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This chapter provides an overview of pediatric asthma. The author reviews the pathophysiology, precipitating factors and clinical symptoms of asthma. The preoperative plan for patients with asthma is reviewed. A comprehensive discussion on anesthetics for the asthmatic is presented as is the management of perioperative asthma exacerbation. Each of the medications commonly used for pediatric asthma are reviewed.
Previous studies evaluating the associations of circulating Zn and Se levels with asthma have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize and quantitatively synthesize the evidence from observational research.
We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases up to May 2019 for relevant available articles. Random-effects model was adopted to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % CI. Meta-regression analysis and ‘leave-one-out’ sensitivity analysis were used to assess heterogeneity.
The meta-analysis focused on general populations.
A total of twenty-six studies for Zn and forty studies for Se were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analyses identified that asthma patients had lower Zn (SMD = −0·40; 95 % CI −0·77, −0·03; I2 = 94·1 %) and Se (SMD = −0·32; 95 % CI −0·48, −0·17; I2 = 90·9 %) levels in serum or plasma compared with healthy controls. After removing the studies that contributed to the heterogeneity, the pooled SMD were −0·26 (95 % CI −0·40, −0·13; I2 = 37·42 %) for Zn and −0·06 (95 % CI −0·13, 0·02; I2 = 43·54 %) for Se.
Lower circulating Zn and Se levels might be associated with an increased risk of asthma.
Asthma-obesity is a multifactorial disease with specific asthma phenotypes that aggravate due to overweight and an unbalanced diet. Furthermore, obese asthmatic patients are corticotherapy-resistant. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on food consumption, body composition, lung function and adipokines in asthmatic and non-asthmatic obese adolescents and to investigate the influence of nutrients on lung function. Obese non-asthmatic (n 42) and obese asthmatic (n 21) adolescents of both sexes were enrolled in the present study. Food intake, adipokine levels, body composition, asthma symptoms and lung function were assessed across the study. After the intervention of 1 year, there was a reduction (P ≤ 0·01) in BMI, body fat percentage, visceral and subcutaneous fat and an increase (P ≤ 0·01) in lean mass and all lung function variables in both groups, except the relation between forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) in non-asthmatic patients. Moreover, both groups decreased lipid and cholesterol consumption (P ≤ 0·01). The highest energy consumption (β = −0·021) was associated with lower values of FVC. Similarly, carbohydrate consumption (β = −0·06) and cholesterol were negative predictors (β = −0·05) in FEV1:FVC. However, the consumption of Ca (β = 0·01), fibres (β = 1·34) and vitamin A (β = 0·01) were positive predictors of FEV1:FVC. Asthma-obesity interdisciplinary treatment promoted an improvement on food consumption and lung function in adolescents and demonstrated that the consumption of nutrients influenced an increase in lung function.
A high prevalence of asthma has been documented among the inhabitants of Tristan da Cunha, an isolated island in the South Atlantic. The population derives from just 28 founders. We performed lung function testing, including methacholine inhalation challenge, allergen skin prick testing, and collected DNA from essentially all of the current island population (269 individuals), and genotyped a panel of 43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported as associated with asthma and atopy. We carried out a mixed-model association analysis using the known pedigree. There were 96 individuals diagnosed as asthmatic (36%), and heritability estimates were similar to those from nonisolated population samples (multifactorial threshold model, h2 = 48%). The first component from a genetic principal components analysis using the entire SNP panel was nonlinearly associated with asthma, with the maximum risk to those intermediate to reference (Human Genome Diversity Project) European and African samples means. The single most strongly associated SNP was rs2786098 (p = 5.5 × 10−5), known to regulate the gene DENND1B. This explained approximately one-third of the trait heritability, with an allelic odds ratio for the A allele of 2.6. Among A/A carriers, 10 out of 12 individuals were asthmatic. The rs2786098*A variant was initially reported to decrease the risk of childhood (atopic) asthma in European but slightly increase the risk in African-descended populations, and does significantly alter Th2 cell function. Despite an absence of overall association with this variant in recent asthma genome wide association studies meta-analyses, an effect may exist on the particular genetic background of the Tristan da Cunha population.
