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Quantifying the level of eco-physiological, biochemical, and agronomical fitness of herbicide-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) weeds is useful for understanding the evolutionary development of herbicide resistance, but also for implementing herbicide-resistance management strategies. Although germination is a key fitness component in the life cycle of weeds, germinability of S and R weeds has rarely been evaluated under stressful conditions. Germinability traits of S and non-target-site resistant sub-populations of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) sharing closely related genetic background were tested under salinity, drought stress, and accelerated seed aging (i.e., exposed to 100% relative humidity at 45 ºC from 0 to 134 hours) conditions. In addition, the activity of three antioxidant enzymes and protein concentration of accelerated aged seeds of the sub-populations were studied. There were no differences in maximum seed germination (Gmax) and time to 50% germination between the two sub-populations under optimum condition. However, under salinity, drought stress, and accelerated aging conditions, there were differences between the sub-populations. The salinity, drought, and accelerated aging treatments reducing Gmax of the S sub-population by 50% were 18 dS m-1, 0.75 MPa, and 90 hours, respectively, while for the R sub-population the corresponding values were 15 dS m-1, 0.66 MPa, and 67 hours. No differences were found in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the content of protein between non-aged seeds of the sub-populations. The aging treatment reducing the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes by 50% were 118 and 82 hours for the S sub-population, respectively, while they were 54 and 58 hours for the R sub-population. In contrast, there were no differences in the effect of the aging treatments on the peroxidase activity and protein content between sub-populations. The results provided clear evidence that the non-target-site resistant loci of black-grass is associated with fitness costs under environmental stress.
Grape skin is a source of polyphenols with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Little information is available regarding its application in animal feeding. The present study investigated the effect of inclusion of fermented (FS) and unfermented (UFS) grape skin at two different doses (30 g/kg, FS30 and UFS30, and 60 g/kg, FS60 and UFS60) and 200 mg/kg vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) in a corn–soybean diet on growth performance, ileal protein digestibility, ileal and excreta total extractable polyphenols content and digestibility, intestinal microbiota and thigh meat oxidation in broiler chickens. Growth performance was depressed in chickens fed UFS and FS diets. A reduction in ileal protein digestibility was also observed in birds fed UFS, being this effect more pronounced in those fed 60 g/kg. The dietary inclusion of grape skin increased both ileal and excreta polyphenols contents, being higher in birds fed UFS than in those fed FS. Excreta moisture content increased in birds fed UFS and FS diets. No effect of dietary inclusion of grape skin was observed on ileal counts of lactic-acid bacteria and Clostridium, but UFS inclusion in the diet reduced ileal count of Escherichia coli as compared with FS dietary inclusion. After 7 days of refrigerated storage, values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower in chicken meat when grape skin was added in the diet at 60 g/kg instead of 30 g/kg, and meat from birds fed 60 g/kg of grape skin reached TBARS values similar to those of birds supplemented with vitamin E. In conclusion, high doses of grape skin polyphenols depressed growth performance and protein digestibility, and increased excreta moisture content. Unfermented grape skin contained more polyphenols than FS, and its inclusion in the diet led to higher ileal and excreta polyphenols contents and to a lower ileal count of E. coli. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of the polyphenols present in grape skin was observed after 7 days of meat storage, with the dose of 60 g/kg of grape skin being as effective as vitamin E supplementation in maintaining oxidative stability of meat.
Despite the much improved therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment that have been developed over the past 50 years, cancer remains a major cause of mortality globally. Considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an association between ingestion of food and nutrients with either an increased risk for cancer or its prevention. There is rising interest in exploring agents derived from natural products for chemoprevention or for therapeutic purposes. Honey is rich in nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds, as well as in natural antioxidants, and its potential beneficial function in human health is becoming more evident. A large number of studies have addressed the anti-cancer effects of different types of honey and their phenolic compounds using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. The reported findings affirm that honey is an agent able to modulate oxidative stress and has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and anti-metastatic properties. However, despite its reported anti-cancer activities, very few clinical studies have been undertaken. In the present review, we summarise the findings from different experimental approaches, including in vitro cell cultures, preclinical animal models and clinical studies, and provide an overview of the bioactive profile and bioavailability of the most commonly studied honey types, with special emphasis on the chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of honey and its major phenolic compounds in cancer. The implications of these findings as well as the future prospects of utilising honey to fight cancer will be discussed.
