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This chapter provides an overview of the morphosyntactic categories associated with the verb in Germanic and the various inflectional and periphrastic exponents of those categories, with a particular focus on inflectional classes. Characteristics common to most or all of the modern languages are emphasized, but important features of individual languages and branches are also described.
Chapter 6 is dedicated to the non-canonical genitive case-marking on objects in Balto-Slavic languages, concentrating primarily on Russian facts. It deals with the genitive/accusative alternation on direct objects and, to a lesser degree, the genitive/nominative alternation on subjects. First, Genitive of Negation and Intensional Genitive are discussed. The two phenomena, which involve genitive case-assignment to the object of a negated or intensional verb, are unified under the term Irrealis Genitive. The chapter considers those properties that affect the choice of case, including definiteness, scope, number, abstractness, and a range of syntactic and semantic analyses that have been proposed to account for the case alternations. Second, we take a look at Partitive Genitive. Here, the genitive object is interpreted quantificationally, indicating an indeterminate amount of the matter denoted by the noun. Characteristics of the phenomenon, such as homogeneity of the object and perfectivity of the verb, are listed, and two accounts are considered: one positing that the non-canonical genitive is assigned by a phonologically empty quantifier and the other treating genitive objects as nominal measure predicates. The chapter also discusses the relation between non-canonical genitive case and DOM.
Chapter 4 is devoted to the intricate relation between case-marking and aspect. The first section deals with the partitive/accusative alternation on direct objects in Finnic languages. Typically, partitive objects correlate with a bounded reading of the VP, and accusative objects with an unbounded one. But this analysis is challenged by a group of Finnish stative predicates which require accusative complements, such as omistaa ‘own’ and sisältää ‘contain’. The chapter introduces the analyses that have been proposed to account for this fact. Section 4.2 turns to the topic of accusative adjuncts. Cross-linguistically, accusative case tends to be assigned to adjuncts that function as event delimiters, e.g. by measuring out an event along a time or path scale. It is shown that in several languages, event-delimiting adjuncts undergo the same alternations as direct objects, and evidence is provided that they receive structural accusative case. Both syntactic and semantic analyses of accusative objects and adjuncts are discussed. Finally, Section 4.3 considers accusative case-assignment to complements of goal prepositions in German, Russian and Ancient Greek, asking whether this phenomenon is related to the aspectual function of accusative case.
Chapter 8 is devoted to generalizations and conclusions based on the data and analyses discussed in the previous chapters. A (non-exhaustive) list of relations that hold between various cases and semantic concepts is provided. It is proposed that case can be related to at least three broad semantic areas: tense and aspect; individuation; thematic roles and related concepts. Each of these types is illustrated. Further, it is pointed out that the relation between case and meaning is often indirect; moreover, defining the nature of this relation is, in many instances, subject to theory-internal considerations. The meaning component intuitively associated with a particular case can be contributed by four types of source: a lexical head (e.g. V), a functional head (e.g. Appl(icative)), the object DP and the case-marker. Only in the last instance is the relation between case and meaning direct.
Light verb constructions (LVCs) in English and Romance languages are somewhat unique crosslinguistically because LVCs in these languages tend to have semantically similar synthetic verb counterparts (Zarco 1999): e.g. make an appearance and appear. This runs contrary to assumptions in linguistic theories that two competing forms are rarely maintained in a language unless they serve distinct purposes (e.g. Grice 1975). Why do English LVCs exist alongside counterpart synthetic verbs, especially given that synthetic verbs are arguably the more efficient form (Zipf 1949)? It has been proposed that LVCs serve an aspectual function (Prince 1972, Live 1973, Wierzbicka 1982, Tanabe 1999, Butt & Geuder 2001), as there are telic LVC counterparts (e.g. have a thought) of atelic verbs (e.g. think). This proposal has been difficult to evaluate without a large-scale resource providing a markup of both LVCs and counterpart verbs. Addressing this gap in resources, the present research describes the development of guidelines for LVC annotation in the English PropBank (Bonial & Palmer 2015). The focus of this article is the subsequent analysis of these annotations, aimed at uncovering corpus evidence of what contexts call for the use of an LVC over a synthetic verb. The corpus study shows that the general function of LVCs is not an aspectual one and provides distributional evidence that the ease and variety with which LVCs can be modified is the general motivating factor for the use of an LVC.
