68) % for girls. Subjects in the Q4 group had a much higher prevalence of central obesity than their counterparts in the Q1 group (P < 0·01). Our findings suggest that the health risks of children with normal-weight central obesity may be missed when BMI is used alone as a measure; it is meaningful to include WC in clinical practice and to include the simple message ‘Keep your waist to less than half your height’.
Research has emphasized the genetic basis of individual differences in body mass index (BMI); however, genetic factors cannot explain the rapid rise of obesity. Eating behaviors have been stipulated to be the behavioral expression of genetic risk in an obesogenic environment. In this study, we decompose variation and covariation between three key eating behaviors and BMI in a sample of 698 participants, consisting of 167 monozygotic, 150 dizygotic complete same-sex female twins and 64 incomplete pairs from a population-based twin registry in the southeast of Spain, The Murcia Twin Registry. Phenotypes were emotional eating, uncontrolled eating and cognitive restraint, measured by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI. Variation in eating behaviors was driven by nonshared environmental factors (range: 56%−65%), whereas shared environmental and genetic factors were secondary. All three eating behaviors were correlated with BMI (r = .19–.25). Nonshared environmental factors explained the covariations (Emotional eating–Uncontrolled eating: rE = .54, 95% CI [.43, .64]; BMI–Cognitive restraint: rE = .15, 95% CI [.01, .28]). In contrast to BMI, individual differences in eating behaviors are mostly explained by nonshared environmental factors, which also accounted for the phenotypic correlation between eating behaviors and BMI. Due to the sample size, analyses were underpowered to detect contributions of additive genetic or shared environmental factors to variation and covariation of the phenotypes. Although more research is granted, these results support that eating behaviors could be viable intervention targets to help individuals maintain a healthy weight.
The aim of this study was to assess body shape trajectories in childhood and midlife in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer (BC) in a Mediterranean cohort.
The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) Project is a dynamic prospective cohort study of university graduates initiated in 1999. With a group-based modelling approach, we assessed body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for BC after the age of 40 years according to the body shape trajectory.
City of Pamplona, in the North of Spain.
6498 women with a mean age of 40 years (sd 9).
We identified four distinct body shape trajectories (‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ (19·9 %), ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ (53 %), ‘childhood heavy-midlife stable’ (21 %) and ‘childhood heavy-midlife increase’ (6·1 %)). Among 54 978 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed eighty-two incident cases of BC. Women in the ‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ group showed a higher risk of BC (HR = 1·84, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·04) compared with women in the ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ category. This association was stronger for postmenopausal BC (HR = 2·42, 95 % CI 1·07, 5·48).
Our results suggest a role for lifetime adiposity in breast carcinogenesis.
To evaluate the performance of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) to identify thinness in the late adolescence period (aged 15–19 years) in Ethiopia.
We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study. The receiver operating characteristics curve was used to examine the validity of MUAC compared with BMI Z-score to identify adolescents with thinness (BMI Z-score <−2 sd).
Fifteen high schools (grade 9–12) located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
A total of 851 adolescent (456 males and 395 females) were included in the study.
The prevalence of thinness and severe thinness among high-school adolescents in Addis Ababa was 9·5 % (95 % CI 7·7, 11·7 %). The overall AUC for MUAC against BMI Z-score <−2 SD was 0·91 (95 % CI 0·88, 0·93). The optimal MUAC cut-offs to identify thinness were 23·3 cm for males and 22·6 cm for females. These cut-off points give high sensitivity and specificity for both males (a sensitivity of 87·9 % and a specificity of 75·9 %) and females (a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity 88·2 %).
MUAC has a comparable level of accuracy with BMI Z-score to identify thinness in adolescents aged 15–19 years. Hence, MUAC could be used as an alternative tool for surveillance and screening of thinness among adolescents aged 15–19 years. The optimum cut-off proposed by this study may incorrectly include a large number of adolescents when used in a relatively well-nourished population. In this situation, it would be necessary to choose a cut-off with greater positive predictive value.
To determine the optimal anthropometric cut-off points for predicting the likelihood ratios of hypertension and diabetes in the Peruvian population.
A cross-sectional study was performed to establish cut-off values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist:height ratio (WHtR) and Conicity index (C-index) associated with increased risk of hypertension and diabetes. Youden’s index (YIndex), area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity were calculated.
Peruvian population over the age of 18 years.
