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Research participants want to receive results from studies in which they participate. However, health researchers rarely share the results of their studies beyond scientific publication. Little is known about the barriers researchers face in returning study results to participants.
Using a mixed-methods design, health researchers (N=414) from more than 40 U.S. universities were asked about barriers to providing results to participants. Respondents were recruited from universities with Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs and Prevention Research Centers (PRCs).
Respondents reported the percent of their research where they experienced each of the four barriers to disseminating results to participants: logistical/methodological, financial, systems, and regulatory. A fifth barrier, investigator capacity, emerged from data analysis. Training for research faculty and staff, promotion and tenure incentives, and funding agencies supporting dissemination of results to participants were solutions offered to overcoming barriers.
Study findings add to literature on research dissemination by documenting health researchers’ perceived barriers to sharing study results with participants. Implications for policy and practice suggest that additional resources and training could help reduce dissemination barriers and increase the return of results to participants.
Despite the well-documented health benefits of physical activity in older adults, participation levels remain low. With rapid global population ageing, intensive efforts are needed to encourage higher levels of participation to ameliorate the negative effects of physical inactivity for older individuals and society as a whole. The aim of this qualitative study was to inform future physical activity promotion interventions by examining factors contributing to low activity levels among older people undertaking less than half the recommended level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 102 (65% female) community-dwelling Western Australians aged 60+ years (mean = 71.52, standard deviation = 6.26) who engaged in ⩽75 minutes of MVPA per week as measured by accelerometers. Several modifiable and unmodifiable barriers were identified, of which poor health featured most prominently. Lifetime physical inactivity, caring duties, low motivation, misperceptions of physical activity and ageing, and a lack of affordable and attractive options were the other barriers identified. The results suggest that strategies are needed to raise awareness of current physical activity guidelines, normalise engagement in MVPA throughout the lifespan, develop initiatives to motivate participation, improve the availability of affordable physical activity programmes that are attractive to this population segment, and facilitate participation among those with intensive caring responsibilities.
Multiple factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), education, race, and ethnicity can affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) rates. However, few studies have addressed CRCS disparities among Arab Americans. Our aim was to understand how Arab Americans view CRCS.
Employing thematic analysis, we collected and analyzed the dialogue of Arab American focus groups and interviews to better understand participants’ perceptions of CRCS. Themes were generated and categorized into barriers and facilitators.
Eleven Arab American males participated in two focus groups and two interviews. Three barriers included disbelief in modern medicine, concerns about the procedure, and lack of communication with the physician. Three facilitators were also identified: compliance and priority of health, access to healthcare, and awareness.
Disparities in CRCS cannot solely be explained by SES and access but cultural differences also contribute. Specific interventions accounting for these cultural differences are needed to reduce disparities in CRCS among Arab Americans.
Research on the drivers of vaccine acceptance has expanded but most interventions fall short of coverage targets. We explored whether vaccine uptake is driven directly or indirectly by disgust with attitudes towards vaccines acting as a possible mediator. An online cross-sectional study of 1007 adults of the USA via Amazon's Mechanical Turk was conducted in January 2017. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: (1) items assessing attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine uptake, (2) revised Disgust Scale (DS-R) to measure Disgust Sensitivity, (3) Perceived Vulnerability to Disease scale (PVD) to measure Germ Aversion and Perceived Susceptibility, and (4) socio-demographic information. Using mediation analysis, we assess the direct, the indirect (through Vaccine Attitudes) and the total effect of Disgust Sensitivity, Germ Aversion and Perceived Susceptibility on 2016 self-reported flu vaccine uptake. Mediation analysis showed the effect of Disgust Sensitivity and Germ Aversion on vaccine uptake to be twofold: a direct positive effect on vaccine uptake and an indirect negative effect through Vaccine Attitudes. In contrast, Perceived Susceptibility was found to have only a direct positive effect on vaccine uptake. Nonetheless, these effects were attenuated and small compared to economic, logistic and psychological determinants of vaccine uptake.
Despite compelling evidence that physicians play a prominent role in smoking cessation, most smokers do not receive the recommended smoking cessation counseling.
To identify perceived barriers that hinder primary healthcare physicians (PHPs) from providing smoking cessation treatment to patients in Armenia.
