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The conclusion examines two stories from 2016 that reflect broader themes of veterans returning to Việt Nam. The appointment of Vietnam veteran and alleged war criminal Bob Kerrey to Chair of Fulbright University Vietnam revived the now-familiar narrative about American redemption in Việt Nam, while the pilgrimage of thousands of Australians to Việt Nam for the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Long Tan demonstrated a profound sense of entitlement to Vietnamese spaces. The conclusion summarizes that veterans returned in search of resolution or peace, which manifested in nostalgia. Upon return, many returnees found a measure of peace, but were challenged by the erasure of their wartime presence. Veterans negotiated this displacement by drawing from wartime narratives and performing nostalgic practices to reclaim their sense of belonging in Việt Nam. Yet the 2016 stories indicate that veteran influence in the country will decline as Việt Nam moves on from war.
Chapter 5 examines the dynamics in veterans’ meeting with Vietnamese. A common goal of returnees was to meet “the enemy,” and the solidarity they found with fellow soldiers in Việt Nam became a key theme in veterans’ narratives. This chapter unpacks a near-uniform claim made by veterans that the Vietnamese bore no grudge for the war and welcomed veterans back to Việt Nam wholeheartedly. Because many American veterans positioned themselves as atoning for wartime participation, they viewed this reaction as forgiveness. Australian veterans, conversely, drew from Australia’s national mythology to argue that the Vietnamese welcomed them back because they loved and respected Australian soldiers. This chapter situates veterans’ claims about forgiveness, solidarity, and belonging in Việt Nam in the context of Vietnamese diplomacy, examines the inclusion and exclusion of different Vietnamese groups from veterans’ solidarity narratives, and explores concealed hostility on both sides.
This chapter offers reflections on how to create a sense of belonging for the stateless that keeps them in our purview as historical agents who can determine their actions and meaning. Whereas the legal definition of statelessness remains a key category, the chapter examines the experiential implications of statelessness, understanding these as a form of unbelonging. The rupture of displacement has cut the ties to community and place requiring that we look at the complex process by which refugee communities acquire cohesion through the repetition of their common story of displacement, as anthropologist Michel Agier has shown. Expanding the temporality of the stateless, this chapter seeks to link a deeper sense of history to a future trajectory where a form of belonging discovered through history can shape momentum for the resolution of statelessness in the future. Taking the works of poet Peter Balakian as its key example, the chapter focuses on the impact of the Armenian Genocide on future generations, and how the specifics of this history of mass violence and displacement can move us toward a recognition of the crisis in our contemporary moment.
Citizenship is not a neutral and stable status upon which to base rights, freedoms, and protections. It is also not a status available to all. As this chapter illustrates, citizenship is precarious and has never been a secure foundation upon which to base human rights. In the securitized world of the twenty-first century, this instability has heightened, especially for minorities. To make this argument, the chapter is divided into three sections. The first section explains how citizenship arose in international practice and law and how states translated international practice into defined nationality laws in the domestic sphere. This section highlights how before citizenship became a status to which human rights attached, it was, first and foremost, an international ordering principle. The second section demonstrates how states have historically excluded various groups, typically minorities, from enjoyment of full citizenship status, thereby endangering said groups’ access to human rights. The third section provides contemporary examples of citizenship deprivation and denial, highlighting the myriad justifications that states use to deny and deprive people of citizenship.
Residents of care homes across the globe are affected by the spread of SARS-CoV-2 as they have been identified as a high-risk group and because they experienced strict social isolation regulations during the first wave of the pandemic. Social isolation of older people with poor physical and mental health is strongly associated with mental health problems and decreased life expectancy. Other research has shown that older people managed to adapt to the changes brought about by the pandemic and have linked this to the concept of resilience. The aim of this research project was to investigate how this applied to residents in care home settings during the first phases of the contact ban in Germany from sociology, developmental psychology and environmental gerontology perspectives, and to gain in-depth understanding of residents’ experiences. This paper draws on structured interview data collected from residents in two care homes during early June 2020 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The findings show that their experiences were shaped by three factors: care home settings and the approach of staff to handling the contact ban; biographical sense of resilience; and a hierarchy of life issues. The findings highlight the importance of locally specific response mechanisms in care homes, agency and belonging of residents despite health-related limitations and the importance of a critical (gendered) lens on understanding their experiences.