A total of 31 553 subjects were included, 57 % being women. Among the women, 53·06 % belonged to the 25- to 44-year-old age group [mean age: 41·66 in men and 40·02 in women]. The mean BMI, WHtR and C-index values were higher in women 27·49, 0·61, 1·30, respectively, while the mean WC value was higher in men 92·12 cm (sd ± 11·28). The best predictors of hypertension in men were the WHtR (AUC = 0·64) and the C-index (AUC = 0·64) with an optimal cut-off point of 0·57 (YIndex = 0·284) and 1·301 (YIndex = 0·284), respectively. Women showed an AUC of 0·63 and 0·61 in the WHtR and C-index, respectively, with an optimal cut-off of 0·61 (YIndex = 0·236) and 1·323 (YIndex = 0·225). The best predictor for diabetes was the C-index: with an AUC = 0·67 and an optimal cut-off of 1·337 (YIndex = 0·346) for men and an AUC = 0·66 and optimal cut-off of 1·313 (YIndex = 0·319) for women.
Our findings show that in Peruvian adults, the WHtR and the C-index have the strongest association with hypertension in both sexes. Likewise, the C-index had the strongest association with diabetes.
We examined BMI as a health risk factor for self-reported diabetes mellitus, angina, strokes and arthritis among older Ghanaians aged 50 years and above.
We analysed the individual-level data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health Ghana Wave 2 (2014/2015). The influence of BMI on self-reported chronic conditions including diabetes, angina, stroke and arthritis was examined.
Households from all the administrative regions of Ghana.
Included 3350 adults aged 50 years and older.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among participants was 22·8 % (95 % CI 20·6, 25·2) and 13·2 %, respectively (95 % CI 11·5, 15·1). With respect to individual chronic conditions, arthritis emerged with the highest prevalence rate of 7·3 (95 % CI 5·3, 9·9), while the prevalence rate of diabetes, angina and stroke was 2·8 % (95 % CI 2·0, 3·9), 1·7 % (95 % CI 1·1, 2·6) and 1·3 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·8), respectively. The risk of diabetes among overweight and obesity was over three and two times, respectively, higher compared with participants with normal weights. Overweight and obesity were significantly more than two and three times likely to experience angina, respectively, compared with participants with normal weight. Obesity significantly influences arthritis with approximately two times increased odds compared with normal weight participants.
Prevalence of obesity and overweight in Ghana is high and increasing, which poses a health risk at the individual and population levels. Inter-sectorial and multidisciplinary measures in line with the national non-communicable disease policies aimed at curbing this trend are imperative.
Few studies have derived data-driven dietary patterns in youth in the USA. This study examined data-driven dietary patterns and their associations with BMI measures in predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority US youth. Data were from baseline assessments of the four Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium trials: NET-Works (534 2–4-year-olds), GROW (610 3–5-year-olds), GOALS (241 7–11-year-olds) and IMPACT (360 10–13-year-olds). Weight and height were measured. Children/adult proxies completed three 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary patterns were derived for each site from twenty-four food/beverage groups using k-means cluster analysis. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of dietary patterns with BMI and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile. Healthy (produce and whole grains) and Unhealthy (fried food, savoury snacks and desserts) patterns were found in NET-Works and GROW. GROW additionally had a dairy- and sugar-sweetened beverage-based pattern. GOALS had a similar Healthy pattern and a pattern resembling a traditional Mexican diet. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI were only observed in IMPACT. In IMPACT, youth in the Sandwich (cold cuts, refined grains, cheese and miscellaneous) compared with Mixed (whole grains and desserts) cluster had significantly higher BMI (β = 0·99 (95 % CI 0·01, 1·97)) and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile (β = 4·17 (95 % CI 0·11, 8·24)). Healthy and Unhealthy patterns were the most common dietary patterns in COPTR youth, but diets may differ according to age, race/ethnicity or geographic location. Public health messages focused on healthy dietary substitutions may help youth mimic a dietary pattern associated with lower BMI.
Gender analysis in health research is important to strengthen our health system. The current study aimed to explore factors related to body weight misperception in a national sample of the general Korean population.
South Korea, general population.
12,900 adults enrolled from the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2018).
Disadvantageous socio-economic status was considered a predictor of participants’ misperceptions of themselves as being of a healthy weight despite being overweight and as underweight despite being of a healthy weight, mainly in men. Favourable socio-economic status was considered a predictor of participants’ misperceptions of themselves as being of a healthy weight despite being underweight and as overweight despite being of a healthy weight, mainly in women. Living in an urban area was an independent predictor of men’s misperception of themselves as being of a healthy weight despite being overweight and women’s misperception of themselves as being underweight despite being of a healthy weight. Physical inactivity was a predictor of most misperceptions in women. Psychological variables, such as stress and depression, were not significant predictors of misperception.
The current study highlighted the gender differences in factors related to body weight misperception. These differences suggested that more sophisticated policies should be formulated to identify solutions to health problems related to body weight.
