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The authors sought to clarify the impact of spousal psychiatric disorders of differing severity [major depression or anxiety disorders (DAD) v. bipolar disorder or nonaffective psychosis (BPN)] on proband risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) during marriage.
In a Swedish cohort (N = 744 628), associations between spousal DAD and BPN and proband AUD were estimated with Cox proportional hazards; associations between parental AUD, proband premarital AUD, and spousal lifetime DAD and BPN were estimated with logistic regression; and whether spousal DAD or BPN causally increased risk for AUD was evaluated with frailty models.
Spousal premarital DAD, spousal marital-onset DAD, and spousal BPN (premarital or marital-onset) were associated with proband AUD during marriage [hazard ratios (HR) range 1.44–3.72]. Those with a parental or premarital history of AUD (v. without) were more likely to marry a spouse with DAD or BPN (odds ratios 1.22–2.77). Moving from an unaffected first spouse to a DAD-affected second spouse increased AUD risk in males (HR 2.90). Moving from an unaffected first spouse to a BPN-affected second spouse increased AUD risk (HRmales 3.96; HRfemales 5.64). Moving to an unaffected second spouse from a DAD-affected first spouse decreased AUD risk, with stronger evidence in females compared to males (HRmales 0.59; HRfemales 0.28).
Associations between spousal DAD or BPN and proband AUD reflect both selection and causal effects. Marriage to a BPN-affected spouse has a particularly strong effect on AUD risk, with more modest effects for spousal DAD.
Mood disorders have a wide range of presentation – from major depressive episodes to mania. Both depression and mania can present with irritability; the notable differences between them are discussed in this chapter. Persistent sad mood and lack of enjoyment in usual activities is typically noted in depression, while a lack of need for sleep along with euphoric mood is typical for mania. Due to the spectrum of intervening mood disorders such as bipolar II illness and persistent depressive disorder, a thorough psychiatric evaluation is important. Since mood disorders may lead to dangerousness in the form of self-harm behavior, suicidality, and violence, a sudden and persistent change in mood should be considered a psychiatric emergency. Suicide is rare but unpredictable. Direct questions on whether a patient has thoughts about self-harm are important to differentiate habitual threatening statements from real intent. Treatment options for mood disorders including psychotherapy and medication management are discussed. Episodic mood disorders covered in this chapter are all treatable conditions when identified promptly and under the care of experienced mental health providers.
The course of Bipolar Disorder (BD) is highly variable, with marked inter and intra-individual differences in symptoms and functioning. In this study, we identified illness trajectories across major clinical domains that could have etiological, prognostic, and therapeutic relevance.
Using the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) study, we performed univariate and multivariate trajectory modeling of depressive symptoms, manic symptoms, and psychosocial functioning. Multinomial regression was performed to identify baseline variables associated with poor outcome trajectories.
Depressive symptoms predominated, with most subjects being found in trajectories characterized by various degrees of depressive symptoms and 13% of subjects being classified in a poor outcome ‘persistently depressed’ trajectory. Most subjects experienced few manic symptoms, although approximately 10% of subjects followed a trajectory of persistently manic symptoms. Trajectory analysis of psychosocial functioning showed impairment in most of the sample, with little improvement during follow up. Multi-trajectory analyses highlighted significant impairment in subjects with persistently mixed and persistently depressed trajectories of illness. In general, poor outcome trajectories were marked by lower educational attainment, higher unemployment and disability, and a greater likelihood of adverse clinical features (rapid cycling and suicide attempts) and comorbid diagnoses (anxiety disorders, PTSD, and substance abuse/dependence disorders).
Subjects with BD can be classified into several trajectories of clinically relevant domains that are prognostically relevant and show differing degrees of associations with a broad range of negative clinical risk factors. The highest level of psychosocial disability was found in subjects with chronic mixed and depressive symptoms, who show limited improvement despite guideline-based treatment.
Food insecurity occurs when an individual lacks the financial resources to ensure reliable access to sufficient food to meet their dietary, nutritional and social needs. Adults living with mental ill health, particularly severe mental illness, are more likely to experience food insecurity than the general adult population. Despite this, most interventions and policy reforms in recent years have been aimed at children and families, with little regard for other vulnerable groups. Initiating a conversation about access to food can be tricky and assessing for food insecurity does not happen in mental health settings. This article provides an overview of food insecurity and how it relates to mental ill health. With reference to research evidence, the reader will gain an understanding of food insecurity, how it can be assessed and how food-insecure individuals with severe mental illness can be supported. Finally, we make policy recommendations to truly address this driver of health inequality.
