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Chapter 8 studies the record of macroeconomic and financial crises, high inflation episodes, currency collapses, political crises, and collapses of democracy in Latin America and the financial crises and recession episodes in East Asian economies in the period 1970–2015. The chapter focuses on countries – such as Argentina and Venezuela – with high incidence of growth, inflation, and political crises, and also examines the cases of Chile and Mexico. The chapter examines the effects of the East Asian crisis of 1997–98 on Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia (the Asia-5 countries) and compares its impact on China, Vietnam, Singapore, and Hong Kong. The chapter offers a discussion on a wide variety of crisis and stabilization occurrences in a comparative perspective, highlighting economic and political economy factors.
Southern and central regions of Argentina moved from being relatively poor in the sixteenth century to being the richest in the country today. Although there is some evidence of this reversal, the process of regional growth in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century is, in the main, unknown. In this paper, we present an estimation of the GDPs of Argentina's 25 provinces in 1914: this is the first consistent estimation of this variable for any period before the 1950s. Our results confirm that in 1914 the city of Buenos Aires and some districts in Patagonia had the highest per capita GDP, and a comparison with the available data for 1953 shows strong persistence in incomes per capita in this period; sectoral analysis of provincial GDPs suggests that growth in the leading districts was driven by economies of agglomeration in some cases and land abundance in others.
Acknowledges the weight, on Borges, of a family history spanning events in the history of South America and the consolidation of the Argentine nation. Experiences in love from his years as a teenager, then in Buenos Aires in the 1920s and 1930s and after, leave their mark on fictions including ’The Aleph’, ’The Secret Miracle’, and ’The Zahir’. In the later collection ’Brodie’s Report’, family and personal relations shape key narratives. Finally, Borges achieves stability with María Kodama before his death in Geneva in 1986.
Throughout its range in Latin America, the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and by conflict as a result of coexistence with people. This Near Threatened species is a top predator, and is often illegally hunted. Understanding people's attitudes and perceptions and the factors that could influence them is crucial for the conservation of this species. In this study we assess how knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among people in northern Argentina regarding jaguars vary depending on their level of education, age and occupation. We interviewed 810 people living in and around 10 protected areas in northern Argentina. Positive perceptions and attitudes towards the jaguar were associated with economic benefits that people may receive from the species’ presence, such as income from tourism. Unexpectedly, higher levels of formal education were not associated with more positive attitudes and perceptions. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards the species were determined by fear; people see jaguars as a threat to their lives. This study shows that the socio-economic factors that affect the level of tolerance towards jaguars are not related only to economic losses. Our findings provide information for the design, implementation and evaluation of jaguar conservation projects in Argentina.
Among the different existing types of bacterial meningitis, the one caused by Neisseria meningitidis is the main presentation of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). IMD is a significant public health concern and has a reported incidence rate in Argentina of 0.44 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in 2015. However, the actual incidence is thought to be higher as passive surveillance systems neither report nor identify 100% of all cases. The aim of this study is to develop an estimation of the burden of IMD in Argentina closer to reality by adjusting/correcting several limitations observed in the surveillance data available. A retrospective observational study has been performed using four Argentinean national databases recording the number of IMD cases and deaths, serogroups of N. meningitidis and ages, between 2007 to 2016. The reported data were adjusted to account for underreporting and to also integrate the cases missed due to well-known limitations associated with the diagnosis of N. meningitidis detection methods. Data were further analysed by serogroups of N. meningitidis and by age groups. After these adjustments, the potential numbers of IMD cases and IMD-related deaths are estimated to be 3.1 and 1.9 higher than reported, respectively. The study corrects the previous underestimation of the disease burden and provides expectedly more robust estimates aligned with international evidence and highlights the importance of active surveillance, with high-quality methods, for a better definition of preventive strategies against IMD in Argentina.
