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Since behavioural adjustments are an important line of defence against thermal stress, either due to their energy efficiency or to efficiency at preventing overheating, we aimed to evaluate whether broilers fed different maize particle sizes adjusted their behaviour to deal with heat stress challenges. At several times a day, the behaviour of 220 naked neck broilers was evaluated. These broilers were fed with isonutritive diets containing maize with different geometric mean diameters (GMD): 605 and 2280 μm. The thermal environment was monitored during the experiment. Panting and open wings were the only behaviours that showed differences between the times of day (P < 0.05). However, GMD showed a significant effect on feed intake and panting (P < 0.05). The interaction between GMD and time of day was significant only on panting (P < 0.05). Although no daily variation was observed, the highest feed intake was observed in broilers fed the diet containing maize with a GMD of 2280 μm. Less than 5% of the broilers were observed drinking water during the day. Open wings was the behavioural adjustment most used by broilers from 10:00 h, and remained elevated until 14:00 h for both GMDs. The birds panted more when fed the diet containing maize with a GMD of 2280 μm. In conclusion, broilers adjust their behaviour to dissipate excess body heat from the environment and as a result of feed intake. Coarse particles of maize in the diet increase the thermal challenge of broilers since the environment also provides stressful thermal conditions.
Combined smoking and heavy drinking is a significant health burden. Varenicline, an efficacious tobacco pharmacotherapy that also shows promise for drinking, has yielded mixed results among heavy-drinking smokers. This pilot study investigated integrated tobacco and alcohol counselling plus varenicline for this vulnerable group.
Twelve-week parallel, randomized controlled pilot trial of two behavioural interventions in combination with open-label varenicline. Participants were randomized using computer-generated tables, stratified by sex.
Outpatient academic medical centre research clinic.
Volunteers who reported smoking and heavy drinking and sought tobacco or alcohol treatment (N = 26).
(1) Integrated tobacco + alcohol counselling (INT; n = 13) or (2) counselling focused on their presenting concern (i.e., tobacco or alcohol) (SINGLE; n = 13), plus varenicline (2 mg) for 12 weeks.
Feasibility/acceptability, smoking quit rates and heavy drinking.
INT feasibility/acceptability was high among men but not women. More participants quit smoking in INT than SINGLE. This outcome was only in men, not significant, but had a medium effect size. Both conditions yielded significant drinking reductions.
Integrated tobacco and alcohol behavioural counselling plus varenicline may be feasible and promote smoking cessation among men who smoke and drink heavily, but a larger sample is needed to replicate this finding.
ICD-11 complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a new disorder that describes the more complex reactions that are typical of individuals exposed to chronic trauma. The addition of this disorder as distinct from PTSD is expected to provide greater precision in the diagnosis of trauma populations and more personalised and effective treatment.
The aim of this study was to carry out the first ever study of gaming characteristics of individuals engaging in online gaming in Ireland and to ascertain whether features of gaming disorder are present in this population.
An online survey (comprising 21 questions – 3 demographic questions and 18 questions related to gaming and gaming disorder) was distributed on numerous Irish online gaming forums and Irish online gaming communities. Participants were self-selected and invited to compete the online survey containing questions related to gaming behaviours (age of onset, hours played on weekdays/weekends, type of device used), mobile gaming, motives for online gaming, use of microtransactions, engagement in esports, and a screening tool for the presence of gaming disorder.
A total of 166 participants engaged in the online survey. Among this study population of regular gamers in Ireland, 2.4% of the study population were classified as having gaming disorder, with up to 5.4% showing some evidence of disordered gaming. The main motivation for online gaming in the non-disordered gaming group was recreation (13.3, sd = 2.7) but only the fourth main motivation in the disordered gaming group behind competition (16.3, sd = 3.7), escape (16.2, sd = 4.3), and coping (15.1, sd = 3.7). Increased hours of gameplay on weekdays and weekends were noted in the disordered gaming group compared to non-disordered gamers.
A small percentage of gamers in Ireland demonstrate disordered gaming characteristics and gaming disorder, consistent with data from other international studies. Epidemiological studies are required in Ireland to enhance our knowledge of this disorder.