We explore the tensions and dynamic connections between the place narratives of Faroese residents and those of Tourism Faroe Islands. Our findings demonstrate the need to shift from sense to senses of place in order to accommodate the multiple narratives of people–place relations, which are embedded in different standpoints on mobility and place change. Residents and brokers adopt different senses of place in order to respond to social and ecological pressures wrought by mobility, and the potential economic benefits of tourism growth and development. Concurrently, important relations exist among place meanings, one’s understanding of system variability and behavioural responses. Thus, senses of place emerge as a result of dynamic and complex relationships between different types of narratives on place that are constantly unfolding in response to social-ecological change.
This article examines Joan Miller's use of choreographic citation in her solos, Pass Fe White (1970) and Homestretch (1973). The solos “read” the desire to embody idealized, feminine whiteness in a critique of institutions for accessing national belonging—celebrity, education, and marriage—satirically exposing the gendered and racialized exclusions of the figure of the abstract “human” as “proper” citizen. Miller's work performs queer, Black feminist, diasporic desires for a world beyond Black and white nationalist logics, refusing to be “properly” placed in national hierarchies of female objecthood, while affirming the capacity to desire differently by proposing alternative terms for belonging in the world.
The regulation of public space is generative of new approaches to gender nonconformity. In 1968 in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, a group of people who identified as wadam—a new term made by combining parts of Indonesian words denoting “femininity” and “masculinity”—made a claim to the city's governor that they had the right to appear in public space. This article illustrates the paradoxical achievement of obtaining recognition on terms constituted through public nuisance regulations governing access to and movement through space. The origins and diffuse effects of recognition achieved by those who identified as wadam and, a decade later, waria facilitated the partial recognition of a status that was legal but nonconforming. This possibility emerged out of city-level innovations and historical conceptualizations of the body in Indonesia. Attending to the way that gender nonconformity was folded into existing methods of codifying space at the scale of the city reflects a broader anxiety over who can enter public space and on what basis. Considering a concern for struggles to contend with nonconformity on spatial grounds at the level of the city encourages an alternative perspective on the emergence of gender and sexual morality as a definitive feature of national belonging in Indonesia and elsewhere.
Chapter 1 concerns the pattern of migration in the Pacific region and US survivors’ childhood memories, both of which connected Korea, Japan, and America between the turn-of-the-century and the war’s onset. Hiroshima and Nagasaki prefectures sent a large number of immigrants to America before the war, and, at the same time, absorbed many Koreans after Japan’s annexation of Korea in 1910. By exploring the wartime separation of families and the heightened scrutiny of people of Japanese or Korean heritage on both shores of the Pacific because of their assumed national disloyalty, the chapter also reveals US survivors’ continuing attachment to their country of origin even as their affinity to their country of residence grew. As they became accustomed to the food, language, and culture of Japan, their sense of belonging became more layered than a clear-cut identity based on the equation of race, nationality, and loyalty assumed by the nations at war. By showing how soon-to-be US survivors kept their layered identity by making it visilbe or invisible in the shifting wartime society, the chapter illuminates Hiroshima and Nagasaki distinctively as cities of immigrants.