In many developing countries, national legislative seats are considered less valuable than (subnational) executive positions. Even then, ambitious politicians may seek a legislative seat either (a) as a window of opportunity for jumping to an executive office; or (b) as a consolation prize when no better option is available. Using a regression discontinuity design adapted to a pr setting, we examine these possibilities in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies between 1983 and 2011. In line with the consolation prize story, we find that marginal candidates from the Peronist party—which controls most provincial governorships—are more likely to be renominated and serve an additional term in the legislature, but not necessarily to jump to an executive office. The effect is stronger in small provinces.
While the dominant human rights discourse on transitional justice constitutes a mix of reinforcing aims that seek to “make peace with” a violent past, this article complicates this notion by exploring how affective memories can prevent individuals from envisioning a future for themselves in which their individual and their nation's past is safely left behind. In the context of ongoing debates over whether to remember or forget a country's traumatic past, the article will show how affective memories of violence and disappearance prevail and disrupt the reconciliation paradigm, and need to be taken into account in transitional justice processes.
To assess the prevalence of five forms of malnutrition (wasting/underweight, overweight, obesity, stunting/short stature and anaemia) by socio-economic wealth (SEW) and educational level (EL) among children, adolescents and women of reproductive age in Argentina.
Analysis from a cross-sectional survey. Anthropometric indicators and prevalence of anaemia were estimated. SEW was classified according to the proportion of contributors in the household, employment status, EL and medical coverage. EL was categorized by years of formal education.
National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2005.
Children (n 27 015) <5 years, adolescent girls (n 1729) 11–19 years, women (n 4401) 20–49 years.
In Argentina, 26 % of households lived with unsatisfied basic needs and 23 % received at least one form of food assistance. Any form of malnutrition affected 23 % of children, 36 % of girls and 56 % of women. Children were especially affected by anaemia, overweight/obesity and stunting (15·2, 9·9, 7·4 %, respectively). Girls were affected by overweight/obesity, anaemia and stunting (22·5, 15·2, 6·2 %). Women were strongly affected by overweight/obesity, anaemia and stunting (43·8, 19·8, 10·5 %). Stunting or short stature was higher in low-SEW settings, doubling in prevalence between low and high levels, increasing four times among women in reproductive age (P < 0·05). Excess weight among children was higher in high-SEW settings, in women the tendency was inverse. Anaemia showed different tendency according to SEW.
In 2005, Argentina had high rates of excess weight and anaemia, moderate prevalence of stunting and low frequency of wasting/underweight. All forms of malnutrition showed a strong relationship with socio-economic and educational inequality.
We studied the temporal and spatial variation of diet and oral health of human populations that inhabited the central region of Argentina during the Late Holocene (4000–300 BP) by evaluating isotopic data (δ13Ccol, δ15N), physiological stress indicators (tooth wear), and infectious dental diseases (caries). The sample of 49 individuals was recovered from archaeological sites located in the province of Córdoba, dated by AMS on collagen to a range of 4058 ± 89 years BP to 370 ± 15 14C years BP. After calculating the prevalence of caries and the average dental wear, we compared these values based on regional origin (central highlands and eastern lowlands), temporal assignation (early Late Holocene, late Late Holocene), and sex (female and male). We found clear regional and temporal differentiation, which we interpret as resulting from differential use of plant resources among the regions and a slight deterioration in oral health in the Late Holocene. Stable isotope analysis indicates food consumption of C3 and C4 resources, although the observed temporal variations in the isotopic values may indicate an introduction of C4 resources in the later Late Holocene, mainly in the mountainous region.
There have been other mass-organic parties in Latin America. This chapter discusses the FA case in comparative perspective. The literature has emphasized the role of exogenous factors or the ability of party leaders to strategically “adapt” to explain the transformation of formerly mass-organic parties. The case of the FA, which confronted similar exogenous challenges, calls attention to the relevance of organizational structure in determining party activists’ level of engagement. Organizational design is crucial for fostering and reproducing activism. The chapter reviews the case of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) in Brazil, a former mass-organic leftist party that turned into a professional–electoral party. The PT is the case that most closely resembles the FA in its emphasis on grassroots activism. The comparison with the PT, as a negative case, increases the theory’s analytical leverage. Second, the chapter discusses the case of the FA as a strange electoral alliance or coalition. It compares the case of the FA with other leftist coalitions in Latin America, with a special focus on the experiences of leftist coalitions in Chile, showing that the FA developed a distinctive, shared organizational structure that is not observable in other, similar electoral alliances.