Kaempferol (KAE) is one of the most common dietary flavonols possessing biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Although previous studies have reported the biological activity of KAE on a variety of cells, it is not clear whether KAE plays a similar role in oocyte and embryo in vitro culture systems. This study investigated the effect of KAE addition to in vitro maturation on the antioxidant capacity of embryos in porcine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. The effects of kaempferol on oocyte quality in porcine oocytes were studied based on the expression of related genes, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential as criteria. The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in oocytes treated with 0.1 µm KAE than in control oocytes. The mRNA level of the apoptosis-related gene Caspase-3 was significantly lower in the blastocysts derived from KAE-treated oocytes than in the control group and the mRNA expression of the embryo development-related genes COX2 and SOX2 was significantly increased in the KAE-treated group compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was significantly decreased and that of glutathione was significantly increased after KAE treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was increased and the activity of Caspase-3 was significantly decreased in the KAE-treated group compared with that in the control group. Taken together, these results suggested that KAE is beneficial for the improvement of embryo development by inhibiting oxidative stress in porcine oocytes.
Mitochondria play an important role in a number of fundamental cellular processes, including energy production, biosynthetic pathways and cellular oxidoreductive homeostasis (redox status), and their dysfunction can lead to numerous pathophysiological consequences. As the biochemical mechanisms orchestrating mitochondrial metabolism and redox homeostasis are functionally linked, mitochondria have been identified as a potential therapeutic target. Consequently, considerable effort has been made to evaluate the efficacy of natural compounds that modulate mitochondrial function. Molecules produced by plants (for example, polyphenols and isothiocyanates) have been shown to modulate mitochondrial metabolism/biogenesis and redox status; however, despite the existence of a functional link, few studies have considered the combined efficacy of these mitochondrial functions. The present review provides a complete overview of the molecular pathways involved in modulating mitochondrial metabolism/biogenesis and redox status. Crosstalk between these critical mechanisms is also discussed, whilst major data from the literature regarding their antioxidant abilities are described and critically analysed. We also provide a summary of recent evidence regarding the ability of several plant-derived compounds to target these mitochondrial functions. An in-depth understanding of the functional link between mitochondrial metabolism/biogenesis and redox status could facilitate the analysis of the biological effects of natural compounds as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches.
The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain crude lipid levels at 5·8, 9·9 and 15·1 %. Crabs fed the diet containing 15·1 % lipid had significantly lower growth performance and feed utilisation than those fed the 5·8 and 9·9 % lipid diets. Crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Highest glutathione peroxidase in haemolymph and superoxide dismutase in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. The lowest fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 15·1 % lipid, whereas crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed 15·1 % lipid showed lower hepatopancreas expression of genes involved in long-chain-PUFA biosynthesis, lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, lipid anabolism and lipid catabolism than those fed the other diets, whereas expression of some genes of lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation was up-regulated compared with crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. Overall, high dietary lipid level can inhibit growth, reduce antioxidant enzyme activities and influence lipid metabolic pathways to regulate lipid deposition in crab.
In this work, 10 processing type Hungarian tomato gene bank accessions were investigated in a 3-year open-field experiment together with three commercial varieties for quantifying the genotype × environment interaction for their total soluble solids, total acid, dry matter, lycopene, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Results showed remarkable differences of accessions in phytonutrient content over the 3 years (environments). Genotype main effect plus genotype × environment interaction biplots were created for the visualization of the best performing samples and of their relation to a theoretical best variety. Obovate fruit-shaped accessions (especially RCAT031257 and RCAT060349) reached outstanding nutritional results in every environment. According to extremities in weather conditions, two landraces (RCAT060348 and RCAT060349) with higher drought tolerance, and two (RCAT031257 and RCAT029837) less prone to excessive rainfalls were identified. The results can contribute to the enrichment of tomato nutritional phenotypic data banks, facilitating the utilization of gene bank accessions in genomic studies.