Cognitive impairment is common in people with mental disorders, leading to transdiagnostic classification based on cognitive characteristics. However, few studies have used this approach for intellectual abilities and functional outcomes.
The present study aimed to classify people with mental disorders based on intellectual abilities and functional outcomes in a data-driven manner.
Seven hundred and forty-nine patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder or autism spectrum disorder and 1030 healthy control subjects were recruited from facilities in various regions of Japan. Two independent k-means cluster analyses were performed. First, intelligence variables (current estimated IQ, premorbid IQ, and IQ discrepancy) were included. Second, number of work hours per week was included instead of premorbid IQ.
Four clusters were identified in the two analyses. These clusters were specifically characterised in terms of IQ discrepancy in the first cluster analysis, whereas the work variable was the most salient feature in the second cluster analysis. Distributions of clinical diagnoses in the two cluster analyses showed that all diagnoses were unevenly represented across the clusters.
Intellectual abilities and work outcomes are effective classifiers in transdiagnostic approaches. The results of our study also suggest the importance of diagnosis-specific strategies to support functional recovery in people with mental disorders.
Chapter 9 investigates if and how the symptoms of mental illness are present in the MI 1984–2014 Corpus by exploring the symptoms of each disorder type covered by the corpus. Specifically, using keyword and key semantic domain analysis, I explore whether the symptoms of mental illnesses are accurately represented in news articles on mental illness. In addition to corpus tools, I also qualitatively analyse the most prototypical text for each illness subcorpus (i.e. the text that contains the most frequent features of the illness subcorpus overall) to explore whether the keyness findings are also a feature of whole texts.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) are heterogeneous psychiatric disorders, which place significant burden on patient's well-being and global health. Disruptions in the gut-microbiome may play a role in these psychiatric disorders. This review presents current data on composition of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, and its interaction mechanisms in the gut–brain axis in MDD, BD and SSD. Diversity metrics and microbial relative abundance differed across studies. More studies reported inconsistent findings (n = 7) or no differences (n = 8) than studies who reported lower α-diversity in these psychiatric disorders (n = 5). The most consistent findings across studies were higher relative abundances of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Eggerthella and lower relative abundance of the butyrate producing Faecalibacterium in patients with psychiatric disorders. All three increased genera were associated with higher symptom severity. Confounders, such as medication use and life style have not been accounted for. So far, the results of probiotics trials have been inconsistent. Most traditional and widely used probiotics (consisting of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) are safe, however, they do not correct potential microbiota disbalances in these disorders. Findings on prebiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are too limited to draw definitive conclusions. Disease-specific pro/prebiotic treatment or even FMT could be auspicious interventions for prevention and therapy for psychiatric disorders and should be investigated in future trials.
Psychomotor slowing is a key feature of depressive disorders. Despite its great clinical importance, the pathophysiology and prevalence across different diagnoses and mood states are still poorly understood. Actigraphy allows unbiased, objective, and naturalistic assessment of physical activity as a marker of psychomotor slowing. Yet, the true effect-sizes remain unclear as recent, large systematic reviews are missing. We conducted a novel meta-analysis on actigraphically measured slowing in depression with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria for diagnosis ascertainment and sample duplications. Medline/PubMed and Web-of-Science were searched with terms combining mood-keywords and actigraphy-keywords until September 2021. Original research measuring actigraphy for ⩾24 h in at least two groups of depressed, remitted, or healthy participants and applying operationalized diagnosis was included. Studies in somatically ill patients, N < 10 participants/group, and studies using consumer-devices were excluded. Activity-levels between groups were compared using random-effects models with standardized-mean-differences and several moderators were examined. In total, 34 studies (n = 1804 patients) were included. Patients had lower activity than controls [standardized mean difference (s.m.d.) = −0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.99 to −0.57]. Compared to controls, patients with unipolar and bipolar disorder had lower activity than controls whether in depressed (unipolar: s.m.d. = −0.82, 95% CI −1.07 to −0.56; bipolar: s.m.d. = −0.94, 95% CI −1.41 to −0.46), or remitted/euthymic mood (unipolar: s.m.d. = −0.28, 95% CI −0.56 to 0.0; bipolar: s.m.d. = −0.92, 95% CI −1.36 to −0.47). None of the examined moderators had any significant effect. To date, this is the largest meta-analysis on actigraphically measured slowing in mood disorders. They are associated with lower activity, even in the remitted/euthymic mood-state. Studying objective motor behavior via actigraphy holds promise for informing screening and staging of affective disorders.