The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) can only be applied to children under 5 years of age and does not contemplate obesity. The aim of this study was to propose an Extended CIAF (ECIAF) that combines the characterization of malnutrition due to undernutrition and excess weight, and apply it in six Argentine provinces.
ECIAF excludes children not in anthropometric failure (group A) and was calculated from a percentage of children included in malnutrition categories B: wasting only; C: wasting and underweight; D: wasting, stunting and underweight; E: stunting and underweight; F: stunting only; Y: underweight only; G: only weight excess; and H: stunting and weight excess.
Cross-sectional study conducted in Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chubut, Jujuy, Mendoza and Misiones (Argentina).
10 879 children of both sexes aged between 3 and 13·99.
ECIAF in preschool children (3 to 4·99 years) was 15·1 %. The highest prevalence was registered in Mendoza (16·7 %) and the lowest in Misiones (12·0 %). In school children (5 to 13·99 years) ECIAF was 28·6 %. Mendoza also recorded the highest rate (30·7 %), while Catamarca and Chubut had the lowest values (27·0 %). In the whole sample, about 25 % of the malnutrition was caused by undernutrition and 75 % by excess weight.
The ECIAF summarizes anthropometric failure by both deficiency and excess weight and it highlights that a quarter of the malnutrition in the Argentine population was caused by undernutrition, although there are differences between Provinces (P < 0·05). ECIAF estimates are higher than those of CIAF or under-nutrition.
The presence of a carbonate platform that interfingers towards the west with slope facies allows for the identification of an ancient lower Palaeozoic continental margin in the Western Precordillera of Argentina. The Los Sombreros Formation is essential for the interpretation of the continental slope of the Precordillera, which accreted to Gondwana as part of the Cuyania Terrane in the early Palaeozoic. The age of these slope deposits is controversial; therefore, a precise biostratigraphic scheme is critical to reveal the evolution of the South American continental margin of Gondwana. The study of lithic deposits of two sections of the Los Sombreros Formation, the El Salto and Los Túneles sections, provides important information for further understanding the depositional history of the slope. At El Salto section, the conodonts recovered from an allochthonous block refer to the Cordylodus proavus Zone (upper Furongian). The conodonts recovered from the matrix of a calclithite bed of the Los Sombreros Formation in the Los Túneles section are assigned to the Lenodus variabilis Zone (early Darriwilian), providing a minimum age for this stratigraphic unit. In addition, clasts from this sample yielded conodonts from the Paltodus deltifer − Macerodus dianae zones (upper Tremadocian). The contrasting conodont colour alterations and preservation states from the elements of two latter records, coming from the same sample, argue the reworked clasts originated in the carbonate platform and later transported to the slope during the accretion process of the Precordilleran Terrane to the South American Gondwanan margin during the Middle–Late Ordovician.
A taxonomic revision of Begonia veitchii Hook.f. is presented. Two taxa are newly recognised as synonyms of Begonia veitchii: B. baumannii Lemoine and B. clarkei Hook.f. Addditionally, two infraspecific taxa are newly described and illustrated: Begonia veitchii var. machupicchuensis Tebbitt, which is endemic to the Cusco Department of Peru, and B. veitchii var. lanatifolia Tebbitt, which is endemic to Chuquisaca Department, Bolivia. Begonia veitchii, as well as four taxa recognised as synonyms of B. veitchii – B. baumannii, B. rosaeflora Hook.f., B. coriacea A.DC. and B. clarkei – are lectotypified. A key, descriptions, distribution map and illustrations are provided for all the recognised infraspecific taxa of Begonia veitchii.