It is well established that high-dose alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risk for a plethora of adverse offspring outcomes. These include neurodevelopmental, cognitive and social deficits, as well as psychiatric illnesses, such as depression and anxiety. However, much less evidence is available on the effects of low- and early-dose alcohol exposure on mental health outcomes, regardless of the accumulating evidence that mental health outcomes should be considered in the context of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. This review will discuss the evidence that indicates low-dose and early prenatal alcohol exposure can increase the risk of mental illness in offspring and discuss the mechanistic pathways that may be involved.
It is unclear what session frequency is most effective in cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression.
Compare the effects of once weekly and twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression.
We conducted a multicentre randomised trial from November 2014 through December 2017. We recruited 200 adults with depression across nine specialised mental health centres in the Netherlands. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design, randomising patients to once or twice weekly sessions of CBT or IPT over 16–24 weeks, up to a maximum of 20 sessions. Main outcome measures were depression severity, measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at baseline, before session 1, and 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months after start of the intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted.
Compared with patients who received weekly sessions, patients who received twice weekly sessions showed a statistically significant decrease in depressive symptoms (estimated mean difference between weekly and twice weekly sessions at month 6: 3.85 points, difference in effect size d = 0.55), lower attrition rates (n = 16 compared with n = 32) and an increased rate of response (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00–2.18).
In clinical practice settings, delivery of twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression is a way to improve depression treatment outcomes.
Residential burglary is a social problem in every major urban area. As such, progress has been to develop quantitative, informative and applicable models for this type of crime: (1) the Deterministic-time-step (DTS) model [Short, D’Orsogna, Pasour, Tita, Brantingham, Bertozzi & Chayes (2008) Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci.18, 1249–1267], a pioneering agent-based statistical model of residential burglary criminal behaviour, with deterministic time steps assumed for arrivals of events in which the residential burglary aggregate pattern formation is quantitatively studied for the first time; (2) the SSRB model (agent-based stochastic-statistical model of residential burglary crime) [Wang, Zhang, Bertozzi & Short (2019) Active Particles, Vol. 2, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, in press], in which the stochastic component of the model is theoretically analysed by introduction of a Poisson clock with time steps turned into exponentially distributed random variables. To incorporate independence of agents, in this work, five types of Poisson clocks are taken into consideration. Poisson clocks (I), (II) and (III) govern independent agent actions of burglary behaviour, and Poisson clocks (IV) and (V) govern interactions of agents with the environment. All the Poisson clocks are independent. The time increments are independently exponentially distributed, which are more suitable to model individual actions of agents. Applying the method of merging and splitting of Poisson processes, the independent Poisson clocks can be treated as one, making the analysis and simulation similar to the SSRB model. A Martingale formula is derived, which consists of a deterministic and a stochastic component. A scaling property of the Martingale formulation with varying burglar population is found, which provides a theory to the finite size effects. The theory is supported by quantitative numerical simulations using the pattern-formation quantifying statistics. Results presented here will be transformative for both elements of application and analysis of agent-based models for residential burglary or in other domains.
Digitally enabled services can contribute to the support, treatment and prevention of mental health difficulties; however, questions remain regarding how we can most usefully harness such technology in primary and secondary mental healthcare settings.
To identify barriers and facilitators to enable the potential of digital mental health in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
A three-round Delphi exercise was carried out online with 16 participants from across the four nations of the UK representing the following stakeholder groups: service providers, health professionals, policymakers, lived experience, small and medium enterprises and academics. Qualitative data were collected in the first round (80 fragments) that were then coded to produce a 26-item round-two questionnaire for participant rating. Participants were given the opportunity to reconsider their scores in light of the group responses in round three.
Eight statements under the following five themes reached consensus with median scores between 8 and 10 (i.e. important/very important): co-production; the human element; data security; funding; and regulation.
The Delphi process allowed consensus to be achieved regarding the factors that experts consider important for harnessing technology in primary and secondary mental healthcare. Knowledge of these factors can help users and providers of mental health services negotiate how best to move forward with digitally enabled systems of care.
Use of antipsychotic drugs in long-term aged care (LTC) is prevalent and commonly exceeds the recommended duration, but contributors to this problem are not well understood. The objective of this study is to provide a snapshot of the features of and contributors to prolonged use of antipsychotic medications (>12 weeks) among a sample of LTC residents.