Ruminants are recognised to suffer from Cu-responsive disorders. Present understanding of Cu transport and metabolism is limited and inconsistent across vets and veterinary professionals. There has been much progress from the studies of the 1980s and early 1990s in cellular Cu transport and liver metabolism which has not been translated into agricultural practice. Cu metabolism operates in regulated pathways of Cu trafficking rather than in pools of Cu lability. Cu in the cell is chaperoned to enzyme production, retention within metallothionein or excretion via the Golgi into the blood. The hepatocyte differs in that Cu-containing caeruloplasmin can be synthesised to provide systemic Cu supply and excess Cu is excreted via bile. The aim of the present review is to improve understanding and highlight the relevant progress in relation to ruminants through the translation of newer findings from medicine and non-ruminant animal models into ruminants.
The dipeptide dl-methionyl-dl-methionine (Met-Met) has extremely low water solubility and better absorption than other methionine sources (such as dl-methionine and l-methionine) available in the market. Therefore, six diets (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and D6) containing 0, 0·07, 0·15, 0·21, 0·28 and 0·38 % Met-Met were formulated to investigate the effects of Met-Met in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (17 g initial body weight). The results indicated that percentage weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed with D2 and D3 diets were higher than those fed with D1, D4–D6 diets. The levels of total essential amino acid in whole body of fish fed with D3 and D4 diets were significantly higher than those fed the D1 diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content have no significant difference in fish fed the diet with or without Met-Met supplementation. Majority of reads derived from the fish intestine belonged to members of Fusobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Diversity of intestinal microbiota and total antioxidant capacity in fish fed with D3 diet was significantly higher than that of other groups. Based on the growth results, the authors conclude that the optimal level of Met is 0·61 % Met with the addition of 0·15 % Met-Met for grower-phase O. niloticus.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate could help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were: (1) control diet with no Yerba Mate or vitamin E; (2) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E; (3) diet containing 30 g/kg Yerba Mate; and (4) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E and 30 g/kg Yerba Mate. To increase unsaturated fatty acids in milk, cows were fed 172 g/kg soybean seeds (on a dry matter basis). There was no interaction between vitamin E and Yerba Mate supplementation for milk antioxidant-related (polyphenols, reducing power, conjugated dienes, and TBARS) analyses. Milk reducing power was increased when cows were supplemented with Yerba Mate. Our results suggest that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate does not help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk in UFA.
Many trophically-transmitted parasites induce behavioural alteration in their intermediate hosts that tend to increase host vulnerability to predation. Inter-population variability in parasite-induced alterations is expected to arise from variable local opportunities for trophic transmission. Yet, this hypothesis has not been investigated so far. We addressed the issue in four populations of the fish parasite Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Acanthocephala), using variable fish biomass density as a proxy for transmission opportunities. We found variation in the intensity of parasite-induced changes in phototaxis and refuge use among populations. Two of the populations with the lowest predator biomass exhibited the highest levels of behavioural manipulation and prevalence, as expected at low transmission opportunities. They also exhibited micro-habitat segregation between infected and uninfected gammarids in the field. In addition, infection had variable effects on two physiological defence systems, immunity and antioxidant capacity, and on total protein content. Overall, our study brings partial support to the prediction that host manipulation and prevalence should be higher at low predator biomass. Although stronger evidence should be sought by increasing population replicates, our study points to the importance of the ecological context, specifically transmission opportunities brought about by predation pressure, for the evolution of parasite manipulation in trophically-transmitted parasites.
The enrichment of meat with selenium is important to improve the intake of selenium by humans. The effects of supranutritional doses of sodium selenite or selenium-enriched yeast on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated using 63 Nellore cattle in a completely randomized design with two sources (sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast), three levels (0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 mg Se/kg DM) and control treatment (without addition of selenium). Final body weight (BW), average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain to feed ratio (G : F) at the end of 84 days of supplementation were not influenced by treatments (P>0.05). Values of pH, ribeye area, back fat thickness and marbling score were also not influenced by treatments (
P>0.05). Dressing percentage was greater (P=0.02) in Nellore cattle supplemented with organic Se (58.70%) compared to animals supplemented with inorganic Se (57.94%). Hot carcass weight increased (
P=0.05) with the increasing of Se levels in the diet. Colour, shear force (SF), cooking and drip loss remained unchanged (
P>0.05); however thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was 15.51% higher with inorganic Se compared with organic Se. The selenium concentration in the meat of animals receiving organic selenium was higher (
P<0.001) than that of animals receiving sodium selenite, at all levels (0.3; 0.9 and 2.7 mg/kg DM). The meat of animals receiving 2.7 mg of organic Se/kg of DM presented concentration of 372.7 μg Se/kg in the L.dorsi muscle, and the intake of 150 g of this meat by humans provides approximately 100% of the recommended Se intake (55 μg Se/day for adults). Therefore, the use of supranutritional doses of 2.7 mg Se/kg of DM, regardless of source, is a way of naturally producing selenium-enriched meat without compromising performance, carcass characteristics and quality of Nellore bovine meat.