Evidence has demonstrated associations of bipolar disorder (BD) with cognitive impairment, dysregulated proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones.
To compare executive dysfunction, proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs.
This cross-sectional study included young adults aged 18 to 39 years who were diagnosed as having type 1 BD in the first or recurrent episode and a group of age-/sex-matched healthy controls. Data regarding patient characteristics, clinical symptoms, cytokines (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), appetite hormones (leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin), and executive function evaluated using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were collected.
A total of 112 participants (38 patients in the multiple-episode BD group, 31 patients in the first-episode BD group, and 43 in the control group) were included. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients in the multiple-episode BD group performed significantly worse in the WCST (P < .05) and had higher levels of ghrelin (P = .002), and lower levels of CRP (P = .040) than those in the first-episode BD group. Patients with BD had significantly higher TNF-α and ghrelin levels compared with the healthy controls. No significant associations of CRP, TNF-α, and ghrelin levels with executive function were observed.
Profiles in proinflammatory cytokines and appetite hormones as well as executive function significantly differed between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs and controls, which may suggest their potential roles in the clinical stages and pathophysiology of type 1 BD.
Inaccurate self-assessment of performance is common among people with serious mental illness, and it is associated with poor functional outcomes independent from ability. However, the temporal interdependencies between judgments of performance, confidence in accuracy, and feedback about performance are not well understood.
We evaluated two tasks: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Penn Emotion recognition task (ER40). These tasks were modified to include item-by-item confidence and accuracy judgments, along with feedback on accuracy. We evaluated these tasks as time series and applied network modeling to understand the temporal relationships between momentary confidence, accuracy judgments, and feedback. The sample constituted participants with schizophrenia (SZ; N = 144), bipolar disorder (BD; N = 140), and healthy controls (HC; N = 39).
Network models for both WCST and ER40 revealed denser and lagged connections between confidence and accuracy judgments in SZ and, to a lesser extent in BD, that were not evidenced in HC. However, associations between feedback regarding accuracy with subsequent accuracy judgments and confidence were weaker in SZ and BD. In each of these comparisons, the BD group was intermediate between HC and SZ. In analyses of the WCST, wherein incorporating feedback is crucial for success, higher confidence predicted worse subsequent performance in SZ but not in HC or BD.
While network models are exploratory, the results suggest some potential mechanisms by which challenges in self-assessment may impede performance, perhaps through hyperfocus on self-generated judgments at the expense of incorporation of feedback.
There is increasing attention on the association of socioeconomic status and individual behaviors (SES/IB) with mental health. However, the impacts of SES/IB on mental disorders are still unclear. To provide evidence for establishing feasible strategies on disease screening and prevention, we implemented Mendelian randomization (MR) design to appraise causality between SES/IB and mental disorders.
We conducted a two-sample MR study to assess the causal effects of SES and IB (dietary habits, habitual physical activity, smoking behaviors, drinking behaviors, sleeping behaviors, leisure sedentary behaviors, risky behaviors, and reproductive behaviors) on three mental disorders, including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. A series of filtering steps were taken to select eligible genetic instruments robustly associated with each of the traits. Inverse variance weighted was used for primary analysis, with alternative MR methods including MR-Egger, weighted median, and weighted mode estimate. Complementary methods were further used to detect pleiotropic bias.
After Bonferroni correction and rigorous quality control, we identified that SES (educational attainment), smoking behaviors (smoking initiation, number of cigarettes per day), risky behaviors (adventurousness, number of sexual partners, automobile speeding propensity) and reproductive behavior (age at first birth) were causally associated with at least one of the mental disorders.
MR study provides robust evidence that SES/IB play broad impacts on mental disorders.
Assessing performance validity is imperative in both clinical and research contexts as data interpretation presupposes adequate participation from examinees. Performance validity tests (PVTs) are utilized to identify instances in which results cannot be interpreted at face value. This study explored the hit rates for two frequently used PVTs in a research sample of individuals with and without histories of bipolar disorder (BD).
As part of an ongoing longitudinal study of individuals with BD, we examined the performance of 736 individuals with BD and 255 individuals with no history of mental health disorder on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the California Verbal Learning Test forced choice trial (CVLT-FC) at three time points.