This study aimed to investigate the association of ultra-processed food consumption at 4 and 7 years of age with appetitive traits at 7 years and BMI at 10 years of age. Participants were 1175 children of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI, who provided food diaries and complete data on socio-demographic variables, anthropometric measures and the Portuguese Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (P-CEBQ). Foods were grouped according to NOVA classification into: ‘unprocessed, minimally or moderately processed, and culinary preparations’; ‘processed’ and ‘ultra-processed’. To assess tracking of groups’ consumption, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Generalised linear models were fitted to test main associations, mediators and interactions among the variables. Ultra-processed consumption exhibited a fair level of stability between ages 4 and 7 years (r 0·34; ICC = 0·32; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·39), corresponding, respectively, to 27·3 % (1881·9 (SD 908·8) kJ/d) and 29·3 % (2204·5 (SD 961·1) kJ/d) of total energy intake. After adjusting for maternal and child characteristics, higher ultra-processed consumption at 4 years was associated directly with ‘Food Responsiveness’ (β = 0·019; 95 % CI 0·007, 0·037) and indirectly through energy intake with avoidant traits: ‘Food Fussiness’ (β = –0·007; 95 % CI 0·002, 0·012) and ‘Satiety Responsiveness’ (β = –0·007; 95 % CI 0·003, 0·012). Ultra-processed consumption at 4 years old was associated with BMI at 10 years old, but appetitive behaviours were not powerful mediators of this association. The results suggest a path by which ultra-processed products may impact on later appetitive traits and higher BMI in children.
To examine cross-sectional associations of four aspects of the consumer food environment – price, availability, marketing and product placement – with BMI and fruit and vegetable intake.
This cross-sectional study measured the consumer food environment using grocery store audits and surveys. Outcomes were measured through surveys and physical exams. Multivariable linear regression models were run; models were all adjusted for age, neighbourhood, education, race/ethnicity and financial burden.
Non-proportional quota sample of four socio-economically and racial/ethnically diverse neighbourhoods in Chicago, IL.
Women (n 228) aged 18–44 years.
Participants who reported seeing healthy food marketing had a higher vegetable intake (β = 0·24, 95 % CI 0·06, 0·42). There was some suggestive evidence that participants who shopped at stores that were more expensive (β = −0·90, 95 % CI −1·94, 0·14) had lower BMI, but this association was not statistically significant. Multivariable regression models did not indicate any significant association between any measure of the consumer food environment and fruit intake.
Our findings add to the growing interest in the role of the consumer food environment in health behaviours. Further research is needed to better understand the role of price and marketing characteristics on eating behaviours and BMI.
We performed the cohort study to evaluate the association between BMI, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the conversion from metabolically healthy to unhealthy phenotype in Chinese adults.
Metabolically healthy was defined as participants without history of metabolic diseases and with normal fasting blood glucose level, glycated Hb A1c level, blood pressure, lipid profile, serum uric acid level and liver ultrasonographic findings at baseline. Participants were either classified into normal weight (18·5 ≤ BMI < 24·0 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24·0 kg/m2) based on baseline BMI, or low (<1 mg/l) and high (≥1 mg/l) groups based on baseline hs-CRP. The conversion from metabolically healthy to unhealthy phenotype was deemed if any of the metabolic abnormalities had been confirmed twice or more during 5 years of follow-up.
Included were 4855 (1942 men and 2913 women, aged 36·0 ± 8·9 years) metabolically healthy Chinese adults. We identified 1692 participants who converted to metabolically unhealthy phenotype during the follow-up. Compared with their counterparts, the adjusted hazards ratio of the conversion was 1·19 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·33) for participants with overweight, while it was 1·15 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·29) for those with high hs-CRP level (≥1 mg/l). Further adjustment of hs-CRP did not materially change the association between BMI and the conversion. However, the association between hs-CRP and the conversion was not significant after further adjustment of BMI. The sensitivity analysis generated similar results to main analysis.
BMI was associated with the risk of the conversion from metabolically healthy to unhealthy status in Chinese adults.
The increased prevalence and adverse health consequences of obesity have made it one of the leading public health issues in recent years. Importantly, several epidemiological studies have revealed significant associations between BMI and organic food consumption. However, although these studies have suggested that this factor holds promise to prevent obesity, they all suffer from methodological limitations, including self-reporting methods to assess BMI, not controlling for potential confounding factors or using a non-representative sample. Moreover, all were restricted to an adult sample. We present the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study assessing the association of organic food consumption with BMI and obesity in a representative lifespan French sample (INCA3 study). Objective methods were used to measure BMI, and several potentially confounding variables were controlled for. In total, 1775 children and adolescents and 2121 adults underwent anthropometric measurements and completed questionnaires concerning their dietary habits and lifestyle. Unadjusted models systematically revealed negative associations between organic food consumption and both BMI and obesity across all age groups. These associations tended to remain statistically significant even after controlling for several confounding variables concerning socio-economic status, quality of the diet and physical activity. The effect sizes were, however, small. These data confirm the association between organic food consumption and obesity during both childhood and adulthood. Evidence from randomised controlled trials is required to investigate causality between organic food consumption and lower BMI or obesity rate.