Despite growing evidence suggesting a potential health benefit of high fibre intake for the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases, studies regarding the role of total dietary fibre intake, types and sources of fibre on asthma are lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association of dietary fibre intakes and source of fibre with the asthma symptom score and asthma control. A total of 35 380 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort were included. Asthma was defined by the asthma symptom score and asthma control by the asthma control test. Fibre intake (g/d) was categorised according to sex-specific quintiles. Multi-adjusted negative binomial regressions were used to evaluate the association between dietary fibre with the asthma symptom score and logistic regressions with asthma control. Participants were aged on average 54 years. After adjustment for confounders, higher intake of total, soluble, insoluble fibres from cereals, fruit and seeds were significantly negatively associated with the asthma symptom score both among women and men; OR for the highest quintile of total dietary fibre compared with the lowest quintile were 0·73 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·79) in women and 0·63 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·73) in men. We also found inverse significant associations between total, soluble and insoluble fibre with uncontrolled asthma; OR for participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fibre was 0·72 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·95) in women and 0·45 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·79) in men. Our results suggested that higher intake of dietary fibre, mostly insoluble fibre and fibre from cereals, was associated with fewer asthma symptoms and greater asthma control.
The role of diet in asthma is still debated. In France, a front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label based on a modified Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System/High Council for Public Health (FSAm-NPS/HCSP) has recently been implemented to help consumers to make healthier food choices during purchase. At the individual level, the FSAm-NPS dietary index (DI) has been shown to reflect the nutritional quality of the diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the FSAm-NPS DI and the asthma symptom score. In total, 34 323 participants (25 823 women and 8500 men) from the NutriNet-Santé cohort were included. The overall nutritional quality of the diet was assessed using the FSAm-NPS DI. Increasing FSAm-NPS DI reflects decreasing overall diet quality. Asthma was defined by the asthma symptom score (sum of five questions). Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the FSA-NPS DI and the asthma symptom score. Overall, mean participant’s age was 54 ± 14 years, and about 27 % reported at least one asthma symptom. We observed a significant positive association between less healthy diet, as expressed by higher FSAm-NPS DI, and the asthma symptom score. The adjusted OR were 1·27 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·38) among women and 1·31 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·53) among men. Unhealthy food choices, as reflected by a higher FSAm-NPS DI, were associated with greater asthma symptoms. These results reinforce the relevance of public health approach to orient consumers towards healthier food choices by using a clear and easy-to-understand FOP nutrition label based on the FSAm-NPS, such as the Nutri-Score.
We aimed to investigate the association between types of housing and allergic symptoms at 3–4 years following the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Our study was based on the ToMMo Child Health Study conducted in 2014 and 2015, a cross-sectional survey of public school children in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Of the 46 648 invited schoolchildren in the 2nd to 8th grades, 9884 were included. Presence of eczema, wheezing, and mental health symptoms was defined with questionnaires. To calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the associations between types of housing and eczema or respiratory symptoms, we fitted generalized linear mixed models, included a random effect for municipality of residence, and adjusted for sex, school grade, survey year, and mental health symptoms.
Prefabricated temporary housing was significantly associated with eczema symptoms (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.06–2.02). Even after adjusting for the presence of mental health symptoms, our analysis produced similar results (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03–1.96). Conversely, it was not significantly associated with respiratory symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61–1.54).
Children living in prefabricated temporary housing had a higher prevalence of eczema symptoms; however, prevalence of respiratory symptoms was not significantly higher.
Introduction: Emergency departments (ED) play a vital role in asthma care for patients of all ages. Our objective was to review and synthesize all practice change interventions in ED settings that focused on improving the health outcomes of adults and children with asthma. Methods: This study was a systematic review adhering to the methods outlined by the Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) Cochrane Review Group. We developed a search strategy with a library scientist for the following databases: AMED, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, MEDLINE, HealthStar, CENTRAL, DARE and Cochrane's EPOC and Airways registers. We also hand searched the Journal of Asthma, Pediatrics and Chest. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts and full text using predetermined criteria. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers who used a structured abstraction form and assessed risk of bias. All discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Results: Our search strategy yielded 8,878 titles and abstracts for review. A total of 214 studies underwent full text screening and we extracted data from 27 studies. Risk of bias was judged as low in 10 studies, moderate in 8 studies and high in 9 studies. A range of interventions were employed, with education (n = 14) and reminders (n = 8) being the most prevalent. In pediatric settings, most studies targeted changing the behaviour of parents (n = 11). Four studies targeted health care providers and four studies targeted both providers and parents. We identified a major deficit in the use of behaviour change theory to guide intervention design. The most common primary outcomes of interest were unscheduled return visits (n = 14), primary care follow-up (n = 9), quality of life (n = 5) and ED length of stay (n = 4). We were not able to perform a meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes. Conclusion: Although we found a range of interventions used to improve asthma care in EDs, there was significant variation in reported primary outcomes. Both unscheduled return visits and primary care follow-ups, the most common primary outcomes, varied in the timeframe and manner in which they were collected. Most interventions were educational and based on an assumption that education would change behaviour. Future research in this ares would benefit from standardized outcome measures and intervention designs based upon models of behaviour change model.