A foundational tenet of a healthy abundant community is that all of us have gifts – of the head, the heart, or the hand. For gifts to have meaning, they must be exchanged. When we create spaces for capacities and vulnerabilities to be shared, we give life to a sense of belonging. We bring our full person to the table. Associations afford people an opportunity to exchange strengths and weaknesses, sorrow and joy, resilience and fallibility. Friendship and trust emerge in communities where people balance association with similar and different people. Robert Putnam from Harvard captured this dual need in the distinction between bonding and bridging social capital. The former refers to association with like-minded people. The latter to connections with people from other backgrounds. Communities that balance bridging with bonding are healthier and stronger. They achieve better outcomes in terms of population health, education, and safety. Discrimination and inequality erode mattering in the community. Inequality of worth can be created by a number of social identifiers: money, race, class, education, disability, gender orientation, looks, language or ethnic origin.
The need to feel valued derives from three motives: survival, social, and existential. The attachment of a newborn to caregivers is very much a survival need. Without the love and care of parents, a baby cannot survive. The social need is expressed in the desire to belong to a group and to derive relational value from associations with friends and family. Finally, the existential motive operates through dignity and fairness. These three sets of motives are separate but complementary. If the first reason for needing to feel valued concerns survival motives, the second one pertains to social drives. The need to belong is closely related to the need to matter. Both derive from the need to validate our identity, and our existence, through interpersonal affirmation. If secure attachment to the mother accounts for the need for survival early in life, affiliation to a collective guarantees protection against enemies, scarcity, and natural disasters. However, belongingness is not just a protective mechanism – it is also a means of flourishing. Finally, we can think of dignity as the backbone of mattering.
What happens when we insert refugees into a history of twentieth-century Britain? As we might expect, exploring the entry, reception and resettlement of refugees reveals a good deal about British attitudes towards vulnerable strangers, belonging and identity. Yet the book argues for the value of using the arrival of refugees to consider a far wider set of historical problems. Focussing on refugees’ relationship with British society and institutions allows us to historicise, not only the changing experiences of refugees themselves but how Britain also changed over time. Assumptions that refugees fleeing Nazism were solely the responsibility of voluntary organisations, as much as the expectation that 20,000 Hungarians within a few short weeks in the winter of 1956-1957 would be found employment, or that Ugandan Asian arrivals in 1972 might need protection from the National Front, all speak volumes about profound shifts in British society across the twentieth century. Unpicking the historical processes underpinning these assumptions leads us, for example, to think about the changing nature of the welfare state, the relationship between voluntary organisations and government, the role of pressure group politics and the relationship between national employment levels and the reception of foreigners.
This timely history explores the entry, reception and resettlement of refugees across twentieth-century Britain. Focusing on four cohorts of refugees – Jewish and other refugees from Nazism; Hungarians in 1956; Ugandan Asians expelled by Idi Amin; and Vietnamese 'boat people' who arrived in the wake of the fall of Saigon – Becky Taylor deftly integrates refugee history with key themes in the history of modern Britain. She thus demonstrates how refugees' experiences, rather than being marginal, were emblematic of some of the principal developments in British society. Arguing that Britain's reception of refugees was rarely motivated by humanitarianism, this book reveals the role of Britain's international preoccupations, anxieties and sense of identity; and how refugees' reception was shaped by voluntary efforts and the changing nature of the welfare state. Based on rich archival sources, this study offers a compelling new perspective on changing ideas of Britishness and the place of 'outsiders' in modern Britain.
This paper discusses the issue of adolescent exclusion from the public (playgrounds, beaches, roads) and private realm (homes) and its link to their sense of community belonging, identity, and mental health.
This research project employed a rights-based approach, and such a methodology focuses on research with, rather than research about, children and adolescents. In line with this philosophy, a wide range of qualitative participatory methodologies were employed with children and adolescents. In total, 411 children and adolescents (3–17 years) took part in consultation workshops across the county.
From the age of 11 onwards, children report a sense of ‘not belonging’ to recognised ‘children’s places’ such as playgrounds. Young adolescents report being actively excluded from public and private spaces. The effects of this exclusion are examined in relation to their sense of belonging, identity, and well-being.