We examine the constellation of factors – lexical, aspectual, temporal and conversational – that give rise to evidential implications from assertions. We target intensional and inferential meanings associated with a certain class of present-tense state sentences: those containing a temporal adverb headed by by, e.g. The American traveling public is pretty mature by now. We ask why present-tense sentences containing by temporal adverbs (BTAs) are improved by, and sometimes appear to require, an epistemic modal, e.g. They ??(must) live in a mansion by now. Key to our analysis is the idea that BTA sentences require the onset of a resultant state described by the complement of by now to overlap some unspecified time that precedes the time described by the adverb. The indefiniteness of the unspecified time described by BTAs leads interpreters to pragmatically construe present-tense BTA reports as conjectures, guesses or suppositions. We show how our analysis can be extended to incorporate the contribution of epistemic modals. Adopting insights from von Fintel & Gillies (2010) and Mandelkern (2016), we hypothesize the manner in which the BTA change schema is instantiated in intensional contexts and discuss the relationship between intensional and evidential contexts. We see the merging of aspectual and epistemic features in BTA sentences, and in particular present-tense sentences, as the result of a semantic reconciliation procedure: the use of an epistemic modal in a BTA predication evokes an observation or act of reasoning, prior to speech time, which permits the speaker to make her assertion, and this inference trigger is identified with the ‘onset event’ in the BTA schema.
In this paper we demonstrate on the basis of diachronic and synchronic data from a variety of languages that progressives are particularly liable to be used for the expression of extravagance. We define extravagant language use as a signaling mechanism that consists in the exploitation of an unconventional construction in a given context as a way for speakers to indicate that there is something non-canonical about the situation that they are reporting. Novel constructions naturally lend themselves to such extravagant exploitation, since they are by definition to a certain extent unconventional. This is why, as we will demonstrate, the English, Dutch and French progressives were notably often recruited in extravagant contexts at the onset of their development. However, our synchronic data reveal that Present-day English, Dutch and French progressives continue to be used for extravagant purposes, which suggests that there is something inherent about progressive aspect that makes it liable to such expressive usage. This is confirmed by data from other, typologically diverse languages. We offer a cognitive-semantic analysis in terms of epistemic contingency in order to account for this intrinsic association of progressive aspect and extravagance across languages. Our analysis thus reveals that extravagance is not a transient property of emerging progressives, but that, instead, the semantics of these constructions makes them particularly liable to be recruited for extravagant purposes. It also demonstrates that in order to analyze the range of uses of progressive constructions in a unified fashion, we need to look beyond the temporal import of these constructions.
Previous studies on the acquisition of semantics in the aspectual domain have suggested that a difficult case for achieving a targetlike representation in a second language arises when learners need to preempt a first language (L1) option (Gabriele, 2009). This study investigates this issue by focusing on a learning scenario where predicate-level variability exists in the L1 input. We investigate whether Japanese learners of English can learn to invalidate event cancellation readings (Tsujimura, 2003) in English and how such knowledge develops with increasing English proficiency. We address these questions by examining how Japanese learners of English interpret accomplishment predicates that allow an event cancellation reading in Japanese but not in English. A truth-value judgment task was administered to 60 beginner, 96 intermediate, and 40 advanced Japanese learners of English as well as 20 L1 English and 20 L1 Japanese speakers. Our results showed that Japanese learners of English progressed toward a targetlike representation of aspectual entailment. We argue that such progress follows two parallel routes: a grammatical route rooted in the learners’ growing awareness of the English determiner and number morphology combined with a statistical route rooted in the learners’ inferences based on missing data.
Chapter 8 examines the syntax–semantics interface in Korean. In this chapter, we focus on negation, topic/focus marking, tense/aspect/modality (TAM), pronouns and anaphora, and ellipsis. We discuss lexical, morphological, and syntactic negation. We illustrate differences in the semantic scope of pre- and postverbal negation. We discuss the syntax and interpretation of negative polarity items (NPIs). We investigate topic and focus marking, examining prosodic, morphological, and syntactic devices for marking information structure. In the section on TAM, we demonstrate properties and features of tense and aspect marking and examine the relation between modality and evidentiality. Korean distinguishes past, present, and future tense, with the latter arguably a modal. We introduce two major types of aspect which are sometimes construed as a portmanteau expression. For mood, we introduce indicative, conjectural, and retrospective patterns, the latter sometimes argued to be an evidential. We then turn to the syntax and semantics of nominal reference, surveying personal and deictic as well as anaphoric pronouns. Finally, we discuss ellipsis and zero anaphora patterns.