Undiagnosed individuals demonstrated 100% pass rate on PVTs and individuals with BD passed over 98% of the time. A mixed effects model adjusting for relevant demographic variables revealed no significant difference in TOMM scores between the groups, a = .07, SE = .07, p = .31. On the CVLT-FC, no clinically significant differences were observed (ps < .001).
Perfect PVT scores were obtained by the majority of individuals, with no differences in failure rates between groups. The tests have approximately >98% specificity in BD and 100% specificity among non-diagnosed individuals. Further, nearly 90% of individuals with BD obtained perfect scores on both measures, a trend observed at each time point.
The role of neurological proteins in the development of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) remains elusive now. The current study aims to explore the potential genetic correlations of plasma neurological proteins with BD and SCZ.
By using the latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of BD and SCZ (including 41,917 BD cases, 11,260 SCZ cases, and 396,091 controls) derived from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium website (PGC) and a recently released GWAS of neurological proteins (including 750 individuals), we performed a linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis to detect the potential genetic correlations between the two common psychiatric disorders and each of the 92 neurological proteins. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis was then applied to assess the bidirectional causal relationship between the neurological proteins identified by LDSC, BD and SCZ.
LDSC analysis identified one neurological protein, NEP, which shows suggestive genetic correlation signals for both BD (coefficient = −0.165, p value = 0.035) and SCZ (coefficient = −0.235, p value = 0.020). However, those association did not remain significant after strict Bonferroni correction. Two sample MR analysis found that there was an association between genetically predicted level of NEP protein, BD (odd ratio [OR] = 0.87, p value = 1.61 × 10−6) and SCZ (OR = 0.90, p value = 4.04 × 10−6). However, in the opposite direction, there is no genetically predicted association between BD, SCZ, and NEP protein level.
This study provided novel clues for understanding the genetic effects of neurological proteins on BD and SCZ.
A proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) manifests with only unipolar mania (UM). This study examined relevant clinical features and psychosocial characteristics in UM compared with depressive-manic (D-M) subgroups. Moreover, comorbidity patterns of physical conditions and psychiatric disorders were evaluated between the UM and D-M groups.
This clinical retrospective study (N = 1015) analyzed cases with an average of 10 years of illness duration and a nationwide population-based cohort (N = 8343) followed up for 10 years in the Taiwanese population. UM was defined as patients who did not experience depressive episodes and were not prescribed adequate antidepressant treatment during the disease course of BD. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to evaluate the characteristics and lifetime comorbidities in the two groups.
The proportion of UM ranged from 12.91% to 14.87% in the two datasets. Compared with the D-M group, the UM group had more psychotic symptoms, fewer suicidal behaviors, a higher proportion of morningness chronotype, better sleep quality, higher extraversion, lower neuroticism, and less harm avoidance personality traits. Substantially different lifetime comorbidity patterns were observed between the two groups.
Patients with UM exhibited distinct clinical and psychosocial features compared with patients with the D-M subtype. In particular, a higher risk of comorbid cardiovascular diseases and anxiety disorders is apparent in patients with D-M. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms for diverse presentations in subgroups of BDs.
An antiviral effect of lithium has been proposed, but never investigated for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using electronic health records of 26 554 patients with documented serum lithium levels during the pandemic, we show that the 6-month COVID-19 infection incidence was lower among matched patients with ‘therapeutic’ (0.50–1.00) versus ‘subtherapeutic’ (0.05–0.50) lithium levels (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69–0.97, P = 0.017) and among patients with ‘therapeutic’ lithium levels versus matched patients using valproate (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.92, P = 0.0023). Lower rates of infection were observed for both new COVID-19 diagnoses and positive polymerase chain reaction tests, regardless of underlying psychiatric diagnosis and vaccination status.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in all youth and among adults with bipolar disorder (BD). The risk of suicide in BD is among the highest of all psychiatric conditions. Self-harm, including suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, is a leading risk factor for suicide. Neuroimaging studies suggest reward circuits are implicated in both BD and self-harm; however, studies have yet to examine self-harm related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) phenotypes within adolescent BD.
Resting-state fMRI data were analyzed for 141 adolescents, ages 13–20 years, including 38 with BD and lifetime self-harm (BDSH+), 33 with BD and no self-harm (BDSH−), and 70 healthy controls (HC). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala were examined as regions of interest in seed-to-voxel analyses. A general linear model was used to explore the bivariate correlations for each seed.
BDSH− had increased positive rsFC between the left amygdala and left lateral occipital cortex, and between the right dlPFC and right frontal pole, and increased negative rsFC between the left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus compared to BDSH+ and HC. BDSH+ had increased positive rsFC of the right OFC with the precuneus and left paracingulate gyrus compared to BDSH− and HC.