Numerous studies have investigated the risk of developing asthma due to early-life experiences and environmental exposures. However, the influence of intrauterine growth restriction and postnatal undernutrition on childhood wheezing/asthma remains unclear. Thus, we examined the effects of both small for gestational age (SGA) and postnatal stunted growth on ever asthma among children in the rural areas in Bangladesh.
Multiple follow-up studies were conducted in a cohort of randomized clinical trial of nutrition interventions during pregnancy (the MINIMat trial). Overall, 1208 and 1697 children were followed-up for asthma at 4.5 and 10 years, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at various intervals from birth to 10 years of age. Ever asthma was identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire.
Results showed that SGA was significantly associated with increased risk of ever asthma at 4.5 and 10 years after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socioeconomic status, family history of asthma, gestational age at birth, mother’s parity, mother’s age at birth and intervention trial arm [odds ratio (OR)=1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34–2.90) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.18–2.72)]. For the postnatal effect of undernutrition, stunting at 1 and 2 years was significantly associated with ever asthma at 4.5 and 10 years [1 year: OR=1.77 (95% CI: 1.22–2.57) and OR=1.72 (95% CI: 1.16–2.56), 2 years: OR=1.49 (95% CI: 1.06–2.10) and OR=1.41 (95% CI: 1.02–1.96)].
In conclusion, SGA and undernutrition during infancy has an influence on childhood asthma among children in Bangladesh, indicating the need for nutritional interventions early in life.
Subcutaneous immunotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Different symptom scores are used to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy in clinical trials.
A total of 58 allergic rhinitis patients sensitised to house dust mites, with or without mild asthma, were included. Symptom score, medication score, visual analogue scale score and quality of life were assessed before and after 6, 12 and 24 months of subcutaneous immunotherapy.
After two years of subcutaneous immunotherapy, asthma symptom scores nearly reached zero, whereas the scores remained higher for nasal symptoms. The changes in asthma symptom scores were markedly different (p < 0.05) and occurred faster than the changes in nasal symptom scores when compared between monosensitised and polysensitised groups. Significant reductions in visual analogue scale score and medication score were demonstrated after subcutaneous immunotherapy.
Two-year subcutaneous immunotherapy with house dust mite vaccine is an effective treatment for both monosensitised and polysensitised allergic patients. The changes in asthma symptom scores were markedly different and occurred quicker than the changes in nasal symptom scores in Chinese house dust mite allergic patients.
Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that has been suggested as a possible etiologic agent of asthma. The objective of the present study was to investigate possible significant association between Toxocara seroprevalence and asthma in a clinic-based case-control study. Blood samples were collected from human subjects aged 5–70 years, 50 of whom had signs of asthma and 50 of whom had no signs of asthma. Risk factors for asthma and Toxocara spp. infection were assessed by a questionnaire given to each patient. Blood samples were analysed to measure levels of anti-Toxocara spp. immunoglobulin G (IgG). Patients with bronchial asthma were observed to have higher Toxocara spp. seropositivity than that of the non-asthmatic controls (6 vs 2%, P = 0.47). The mean anti-Toxocara spp. antibody titre was not significantly higher in patients with bronchial asthma than in individuals without asthma (P = 0.395, 95% CI = 0.579–1.45). There was no significant difference in the mean age, sex, social class, exposure to smoking and presence of domestic dog or cat at home between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05). The presence of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG was statistically associated with higher blood eosinophils, but it was not associated with asthma (P ≥ 0.05). The observed relationship between exposure to Toxocara spp. infection and bronchial asthma in Iranian patients warrants further evaluation. An understanding of any potential influence on the pathogenesis of human asthma provides a potential avenue for prevention.
This study aimed to assess the consistency and replicability of these process measures during provision of the Italian Medicines Use Review (I-MUR).
Medication review is a common intervention provided by community pharmacists in many countries, but with little evidence of consistency and replicability. The I-MUR utilised a standardised question template in two separate large-scale studies. The template facilitated pharmacists in recording medicines and problems reported by patients, the pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs) they found and actions they took to improve medicines use.
Community pharmacists from four cities and across 15 regions were involved in the two studies. Patients included were adults with asthma. Medicines use, adherence, asthma problems, PCIs and actions taken by pharmacists were compared across studies to assess consistency and replicability of I-MUR.