This paper dwells upon investigating the effect of aspect ratio (AR) variation on the aerodynamic performance of unconventional control surfaces called grid fins by virtue of a series of subsonic experiments on a simplified grid fin variant called the cascade fin. Wind tunnel tests were performed for different AR (variable span) grid fins. The same had been investigated for different gap-to-chord ratio (g/c) variants. Results demonstrated a tangible increase in the aerodynamic efficiency as well as stall angle reduction for higher AR. Moreover, higher AR leads to increased pitching moment, which emphasizes elevated hinge moment requirements. The study ensued the presence of higher deviation between the low AR fins, that is
compared to the pertinent deviations between the high AR fins, that is
. The effect associated with these variations was termed as span effect in this paper. It was established that, the deviations arising due to this phenomena were lesser for higher g/c and higher AR. The analysis of AR variation for different g/c presented a limiting value of AR reduction for stall performance enhancement. Thus, optimised selection of the g/c and AR values can lead to enhanced aerodynamic efficiency alongside an improved stalling characteristic.
Although many researchers appeal to performance limitations to account for children’s non-adult-like use of language, few studies have explicitly linked specific cognitive abilities to specific dimensions of language. This study investigated a well-studied underextension in children’s language involving linguistic aspect and tested participants in an aspectual comprehension task as well as a series of assessments evaluating neurocognitive and linguistic skills. Adults (N = 32) and 5-year-old children (N = 32) participated. The results for the children replicated the classic pattern of underextension, with children showing an uneven pattern of success even though all items were equally grammatical. In addition, children’s skill with items that involved overriding lexical information in favor of morphological information was predicted by their performance on an inhibitory control task while children’s skill with items that involved integrating contextual world knowledge was predicted by their performance on a receptive vocabulary task. These results demonstrate how specific dimensions of linguistic processing are supported differentially and sensibly by specific dimensions of cognition.
This chapter discusses the remaining four dimensions, which are less easily subsumed under a logic of either modality or conventions of a narrowly defined register. For each of these, explanations are provided that have to do with drifts in discourse conventions, cultural differences, and grammatical peculiarities across varieties of English.
The migration and accumulation of immiscible silicate liquids may play a significant role in the differentiation of crustal magma bodies and the formation of some economic mineral deposits. However, our understanding of the processes that control the segregation of these liquids is currently limited by the short timescales of petrological experiments. Detailed microstructural investigations of Palaeogene basaltic dykes from Northeast England, coupled with simple 1D thermal models, constrain the effects of cooling rate on the microstructure of unmixed immiscible silicate liquids under natural conditions. The size of unmixed Fe-rich droplets within a continuous silicic phase is related to the cooling rate by a power law, with droplet diameter increasing with decreasing cooling rate, accompanied by an increase in the number of droplets. Fe-rich droplet coarsening is a result of diffusion-controlled growth. The average apparent aspect ratio and grain size of matrix plagioclase crystals indicate that nucleation and growth of these grains probably occurred in a static (or only weakly convecting) fluid dynamical regime.
This essay contextualises Wittgenstein’s remarks on aspect-seeing in connection with his reading of Wolfgang Köhler, and thereby within a wider discussion of seeing. Most commentators devote little attention to the use of ‘see’ with which aspect-seeing is contrasted. It tends to be interpreted in the literature in two contrasting ways which, the author suggests, could be lined up with Köhler’s distinction between ‘analytic’ and ‘normal’ modes of perception, corresponding to a distinction between ‘seeing shapes and colours’ and ‘seeing things’. It is argued that Wittgenstein’s ‘aspect-seeing’ use of ‘see’ contrasts differently with each of these. Moreover, it is argued that these three uses of ‘see’ work differently in the context of looking at pictures and looking at the world. Finally, it is suggested that understanding Wittgenstein’s claim that seeing an aspect is ‘seeing a meaning’ is an invitation to contemplate what would be missing from the life of the aspect-blind; and it is suggested that seeing a thingis likewise ‘seeing a meaning’.
The argument of this chapter proceeds in the form of constructive criticism of Charles Travis’s recent work on perception. Travis has presented a powerful argument against the idea that perception, as such, provides us with true-or-false representations of the world. The representationalist view, Travis argues, fails to respect the fundamental Fregean distinction between "the conceptual" and "the nonconceptual." According to Travis, what perception presents us with is nonconceptual; hence, perception is indeterminate as far as representational content goes. Travis argues that determinate representational content, on the other hand, is only created when things are judged to be some particular way or another. In this chapter, Avner Baz finds himself in substantial agreement with Travis, but argues that something important also goes missing in the latter’s account, namely what Baz calls "the phenomenal world"; that is, the world as perceived and responded toprior to becoming the object of true or false judgments. In particular, Baz shows how Travis consistently represses the phenomenal world in his account of perception whenever he attempts to explain the perception of what Wittgenstein calls "aspects"; for any respectable account of the perception of such aspects, Baz argues, ought to bring the phenomenal world into view.