A sequential exploratory mixed-methods study was conducted among PHPs from two Armenian cities (Yerevan and Gyumri). We implemented qualitative phase through focus group discussions (FGDs) using a semi-structured guide. For the subsequent quantitative phase, the data were collected through cross-sectional survey. A directed deductive content analysis technique was used to analyze the FGDs and questionnaires were analyzed descriptively. Following the data collection (March 2015–May 2016) and descriptive analysis, the qualitative and quantitative data sets were merged by drawing quantitative data onto qualitative categories.
Overall, 23 PHPs participated in five FGDs and 108 participants completed the survey. Three main categories of barriers were identified: physician-based, patient-based, and system-based barriers. The main physicians-based barriers were insufficient knowledge and inadequate training on tobacco-dependence treatment. Lack of patients’ motivation to quit, poor compliance with the treatment, patients’ withdrawal symptoms were identified as patient-based disincentives. System-based barriers included lack of reimbursement for providing smoking cessation counseling, high price and low availability of smoking cessation medications. Most of the qualitative descriptions were confirmed by quantitative findings.
Targeted interventions are needed to address barriers that limited PHPs’ involvement in providing smoking cessation services in Armenia. There is an urgent need to enhance PHPs’ knowledge and skills in delivering smoking cessation counseling, to increase patients’ demand for smoking cessation services, and to ensure availability and affordability of smoking cessation services in Armenia.
People with epilepsy (PWE) are less physically active compared with the general population. Explanations include prejudice, overprotection, unawareness, stigma, fear of seizure induction and lack of knowledge of health professionals. At present, there is no consensus on the role of exercise in epilepsy. This paper reviews the current evidence surrounding the risks and benefits associated with physical activity (PA) in this group of patients. In the last decade, several publications indicate significant benefits in physiological and psychological health parameters, including mood and cognition, physical conditioning, social interaction, quality of life, as well as potential prevention of seizure presentation. Moreover, experimental studies suggest that PA provides mechanisms of neuronal protection, related to biochemical and structural changes including release of β-endorphins and steroids, which may exert an inhibitory effect on the occurrence of abnormal electrical activity. Epileptic discharges can decrease or disappear during exercise, which may translate into reduced seizure recurrence. In some patients, exercise may precipitate seizures. Available evidence suggests that PA should be encouraged in PWE in order to promote wellbeing and quality of life. There is a need for prospective randomized controlled studies that provide stronger clinical evidence before definitive recommendations can be made.
To systematically review the literature on barriers to the use of clozapine and identify any interventions for optimizing clozapine use in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Journal databases were searched from 1972 to March 2018. The following search terms were used: treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine, barriers, use, prescription rates, implementation, clozaril and prescribing practices. Following a review of the literature, 15 papers were included in the review.
The major barriers that were identified included mandatory blood testing, fear of serious side-effects and lack of adherence by the patients, difficulty in identifying suitable patients, service fragmentation, and inadequate training in or exposure to using clozapine.
In view of consistent evidence across the studies on inadequate knowledge and skills as a significant barrier, we suggest that a certification requiring competence in initiating and managing side-effects of clozapine becomes a mandatory requirement in training programmes.
Despite an emerging evidence base for the efficacy of supported computerized cognitive behavioural therapy (eCBT), uptake in services has been slow. Therapists’ beliefs about eCBT may constitute a barrier to offering eCBT to clients, but little research has investigated this topic. The aim of this study was to investigate therapist attitudes towards eCBT in one inner-city Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service using a survey design. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Thirty-three therapists took part in the study. Although 97% of participants reported that they knew ‘what eCBT involves’, and 62% reported that they were ‘confident to offer eCBT to clients’, only 10% endorsed that ‘there is a strong evidence-base to support the use of eCBT’. Two-thirds of the sample believed that eCBT ‘could be effective for mild and moderate mental health difficulties’, but most participants believed that eCBT would perform ‘worse’ or ‘much worse’ than face-to-face interventions for a range of disorders. Barriers to offering eCBT related predominantly to assumptions about client expectations of therapy, and perceived lack of a therapeutic relationship. Participants identified the provision of training on eCBT for those recommending treatment options to clients as a potential solution. Results from this study highlight therapists’ attitudes to eCBT that might contribute to low uptake rates of eCBT. Particularly, misperceptions about the evidence base for eCBT may be prevalent. Appropriate training and ongoing supervision for therapists are considered as interventions that may increase acceptance of eCBT as a valid treatment option.