The total number of pharmacists and patients completing the studies was 275 and 1711, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studies in the following domains: patients’ demographic, patients’ perceived problems, adherence, asthma medicines used and healthy living advice provided by pharmacists. The proportion of patients in which pharmacists identified PCIs was similar across both studies. There were differences only in the incidence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, the frequency of potential drug-disease interactions and in the types of advice given to patients and GPs.
The use of a standardised template for the I-MUR may have contributed to a degree of consistency in the issues found, which suggests this intervention could have good replicability.
To develop the Primary care fUnctions oF Family physicians in Childhood Asthma (PUFFinCA) scale for evaluating the cardinal process functions of primary care services (accessibility, comprehensiveness, continuity and coordination) provided by family physicians (FPs) in the management of childhood asthma.
In the literature on the functions of primary care, there is no assessment tool focusing on children with asthma. Primary care assessment scales adapted to various languages are not suitable to adequately address the needs of special patient groups, such as children with asthma.
In this methodological study, the instrument development process was completed in four stages: establishing the pool of items, evaluating the content validity, applying the scale and statistical analysis. The scale was applied to 320 children who had asthma and received care in the clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Pulmonology at Ege University School of Medicine, Turkey. The Cronbach’s α and Spearman–Brown coefficient were calculated to determine the reliability of the scale. Principal component analysis was used to determine the construct validity of the scale.
The PUFFinCA scale was found to have four-factor structure and 25 items. Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.93. It has been determined that the reliability was excellent and the item-total correlation coefficients were >0.30 each. The factors were titled FP’s ‘functions of accessibility, first contact and continuity’, ‘functions of coordination and comprehensiveness of health services related to asthma management’, ‘provision of preventive care related to asthma’ and ‘provision of services for paid vaccinations’.
Mass gatherings are common in Australia. The interplay of variables, including crowd density and behavior, weather, and the consumption of alcohol and other drugs, can pose a unique set of challenges to attendees’ well-being. On-site health services are available at most mass gatherings and reduce the strain on community health facilities. In order to efficiently plan and manage these services, it is important to be able to predict the number and type of presenting problems at mass gatherings.
There is a lack of reliable tools to predict patient presentations at mass gatherings. While a number of factors have been identified as having an influence on attendees’ health, the exact contribution of these variables to patient load is poorly understood. Furthermore, predicting patient load at mass gatherings is an inherently nonlinear problem, due to the nonlinear relationships previously observed between patient presentations and many event characteristics.
Data were collected at 216 Australian mass gatherings and included event type, crowd demographics, and weather. Nonlinear models were constructed using regression trees. The full data set was used to construct each model and the model was then used to predict the response variable for each event. Nine-fold cross validation was used to estimate the error that may be expected when applying the model in practice.
The mean training errors for total patient presentations were very high; however, the distribution of errors per event was highly skewed, with small errors for the majority of events and a few large errors for a small number of events with a high number of presentations. The error was five or less for 40% of events and 15 or less for 85% of events. The median error was 6.9 presentations per event.
This study built on previous research by undertaking nonlinear modeling, which provides a more realistic representation of the interactions between event variables. The developed models were less useful for predicting patient presentation numbers for very large events; however, they were generally useful for more typical, smaller scale community events. Further research is required to confirm this conclusion and develop models suitable for very large international events.
Arbon P, Bottema M, Zeitz K, Lund A, Turris S, Anikeeva O, Steenkamp M. Nonlinear modelling for predicting patient presentation rates for mass gatherings. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):362–367
Neutrophilic bronchiolitis is the primary lesion in asthma-affected horses. Neutrophils are key actors in host defense, migrating toward sites of inflammation and infection, where they act as early responder cells toward external insults. However, neutrophils can also mediate tissue damage in various non-infectious inflammatory processes. Within the airways, these cells likely contribute to bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, and pulmonary remodeling by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17, neutrophil elastase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The mechanisms that regulate neutrophil functions in the tissues are complex and incompletely understood. Therefore, the inflammatory activity of neutrophils must be regulated with exquisite precision and timing, a task achieved through a complex network of mechanisms that regulates neutrophil survival. The discovery and development of compounds that can help regulate ROS, NET formation, cytokine release, and clearance would be highly beneficial in the design of therapies for this disease in horses. In this review, neutrophil functions during inflammation will be discussed followed by a discussion of their contribution to airway tissue injury in equine asthma.
To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension.
In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups.
There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients.
Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.