This study provides preliminary evidence of altered reward-related rsFC in relation to self-harm in adolescents with BD. Between-group differences conveyed a combination of putative risk and resilience connectivity patterns. Future studies are warranted to evaluate changes in rsFC in response to treatment and related changes in self-harm.
Mounting evidence showed that insula contributed to the neurobiological mechanism of suicidal behaviors in bipolar disorder (BD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of insular Mubregions and its association with personality traits in BD with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, we investigated the alterations of dFC variability in insular subregions and personality characteristics in BD patients with a recent suicide attempt (SA).
Thirty unmedicated BD patients with SA, 38 patients without SA (NSA) and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each insular subregion seed. We assessed between-group differences of psychological characteristics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Finally, a multivariate regression model was adopted to predict the severity of suicidality.
Compared to NSA and HCs, the SA group exhibited decreased dFC variability values between the left dorsal anterior insula and the left anterior cerebellum. These dFC variability values could also be utilized to predict the severity of suicidality (r = 0.456, p = 0.031), while static functional connectivity values were not appropriate for this prediction. Besides, the SA group scored significantly higher on the schizophrenia clinical scales (p < 0.001) compared with the NSA group.
Our findings indicated that the dysfunction of insula–cerebellum connectivity may underlie the neural basis of SA in BD patients, and highlighted the dFC variability values could be considered a neuromarker for predictive models of the severity of suicidality. Moreover, the psychiatric features may increase the vulnerability of suicidal behavior.
Intellectual functioning (IQ) is lower in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls, with bipolar patients intermediate between the two. Declines in IQ mark the onset of schizophrenia, while stability is generally found post-onset. There are to date few studies on long-term IQ development in bipolar disorder. This study presents 10-year follow-up data on IQ, including premorbid IQ estimates, to track the developmental course from pre-onset levels to long-term outcomes in both patient groups compared to healthy controls.
We included 139 participants with schizophrenia, 76 with bipolar disorder and 125 healthy controls. Mixed model analyses were used to estimate developmental slopes for IQ scores from estimated premorbid level (NART IQ) through baseline (WASI IQ) measured within 12 months post-onset, to 10-year follow-up (WASI IQ), with pairwise group comparisons. The best fit was found using a model with a breakpoint at baseline assessment.
Only the schizophrenia group had significant declines from estimated premorbid to baseline IQ levels compared to controls. When comparing patient groups, schizophrenia patients had steeper declines than the bipolar group. Increases in IQ were found in all groups over the follow-up period.
Trajectories of IQ from premorbid level to 10-year follow-up indicated declines from estimated premorbid level to illness onset in both patient groups, followed by increases during the follow-up period. Schizophrenia patients had a steeper decline than bipolar patients. During follow-up, increases indicate developmental improvement for both patient groups, but with a maintained lag compared to healthy controls due to lower premorbid levels.
The endogenous opioid system affects metabolism, including weight regulation. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies provides a rationale for targeting this system to mitigate weight-related side effects of antipsychotics. This review describes the role of the opioid system in regulating weight and metabolism, examines the effects of opioid receptor antagonism on those functions, and explores the use of opioid antagonists to mitigate antipsychotic-associated weight gain and/or metabolic effects.
A PubMed literature search was conducted to identify representative opioid antagonists and associated preclinical and clinical studies examining their potential for the regulation of weight and metabolism.
The mu opioid receptor (MOR), delta opioid receptor (DOR), and kappa opioid receptor (KOR) types have overlapping but distinct patterns of central and peripheral expression, and each contributes to the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Three representative opioid antagonists (eg, naltrexone, samidorphan, and LY255582) were identified for illustration. These opioid antagonists differed in their receptor binding and pharmacokinetic profiles, including oral bioavailability, systemic clearance, and half-life, and were associated with varying effects on food intake, energy utilization, and metabolic dysregulation.
Preclinical and clinical data suggest that antagonism of the endogenous opioid system is a mechanism to address antipsychotic-associated weight gain and metabolic dysregulation. However, evidence suggests that the differing roles of MOR, DOR, and KOR in metabolism, together with the differences in receptor binding, pharmacokinetic, and functional activity profiles of the opioid receptor antagonists discussed in this review, likely contribute to their differential pharmacodynamic effects and clinical outcomes observed regarding antipsychotic-associated weight gain.