To investigate for the first time the determinants and barriers of seeking help for mental disorders in the Arab world based on a national study: Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation (L.E.B.A.N.O.N).
A nationally representative (n = 2857) and multistage clustered area probability household sample of adults ≥18 years and older was assessed for lifetime and 12 months mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In addition, detailed information was obtained on help- seeking behaviour and barriers to treatment.
In total, 19.7% of the Lebanese with mental disorders sought any type of treatment: 91% of those who sought treatment did so within the health sector. Severity and perceived severity of disorders predicted seeking help, the highest being for panic disorder. The greatest barrier to seek help was low perceived need for treatment (73.9%). Stigma was reported to be a factor only in 5.9% of those who thought about seeking treatment. Eighty per cent of the Lebanese reported they would not be embarrassed if friends knew they were seeking help from a professional.
A small fraction of Lebanese seek help for their mental health problems: female gender, higher education and income are predictors of positive attitudes to help seeking. Severity and recognition of disorders, more than stigma, to get treatment seem to be the most important factors in determining help seeking. The findings underscore the importance of helping the public recognise mental health disorders.
It is important to pay attention to weight management before and between pregnancies, as women have an increased risk of weight gain during the reproductive years. Having a baby is a life-changing event for women and the challenge of weight management amidst this period of major physiological, psychological and social change should not be underestimated. However, the postpartum period offers an opportune time for lifestyle interventions, as women may have heightened awareness of their own and their wider families’ health. Systematic reviews indicate that interventions including both diet and physical activity along with individualised support and self-monitoring are more likely to be successful in promoting postpartum weight loss. However, high levels of attrition and poor engagement have been an issue in previous trials in this area. Since postpartum women are difficult to reach and retain, future research must consider how to make weight-management interventions an attractive and attainable proposition for women who are juggling multiple, competing demands on their time. Ideally, intervention approaches need to be flexible and allow sustained contact with women, to facilitate a focus on maintenance of weight loss, as well as opportunities for re-engagement after life events that may disrupt weight-management progress. Using technology to deliver or support interventions holds promise but trials are needed to generate a range of appealing, effective and scalable options for postpartum women. What works at other life stages may not necessarily work here owing to specific barriers to weight management encountered in the postpartum period.
Clinical supervision is an essential feature of high-quality psychological practice. However, it has been under-investigated within the field of school psychology and particularly in Australia. An overview of the field of school psychology, its clinical supervision, and its use by school psychologists is provided. Past literature has suggested inadequate engagement with supervision among these practitioners. In order to examine current work contexts and supervision experiences, 77 school psychologists were surveyed. Engagement in supervision appears to have markedly increased since the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA) Continuing Professional Development mandates in 2010. However, the data indicated that further organisational and policy support of school psychologists is warranted.
Resistance training is an important aspect of healthy ageing, yet participation rates are especially low among older people. Strategies are needed to ensure resistance training programmes are attractive to and appropriate for this target group. To inform the development of such strategies, individual interviews (N = 42) and focus groups (four groups, N = 37) were conducted with 79 Western Australians representing four stakeholder groups: instructors who deliver resistance training programmes to older people, health practitioners, policy makers and seniors. Results indicate that the need for personalised attention in the establishment and maintenance phases of a resistance training programme can constitute both a positive and negative aspect of older people's experiences. The negative aspects were identified as a series of tensions between the need for personalised attention and (a) the desire to participate in physical activity within social groups, (b) a preference for activity variation, (c) a dislike for large centres where personalised guidance is often available yet the surroundings can be considered unappealing, (d) cost issues and (e) the need for flexibility in attendance. Recommended strategies for overcoming these tensions include disseminating information about the benefits of resistance training in later life to increase motivation to participate, identifying additional methods of integrating resistance training into group exercise formats, making gyms more attractive to older people and providing non-gym alternatives for resistance training.
Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) is a national network aimed at improving emergency care for children by increasing collaborations and knowledge sharing between general and pediatric emergency departments (EDs). This study aimed to determine patterns of knowledge sharing within the network and to identify connections, barriers, and opportunities to obtaining pediatric information and training.
We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with health care professionals working in general EDs, purposefully sampled to represent connected and disconnected sites, based on two previous internal quantitative social network analyses (SNA). Data were analyzed by two independent reviewers.