We present retrospective and baseline data collected for the Australian Halting Antipsychotic Use in Long-Term Care (HALT) single-arm longitudinal deprescribing trial.
Twenty-four long-term care facilities in Sydney, Australia.
The HALT study included 146 older people living in 24 Sydney LTC homes who had been prescribed a regular antipsychotic medication for at least 3 months at baseline.
Detailed file audit was conducted to identify the date and indication recorded at initial prescription, consenting practices, longitudinal course of prescribing, and recommendations for review of antipsychotic medication. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and functional dependence at baseline were assessed via LTC staff interview. Cognition at baseline was assessed in a participant interview (where possible).
Antipsychotics were prescribed for 2.2 years on average despite recommendations by a doctor or pharmacist for review in 62% of cases. Consent for antipsychotic prescription was accessible for only one case and contraindications for use were common. Longer use of antipsychotics was independently associated with higher dose of the antipsychotic drug and greater apathy, but not with other BPSD.
Antipsychotic medications appeared to be prescribed in this sample as a maintenance treatment in the absence of active indicated symptoms and without informed consent. Standard interventions, including recommendations for review, had been insufficient to ensure evidence-based prescribing.
For many benthic marine invertebrates, inversion (being turned upside-down) is a common event that can increase vulnerability to predation, desiccation and unwanted spatial transport, and requires behavioural ‘self-righting’ to correct. While self-righting behaviour has been studied for more than a century, the repeatability (R) – the portion of behavioural variance due to inter-individual differences – of this trait is not well understood. Heritability and the evolution of animal behaviour rely on behavioural repeatability. Here, we examined the self-righting technique of a cold-water holothurid, Parastichopus tremulus, and assessed the repeatability of this behaviour. Under laboratory conditions, P. tremulus consistently used muscle contractions to curl its body and roll itself back to an upright position, which provided for rapid (x̅ ± SD = 96.7 ± 49.8 s) and highly repeatable (R = 0.75) self-righting in the short term that varied between individuals (range of individual average righting times = 34.8–217.0 s). Righting time tended to increase with animal size; however, substantial variation was evident at comparable sizes, as average righting time ranged from 34.8–155.5 s for animals ~20 cm in body length. Contrary to previous studies on other echinoderms, we found no evidence of improved righting times for P. tremulus over time. This study ultimately provides the first detailed documentation of self-righting behaviour for P. tremulus and suggests that this species displays a high degree of repeatability for this trait in the short term.
Although internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), a substantial proportion of patients do not achieve clinically significant improvement. More research is needed to identify which factors predict treatment adherence and outcomes.
The aims of this study were to (1) identify demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment adherence and outcomes in ICBT for social anxiety in China, and (2) explore whether low-intensity therapist support results in improved treatment adherence or outcomes.
Participants were assigned to either therapist-guided (N = 183) or self-guided ICBT (N = 72). Level of social anxiety was measured at both pre- and post-treatment. Treatment adherence and outcomes were analysed using a two-step linear and logistic regression approach. Clinical and demographic characteristics were examined.
No significant group differences were found for treatment adherence or outcomes between the therapist-guided and self-guided conditions. Participants diagnosed with SAD were significantly less likely to drop out (OR 0.531, p = .03) compared with subclinical participants with social anxiety symptoms. Older participants (B = 0.17, SE = 0.04, p = .008) and participants with a diagnosis of SAD (B = 0.16, SE = 0.44, p = .01) tended to complete more modules. Participants who completed more modules (B = 0.24, SE = 0.03, p = .01) and participants who identified as female (B = –0.20, SE = 0.18, p = .04) reported greater reductions in SAD symptoms.
Understanding of factors related to adherence and outcome is necessary to prevent drop-out and optimize outcome.