Gall formation is associated with multiple changes in plant cells, which still requires a better understanding. In this study, galls caused by sexual generation (♀♂) of Neuroterus quercusbaccarum (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pedunculate oak trees (Quercus robur L.) were used as a model. Cytoplasmic membrane condition, concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the activity of antioxidant enzymes and amino acid decarboxylase as well as chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined. Changes in physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed in foliar tissues with galls and gall tissues themselves and compared to control. The presence of galls on oak leaves caused an increase of lipid peroxidation level. A significant decline in H2O2 and TBARS content with the reduction of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed in gall tissues. The activity amino acid decarboxylase, i.e., LDC, ODC and TyDC varied between samples, which may affect the content of amino acids. The presence of N. quercusbaccarum galls caused an insignificant increase of the chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanin contents, while the content of pigments and their ratios in gall tissues was extremely low. Moreover, photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fm, Fv/Fm, Y, qP) were significantly decreased. Data generated in this study indicate that the development of N. quercusbaccarum galls on pedunculate oak leaves has a negative effect on host plant related to the disruption of cell membrane integrity, disturbance of photosynthesis and reduction of the antioxidant potential of the host plant.
This study aimed to determine whether increased carotenoids intake was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study. The dietary carotenoids intake of 1978 pregnant women was assessed using a researcher-administered FFQ before undertaking an oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to obtain the effect estimates. Participants in the highest quartile of lycopene intake showed a lower risk of GDM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·86; Pfor trend = 0·007) compared with those in the lowest quartile; each 1 mg increase in lycopene consumption was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0·91, 0·99; Pfor trend = 0·020) decrease in GDM risk. No significant association was found between α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin intake and GDM risk. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested an inverse association between lycopene intake and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Pfor trend < 0·001); each 1 mg increase in lycopene intake was associated with 0·005 (95 % CI 0·002, 0·007; Pfor trend < 0·001) mmol/l decrease in FBG. Interaction analysis indicated consistent effect on each age or pre-BMI subgroup; however, a stronger protective effect of lycopene intake against GDM was observed among primigravid women (OR 0·20; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·55 in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake; Pfor interaction = 0·036). In conclusion, dietary lycopene intake was mainly assumed via reducing FBG to decrease GDM risk, and the protection was relatively increased among primigravid women.
Antioxidants have been always used to improve post-slaughter meat quality in broilers subjected to stress. Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is generally regarded as a natural source of antioxidants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that FSE could protect post-slaughter breast muscles against oxidative injury induced by dexamethasone (DEX) mimicking chronic physiological stress in poultry production. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of poultry were suppressed by DEX and improved by FSE (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone caused the decrease in the redness value and the increase in the lightness and yellowness values and drip loss of the breast muscles (P < 0.05), and FSE had the converse effects (P < 0.05). Dietary FSE supplementation decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (FA) and increased polyunsaturated FA in breast muscles of broilers (P < 0.05). In addition, FSE decreased malondialdehyde and carbonyl content in the breast muscles of DEX-treated broilers (P < 0.05). The inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl in the breast muscles was decreased by DEX and increased by FSE (P < 0.05). Total-antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity in the breast muscles were decreased in birds subjected to DEX and increased in birds supplemented with FSE (P < 0.05). Totally, DEX suppressed growth performance and induced breast muscle oxidative injury in broilers, and FSE supplementation improved antioxidant capacity to attenuate these adverse effects. Therefore, FSE could be a potential natural antioxidant to alleviate oxidative injury of the breast muscles in broilers and to improve the meat quality for human consumption.