Participants included physicians (59%) and nurses (41%) from 18 general EDs in urban (68%) and rural/remote (32%) Canada. Health care professionals sought information both formally and informally, by using guidelines, talking to colleagues, and attending pediatric related training sessions. Network structure and processes were found to increase connections, support practice change, and promote standards of care. Participants identified personal, organizational and system level barriers to information and skill acquisition, including resources and personal costs, geography, dissemination, and time. Providing easy access to information at the point of care was promoted through enhancing content visibility and by embedding resources into local systems. There remains a need to share successful methods of local dissemination and implementation across the network, and to leverage local professional champions such as clinical nurse liaisons.
These findings reinforce the critical role of ongoing network evaluation to improve the design and delivery of knowledge mobilization initiatives.
Demonstrated economic benefits of conversion to organic agriculture, combined with solutions to technical and production-related problems, suggest that farmers in Switzerland should have converted in large numbers to organic production. However, the number of organic farms in Switzerland has remained virtually constant in the last 10 yr, so it appears there are other factors that influence the decision of whether or not to convert. Several studies have sought to identify the factors that influence the decisions by farmers whether or not to convert to organic, but have found a range of factors that appear to be context dependent, while others can be seen as context transcendent, which makes it difficult to draw generalizable conclusions. The aim of this study was to identify how Swiss farmers’ decisions reflect the interaction of perceptions, relationships, policies and economic factors, which either enable or provide barriers to conversion. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with 39 farmers of mixed and arable farms in the German- (n = 24) and French-speaking (n = 15) parts of Switzerland. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to their content. The results show that the decision of whether or not to convert relies on belief that technical problems have been sufficiently solved, as well as a range of social factors. Farmers perceive social pressure for them to be productive, but non-organic farmers often incorrectly perceive organic farming as not being oriented toward production. Furthermore, ‘official’ advice, which could correct this misperception, is sought about how, rather than whether, to convert and typically comes after farmers have made their decision. Major barriers in an area with a low density of organic farms are the lack of supply and delivery points within an acceptable travel distance, and lack of peer networks to provide informal support. On the basis of these findings, we propose that strategies to encourage conversion should be based around two main pillars: investment to create a network of supply and delivery points in areas with low density of organic farms; and actions, such as information events, to encourage dialogue between conventional and organic farmers to counteract feelings of ‘us vs them’.
Previous research indicates that low-income individuals often struggle to consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V). LINK Up Illinois is a farmers’ market incentive programme that aims to increase F&V consumption among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients by improving access to and affordability of locally grown foods. The present research aimed to identify barriers to F&V consumption that exist among users of the LINK Up Illinois programme.
Farmers’ markets in Chicago, Springfield, Northbrook, Woodstock, Aurora and Urbana, IL.
In 2016, a volunteer sample of 140 LINK Up Illinois users (mean age 42·5 years; 81·7 % female; 28·7 % African American; 44·0 % obese) completed a survey at participating farmers’ markets across the state. Information on demographics, food shopping behaviours, programme satisfaction, barriers to F&V consumption and frequency of F&V consumption was collected and examined.
Approximately 23 % of survey participants reported consuming F&V ≥3 times/d. The barriers to F&V consumption most often reported by survey participants were the cost of F&V (29·5 %), spoilage (18·6 %), knowing how to cook F&V (8·7 %) and not thinking about F&V when hungry (8·6 %). Results from multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models suggested that reporting one or more barriers was associated with reduced odds of consuming vegetables ≥3 times/d, but not fruits.
Cost, spoilage and knowledge of cooking are key barriers to F&V consumption that exist among LINK Up Illinois users. Strategies are needed to mitigate these barriers and increase F&V consumption in this population.
Despite considerable evidence supporting the health benefits of regular nut consumption, nut intakes remain lower than recommended among many populations. Understanding how the general population perceives nuts could inform strategies to promote regular nut consumption and increase intakes among the general public.
Cross-sectional study. Participants were invited to complete a questionnaire which included information on nut consumption and knowledge and perceptions of nuts.
The study was set in New Zealand (NZ).
Participants (n 1600), aged 18 years or over, were randomly selected from the NZ electoral roll.