This chapter focuses on financial markets and how these markets have enjoyed close ties to cities. It also demonstrates that social avalanches and tensional individuality have played a central role in how financial markets work and are conceived. I discuss this by examining the historical design of the trading floors of stock and commodity exchanges, introduced to avoid emergence within these exchanges of the avalanching of metropolitan life, as well as contrarian investment advice, which suggested techniques for how to avoid the avalanching properties of markets, techniques that ultimately subscribed to a tensional notion of individuality. The chapter also discusses more recent market developments such as the increasing computerisation of financial markets. I focus on the rise of algorithmic finance, in which fully automated computer algorithms are behind the majority of activity in financial markets. Through a discussion of the Flash Crash that took place in US markets in May 2010, I argue that fully automated algorithms may engage in social avalanching, meaning that sociality can indeed be ascribed to non-human algorithms.
In chapter 2, we focused on managing for results, especially through measuring performance outputs. In this chapter, we examine the assessment processes and techniques associated with the management of work behaviour and related outcomes. As a consequence, we will highlight the strengths, weaknesses and criticisms of these assessment methods. Subsequently, we also examine the situations in which each may be the most and least appropriate. In assessing the management of work behaviours, we consider sources of performance appraisal information, methods and some common flaws. Examined in a systems perspective, we discuss both a behaviour (i.e. process) and competency (i.e. input) approach to the appraisal of individual performance as they relate to desired work behaviour and results. While measuring individual performance 95is often considered a traditional and well understood human resource management practice, an important consideration to keep in mind throughout this chapter is: exactly how do measuring work behaviours and individual competencies shape subsequent behaviour?
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy and one of the most widely used treatments for mental health problems. It is generally acknowledged that supervision improves the quality of treatment although systematic descriptions and empirical evaluation of supervision have been sparse. Moreover, there are relatively few valid and reliable instruments to evaluate supervision. Based on a comprehensive review of the supervision literature, six competency domains were identified to cover the scope of CBT supervision: Theory, Focus, Learning strategy, Techniques, Structure, and Interpersonal style. The Moeller, Moerch, Rosenberg Supervision Scale (MMRSS) was developed to evaluate supervisor performance within each of these domains after observation of supervision. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the MMRSS (inter-rater reliability and construct validity), the clinical utility, and satisfaction when using MMRSS to evaluate CBT supervision. CBT supervisors (n = 8) were recruited for the study and provided videos of group supervision. A total of 21 videos were rated using the MMRSS and the Supervisory Competency Scale (SCS) by two independent raters. Supervisees and supervisors completed a satisfaction questionnaire to capture their experience of using the MMRSS during supervision of supervision. The MMRSS showed acceptable internal consistency and validity. Several domains in MMRSS (Structure, Learning strategy, and Interpersonal style) correlated significantly with the corresponding domains in the SCS for cognitive supervision. Preliminary results indicate that the MMRSS may be a valid and clinically useful tool to evaluate CBT supervision, although further systematic evaluation is needed.
Key learning aims
(1) To understand that empirically founded evaluation of cognitive behavioural supervision is essential for good training.
(2) To argue that a modern view of supervision places an emphasis on learning principles.
(3) To describe the Moeller, Moerch, Rosenberg Supervision Scale (MMRSS) and the scale’s preliminary psychometric properties.
(4) To describe the supervisors’ and supervisees’ reported satisfaction using the MMRSS.
Large-scale cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) training and implementation programmes, such as the pioneering Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative in the UK, aim to develop a workforce of competent therapists who can deliver evidence-based interventions skilfully. Self-awareness of competence enables CBT therapists to accurately evaluate their clinical practice and determine professional development needs. The accuracy of self-assessed competence, however, remains unclear when compared with assessments conducted by markers with expertise in CBT practice and evaluation. This study investigated the relationship between self- and expert-rated competence – assessed via therapy recordings rated on the Cognitive Therapy Scale Revised (CTS-R) scale – for a large sample of IAPT CBT trainees during training and, for the first time, at post-training follow-up. CBT trainees (n = 150) submitted therapy recordings at baseline, mid-training and end-of-training. At 12+ month follow-up, a subset of former trainees (n = 30) submitted recordings from clinical practice. There were positive relationships (r = .27 to .56) between self and expert CTS-R scores at all time points. The proportion of tapes demonstrating significant agreement between self and expert ratings (CTS-R difference <5 points) increased significantly across training and remained stable at follow-up. Findings indicate that accurate self-awareness of competence can be developed during structured CBT training and retained in the workplace. These outcomes are encouraging given the importance of self-awareness to CBT practice and accreditation. Future investigation into the development and maintenance of accurate self-awareness of competence is warranted.