In section 308 of Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein talks of the first step in philosophizing being ‘the one that altogether escapes notice ... that’s just what commits us to a particular way of looking at the matter’. In this essay, Michael Beaney explores some of the connections between conceptual creativity and the kind of first steps of which Wittgenstein spoke. Beaney argues that a good example of such a first step is Frege’s use of function–argument analysis and the associated conception of concepts as functions, which led to almost all his characteristic doctrines. And Beaney shows that, while it is tempting to see the conceptual creativity involved in this case—that is, in Frege’s reconceiving concepts as functions—as originating in some ‘Eureka!’ moment and as catching on when others can exclaim ‘Now I can go on!’, all this needs careful description to avoid mythologization.
In the current study, for the first time, a semi-analytical technique is used for solving eigenvalue problem arising from linear hydrodynamics stability of fluid flow through the curved rectangular ducts at different curvature ratios and aspect ratios. To this accomplishment, symmetric disturbances are assumed and the Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied to solve our eigenvalue problem for curvature ratios ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 and aspect ratios ranging from 0.05 to 20. Our semi-analytical results are validated through the existing numerical and experimental data, showing good agreement. The semi-analytical results indicate that, as the curvature ratio increases the critical Dean number (Dnc) is increased and the flow becomes more stable, especially for aspect ratios lower than 1.Moreover, for all intended curvature ratios, irregular behavior in variation of Dnc is detected by an increase in the aspect ratio. So that, the Dnc is decreased when the aspect ratio increases from 0.05 up to 1 and the fluid flow becomes unstable. When the aspect ratio is increased from 1 to 5, it causes to increase the Dnc and fluid flow becomes stable. Furthermore, when the aspect ratio increases from 5 to 20, the Dnc is decreased again. In addition, Dnc and eigenvalues of critical complex wave number corresponding to Dnc for the onset of Dean flow instability is reported under different curvature ratios and aspect ratios.
Nicholas Allott considers how relevance theory can be seen as responding to doubts about the possibility of any kind of systematic pragmatic theory. He considers three sceptical positions: Fodor’s argument that pragmatic processes are not amenable to scientific study because they are unencapsulated (highly context-sensitive), Chomsky’s claim that human intentional action is a mystery rather than a scientifically tractable problem, and a third view which maintains that intentional communication is too complex for systematic study. Allott argues that work in relevance theory can be seen as successfully challenging these sceptical views and he gives concrete examples of its achievements.
The chapter addresses the concept of ‘explicature’, a notion which has been central to relevance theory from its inception and which introduced a radically new way of thinking about explicitly communicated meaning and about the semantics–pragmatics distinction. Victoria Escandell-Vidal focuses here on how utterances of particular expressions in Spanish (some occurrences of the verb estar and some uses of 3rd-person imperfective forms) lead to ‘higher-level’ explicatures expressing a speaker’s evidential commitment. She argues that the evidential meaning does not arise from the semantic composition of linguistically encoded content but rather emerges as the optimal solution to a ‘feature mismatch’ between two components of encoded meaning.
The previous three chapters cover the elastic behaviour of composites containing aligned fibres that are, in effect, infinitely long. Use of short fibres (or equiaxed particles) creates scope for using a wider range of reinforcements and more versatile processing and forming routes (see Chapter 15). There is thus interest in understanding the distribution of stresses and strains within such composites, and the consequences of this for the stiffness and other mechanical properties. In this chapter, brief outlines are given of two analytical models. In the shear lag treatment, a cylindrical (short fibre) reinforcement is assumed, with stress fields in fibre and matrix being simplified (leading to some straightforward analytical expressions). It introduces important concepts concerning load transfer mechanisms, although it is not very widely used for property prediction. The Eshelby method, on the other hand, is based on the reinforcement being ellipsoidal (anything from a sphere to a cylinder or a plate): the analysis is more rigorous, but with the penalty of greater mathematical complexity. The model is only briefly described here. Its use also introduces an important concept – that of a misfit strain, which is helpful in areas well beyond those of the mechanics of conventional composite materials.