Exclusionary practices appear to be increasing and impacting on younger children in both private and public spaces. This forced exclusion of children and adolescents from the public and private realm challenges their sense of belonging or connectedness which is associated with low self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. A more inclusive, rights-based approach should be employed in all aspects of public realm design that actively seeks and incorporates the views of children and adolescents as well as the more dominant voice of the adult.
Nonsocial emotional and mental impacts of on-site nature stimulus experiences also emerge as a common theme when people describe zoos and zoogoing. Chapter 8 thus delves into what is known about mental models of connectedness, continuity, and belonging that appear to be linked to empathy, guilt, concern, and care – emotional responses that often arise automatically when humans encounter live animals. In addition to a psychological exploration of ions of nature and the concept of biophilia, we highlight patterns of affiliation, caring, and connectedness that emerge in zoo settings to shed light on the extent to which experiences that spark empathy toward animals can facilitate the development of moral emotional responses likely to ground or reinforce a conservation ethic. Building on primary research about the implicit connections people tend to develop during zoo visits – irrespective of the fact that zoo spaces are clearly human-designed – we demonstrate that zoo experiences overall impact humans’ capacity to connect and extend their scope of care to nonhuman entities in important ways. In particular, we consider why and how rich emotional relationships between zoo animals and the staff who care for them can and should be at the forefront of efforts to facilitate emotional connections to animals and caregiving that might build on and inform zoo users’ existing ideas, concerns, and motivations.
Migration raises the question of how street-level bureaucrats treat non-citizens when it comes to the distribution of limited welfare resources. Based on a German case study, this article reveals how local social administrators rationalise practices of inclusion in and exclusion from social assistance receipt and associated labour market integration services for mobile EU citizens, who are perceived first and foremost as ‘foreigners’. The findings from fifty-five qualitative interviews with job centre representatives show how politics of exclusion are justified by nationalistic and ethnic criteria of membership. Insofar as EU migrants are considered outsiders to the imagined welfare community of their host country, they are seen as less deserving than German-born claimants. However, mobile EU citizens can earn their legitimacy to access benefit receipt through sustained participation in the host society, demonstrating knowledge of the German language and societal norms so as to appear ‘German’. Such a cultural performance-based logic of deservingness tends to be intertwined with nationality-based and racialising stereotypes of welfare fraud to frame exclusionary practice.
From the 1960s, significant numbers of Caribbean writers migrated to Canada, which modelled itself as a space of inclusion and multiculturalism. Yet, the terms of multiculturalism that structure Canadian public discourse have been challenged by first- and second-generation Caribbean writers who have critiqued Canada’s processes of homogenization and racism. This essay proposes alternate landscapes as a way to consider contemporary Caribbean-Canadian literature, which has had to transgress Canada’s sense of itself in order to be seen and heard. The work emerging from this period, and particularly from the 1980s, is written predominantly by women and posits non-territorially based spaces as its conceptual home. Through an examination of work by Dionne Brand, Makeda Silvera, NourbeSe Philip, Marie-Célie Agnant and Ramabai Espinet, among others, this article highlights their varied approaches to identity, nation, belonging and language, as well as the generic diversity of their work (dub poetry, science fiction, fantasy and satire).
Drawing on rich oral histories from over two hundred in-depth interviews in West Africa, Europe, and North America, Robtel Neajai Pailey examines socio-economic change in Liberia, Africa's first black republic, through the prism of citizenship. Marking how historical policy changes on citizenship and contemporary public discourse on dual citizenship have impacted development policy and practice, she reveals that as Liberia transformed from a country of immigration to one of emigration, so too did the nature of citizenship, thus influencing claims for and against dual citizenship. In this engaging contribution to scholarly and policy debates about citizenship as a continuum of inclusion and exclusion, and development as a process of both amelioration and degeneration, Pailey develops a new model for conceptualising citizenship within the context of crisis-affected states. In doing so, she offers a postcolonial critique of the neoliberal framing of diasporas and donors as the panacea to post-war reconstruction.