Key learning aims
What is the relationship between self-ratings and expert ratings of CBT competence during training and at post-training follow-up?
Does agreement between self and expert competence ratings improve with CBT training?
How does agreement between self and expert ratings change across training for more- and less-competent trainees?
Can accurate self-awareness of competence be retained post-training in the workplace?
Antidepressive pharmacotherapy (AD), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are effective treatments for major depressive disorder. With our review, we aim to provide a systematic overview of neuroimaging studies that investigate the effects of AD, ECT and CBT on brain grey matter volume (GMV) and biomarkers associated with response. After a systematic database research on PubMed, we included 50 studies using magnetic resonance imaging and investigating (1) changes in GMV, (2) pre-treatment GMV biomarkers associated with response, or (3) the accuracy of predictions of response to AD, ECT or CBT based on baseline GMV data. The strongest evidence for brain structural changes was found for ECT, showing volume increases within the temporal lobe and subcortical structures – such as the hippocampus–amygdala complex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatum. For AD, the evidence is heterogeneous as only 4 of 11 studies reported significant changes in GMV. The results are not sufficient in order to draw conclusions about the structural brain effects of CBT. The findings show consistently that higher pre-treatment ACC volume is associated with response to AD, ECT and CBT. An association of higher pre-treatment hippocampal volume and response has only been reported for AD. Machine learning approaches based on pre-treatment whole brain patterns reach accuracies of 64–90% for predictions of AD or ECT response on the individual patient level. The findings underline the potential of brain biomarkers for the implementation in clinical practice as an additive feature within the process of treatment selection.
Perinatal depression and anxiety are associated with unfavourable child outcomes.
To assess among women with antenatal depression or anxiety the effectiveness of prenatally initiated cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) on mother and child compared with care as usual (CAU). Trial registration: Netherlands Trial Register number NTR2242.
Pregnant women (n = 282) who screened positive for symptoms of depression and/or anxiety were randomised to either CBT (n = 140) or CAU (n = 142). The primary outcome was child behavioural and emotional problems at age 18 months, assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Secondary outcomes were maternal symptoms during and up to 18 months after pregnancy, neonatal outcomes, mother–infant bonding and child cognitive and motor development at age 18 months.
In total, 94 (67%) women in the CBT group and 98 (69%) in the CAU group completed the study. The mean CBCL Total Problems score was non-significantly higher in the CBT group than in the CAU group (mean difference: 1.38 (95% CI −1.82 to 4.57); t = 0.85, P = 0.399). No effects on secondary outcomes were observed except for depression and anxiety, which were higher in the CBT group than in the CAU group at mid-pregnancy. A post hoc analysis of the 98 women with anxiety disorders showed lower infant gestational age at delivery in the CBT than in the CAU group.
Prenatally initiated CBT did not improve maternal symptoms or child outcomes among non-help-seeking women with antenatal depression or anxiety. Our findings are not in line with present recommendations for universal screening and treatment for antenatal depression or anxiety, and future work may include the relevance of baseline help-seeking.
In the framework of a critical illustration of the contemporary history of economics, this chapter provides an (original) illustration of Hayek’s thought: his formative years, his contributions to the theory of the trade cycle and the theory of capital and the subsequent debates with Sraffa and Kaldor, his theory of the spontaneous order and of the market as a mechanism of knowledge diffusion, his political individualism and the similarities to and differences from the notions of methodological individualism, liberism and liberalism, his thesis on the denationalization of money.
The social life of female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) differs between subspecies, with females in East African field sites often described as avoiding association to avoid competition, while females in Taï have been shown to be more gregarious, spending most of their time in close contact with each other, probably to avoid predation. This close association leads to increased levels of direct competition for resources, possibly increasing the benefit of having a higher dominance rank and challenging dominant group members. Female chimpanzees in Gombe have been shown to queue for rank rather than challenge others. Here, we show that female dyads in Taï do change their dominance rank at times, with at least six clear rank changes recorded in the Taï North and South communities. We discuss life events that could facilitate rank challenges. The increased flexibility in the female dominance hierarchy potentially adds a level of complexity not seen in East African chimpanzees.