A total of 710 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate 44 %). More than half of the respondents believed that nuts are healthy, filling, high in protein and high in fat. The most common reason cited by consumers for eating nuts was taste (86 % for nuts, 85 % for nut butters), while dental issues was the most frequent reason for avoidance. About 40 % of respondents were not aware of the effects of nut consumption on lowering blood cholesterol and CVD risk.
Despite overall basic knowledge of the nutritional value of nuts, a substantial proportion of the general population was unaware of the cardioprotective effects of nuts. The present study identified common motivations for eating and avoiding nuts, as well as perceptions of nuts which could affect intake. These should guide the content and direction of public health messages to increase regular nut consumption. The public’s knowledge gaps should also be addressed.
Despite numerous global initiatives on breast-feeding, trend data show exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) rates have stagnated over the last two decades. The purpose of the present systematic review was to determine barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in twenty-five low- and middle-income countries and discuss implications for programmes.
A search of Scopus, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO was conducted to retrieve studies from January 2000 to October 2015. Using inclusion criteria, we selected both qualitative and quantitative studies that described barriers to EBF.
Low- and middle-income countries.
Following application of systematic review criteria, forty-eight articles from fourteen countries were included in the review.
Sixteen barriers to EBF were identified in the review. There is moderate evidence of a negative association between maternal employment and EBF practices. Studies that examined EBF barriers at childbirth and the initial 24 h post-delivery found strong evidence that caesarean section can impede EBF. There is moderate evidence for early initiation of breast-feeding and likelihood of practising EBF. Breast-feeding problems were commonly reported from cross-sectional or observational studies. Counselling on EBF and the presence of family and/or community support have demonstrated improvements in EBF.
Improving the counselling skills of health workers to address breast-feeding problems and increasing community support for breast-feeding are critical components of infant and young child feeding programming, which will aid in attaining the 2025 World Health Assembly EBF targets. Legislation and regulations on marketing of breast-milk substitutes, paid maternity leave and breast-feeding breaks for working mothers require attention in low- and middle-income countries.
Dairy products contain essential nutrients to ensure healthy growth and bone development in children. However, a significant proportion of children in developed countries fail to consume the daily recommended intake of dairy products. Parents are the gatekeepers of familial nutritional intake and represent a potential vehicle through which to increase dairy consumption in children. As such, formative research was conducted to gain insight into parents’ perceived barriers to and benefits of purchasing and consuming dairy products and to develop innovative message content that could be utilized in future public health campaigns.
Seven in-depth group interviews were conducted in two phases between February and May 2015.
Interviews were conducted in local recreational centres and libraries in British Columbia, Canada.
Mothers (n 21, mean age 38 (sd 5) years) and fathers (n 9, mean age 38 (sd 3) years) of children aged 4–10 years.
Parents perceived both positive and negative physical outcomes associated with consuming dairy. Lack of trustworthy information was a frequently discussed barrier theme to purchasing and consuming dairy products. Mothers were concerned about the cost of dairy products. Differences in purchasing and consumption strategies were reported between parents of children who consumed adequate dairy and those who did not. Parents believed the most appropriate communication channel was through print material.
Messages targeting parents, as a means of increasing dairy consumption in children, should address barriers identified by parents. In addition, practical tips should be provided to promote purchasing and consumption of dairy products.
Mastitis is a major disease affecting the herds of dairy farmers worldwide. One of the indicators directly related to the widespread infection of this disease in herds is the bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC). Recent studies have shown that one of the risk factors associated with mastitis is the human factor. Therefore, understanding the influence of humans is essential to control and prevent the disease. The main goal of this study was to determine whether the motivations and barriers perceived by farmers could explain the variation in the BTSCC. This study was conducted at 75 dairy farms in southern Brazil. In the interviews with farmers, a survey based on Likert scale items was used to collect data. Structural equation models were used to explain the subjectivity in the ratio of observed variables and latent variables elucidating the possible causal relationships between the variables. The model indicated that some of the variation in the BTSCC can be explained by the farmer’s behavior, which is elucidated by his/her motivations and barriers. The correlations between motivations and the BTSCC and between barriers and the BTSCC were positive. These findings suggest that variations in the BTSCC can be explained by the motivations and barriers perceived by farmers and that the Fogg Behavior Model used in this study can be used to explain how human behaviors influence mastitis control. This study also indicates that consulting companies focused on improving milk quality should pay attention to the human factor to reduce these barriers.