Like the bittersweet drama of tango dancers performing on Calle Florida for shoppers leaving Buenos Aires’ posh Galerías Pacífico shopping center, Argentina’s political and economic leaders stepped out of Latin America’s sorrowful “lost decade” of the 1980s with a series of dramatic policy changes that led the country through grand successes, devastating failures and postcrisis resurgences. Like the dancers shifting to changes in musical tempo, Argentine presidents and ministers of the economy responded to fluctuations in global markets and domestic politics with dips and twirls, driving forward and occasionally reversing direction with great fanfare. Their moves generated both praise and scorn, winning Argentina the diverse imprimaturs – at different moments in time – of “poster child” of the Washington Consensus, “defaulting pariah” of international bondholders, “vanguard” of Latin American populism and the “victim of vulture investors” that threatened to undermine debt restructuring agreements around the globe.
Este artículo discute las evidencias de violencia perimortem y las relaciones espaciales de partes esqueletales recuperadas en la Estructura Funeraria 4 del sector I del sitio de Punta de la Peña 9 (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina). Esta estructura, que contiene varios individuos correspondientes a la segunda mitad del primer milenio dC, presenta evidencias de haber sido reabierta en al menos dos eventos de inhumación, lo que produjo alteraciones de los patrones mortuorios y desarticulación de partes anatómicas. Estas reaperturas se relacionan con una dinámica particular de las prácticas de entierro en Antofagasta de la Sierra. Se trata del primer entierro secundario múltiple identificado para el área, el cual incluye a su vez los primeros casos de trauma intencional y muerte en condiciones violentas. Se inhumaron al menos siete individuos de ambos sexos y de distintos rangos de edad, cuatro de los cuales presentan lesiones perimortem en los cráneos, evidencia directa de situaciones de violencia interpersonal para los grupos agropastoriles de este período.
In 2013, Argentina's then-President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner sparked controversy for her decision to replace a monument of Christopher Columbus in Buenos Aires with one of nineteenth-century mestiza revolutionary Juana Azurduy. This article examines the history and iconography of these monuments, exploring the intersections between public space, art, politics and memory. It argues that these monuments — one representing Argentina's previously maligned Italian immigrant heritage, the other its forgotten indigenous culture — demonstrate how fundamental struggles over national identity have been embedded and contested in the capital's urban landscape, in ways that remain influential. It highlights Argentina's 1910 centennial and 2010 bicentennial as key to these efforts, and examines the power/politics of place in the central plaza where various actors have fought for public commemorative representation.
Jurassic siliceous hot-spring (sinter) deposits from Argentine Patagonia were evaluated to determine the distribution and preservation quality of their entombed microbial fabrics. Detailed study showed that the Claudia palaeo-geothermal field hosts the best-preserved sinter apron in the Deseado Massif geological province, where we also found hot-spring silica–biotic interactions extending into hydrothermally influenced fluvial and lacustrine settings. Carbonaceous material was identified by petrography and Raman spectroscopy mapping; it is inter-laminated with silica across proximal vent to distal marsh facies. The ubiquitous presence of microbial biosignatures has application to studies of hydrothermal settings of early life on Earth and potentially Mars.
This article examines the central role of sports media in the discussions about national sports programmes at the peak of Latin American populism, particularly during the governments of Juan Perón in Argentina (1946–55) and Carlos Ibáñez in Chile (1952–8). By exploring sports publications such as the Argentine magazines Mundo Deportivo and El Gráfico and the Chilean weekly Estadio, I argue that sports media staged stories and images that were both inspired by, and critical of, the larger populist projects in Argentina and Chile. Photographers and cartoonists, often in collaboration with sportswriters, produced and crafted populist ideas about class collaboration, the inclusion of children in the state project and women's participation in politics.
Export tax reform in Argentina could improve its competitiveness in China’s soybean market, displacing exports from competing countries like Brazil and the United States. We examined the factors that determine China’s demand for imported soybean products and how export taxes could affect exporting countries. Using import demand and vector autoregression estimates, we conducted simulations of China’s import demand assuming the elimination of export taxes in Argentina. Results indicated that Argentine soybean products could realize gains in the Chinese market, but only in the short run. Projected import demand changes in the long run were insignificant for all exporting countries.