A major drawback of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is susceptibility to frosts, which reduces yields and limits its geographic distribution and market growth. Whereas the frost-susceptible cultivar ‘Hass’ leads the global avocado market, cv. ‘Ettinger’, although commercially less important, is considered frost-tolerant. The mechanism behind the greater frost tolerance of ‘Ettinger’ has not yet been elucidated; therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the differences between the frost responses of the two cultivars. The results showed that detached ‘Ettinger’ branches had greater tolerance than ‘Hass’ to controlled frost stress. Tissue browning caused by methyl viologen oxidative cell damage, superoxide accumulation in leaf discs following wounding and browning of cut surfaces in branches were much lower in ‘Ettinger’ than in ‘Hass’, suggesting greater antioxidant activity (AA) in the former. In leaf extracts, AA was significantly higher in ‘Ettinger’ than in ‘Hass’, but osmolarity was similar in the two cultivars. Total phenolics content was significantly higher in ‘Ettinger’ but addition of a protein mask did not significantly reduce AA in either cultivar. Interestingly, following the freezing treatment, AA increased in ‘Ettinger’ and remained almost unchanged in ‘Hass’, while osmolarity was unaffected in either cultivar. These results suggest that the greater frost-tolerance of ‘Ettinger’ than ‘Hass’ is due largely to its greater AA, which springs mainly from a non-enzymatic source, i.e. accumulation of phenolic compounds. Based on the current study, future applications may be developed to minimize frost damage in avocado orchards.
Use of antibiotics as feed additives has been reduced to avoid the hazard of drug residues, and consequently, the search for alternative natural additives has developed. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the influence of royal jelly (RJ) supplementation on milk composition, blood biochemical and antioxidant parameters of lactating ewes. Thirty-six Ossimi ewes were divided randomly into two groups (18 animals each). For a period of 4 weeks, the control group (CON) was fed a basal diet only, while the other group was fed the basal diet and supplemented with a single bolus of RJ (1000 mg/head). The RJ-supplemented ewes produced significantly higher milk protein, fat and total solids than the CON group. The RJ group had a significantly higher red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value and total leucocyte counts, but lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio when compared with the control treatment. The RJ group showed significantly higher concentrations of total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione in the serum compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, RJ supplements can improve the nutritive value of milk fat and the serum antioxidant activities in lactating ewes.
The present study aimed to assess the antioxidant and oxidant status of goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Based upon the parasite burden, infection in goats was categorized as heavy (> 500 worms), mild (100–500 worms) or low (< 100 worms). Abomasal tissues from non-infected and infected goats were used for the determination of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases, acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatases, superoxide content (O2−), protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). A significantly higher level of CAT, GST and GR activity and a lower level of GPx activity were recorded in infected compared to non-infected tissue. A significant increase in the level of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP was found in the abomasal tissue of the infected animals, which was related to the worm burden. The oxidative stress markers were also altered, with a significant decline in GSH levels, whereas MDA, PC and O2− concentrations showed a marked increase. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that haemonchosis in goats resulted in considerable oxidative stress, which was directly related to the worm burden.
This study evaluated the effects of Mg administration on carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT), glycaemic control and markers of cardio-metabolic risk in diabetic haemodialysis (HD) patients. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in fifty-four diabetic HD patients. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to take either 250 mg/d Mg as magnesium oxide (n 27) or placebo (n 27) for 24 weeks. Mg supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in mean (P<0·001) and maximum levels of left CIMT (P=0·02) and mean levels of right CIMT (P=0·004) compared with the placebo. In addition, taking Mg supplements significantly reduced serum insulin levels (β=–9·42 pmol/l; 95% CI –14·94, –3·90; P=0·001), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (β=–0·56; 95 % CI –0·89, –0·24; P=0·001) and HbA1c (β=–0·74 %; 95 % CI –1·10, –0·39; P<0·001) and significantly increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (β=0·008; 95 % CI 0·002, 0·01; P=0·002) compared with the placebo. In addition, Mg administration led to a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (β=–0·30 mmol/l; 95% CI –0·56, –0·04; P=0·02), LDL-cholesterol (β=–0·29 mmol/l; 95% CI –0·52, –0·05; P=0·01), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P<0·001) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0·04) and a significant rise in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (P<0·001) compared with the placebo. Overall, we found that taking Mg for 24 weeks by diabetic HD patients significantly improved mean and maximum levels of left and mean levels of right CIMT, insulin metabolism, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, hs-CRP, TAC and MDA levels.
In this study, polyploidy level was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The effect of polyploidy by colchicine treatment was examined on the growth parameters, malondealdehyde (MDA), as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in response to different levels of salinity in Dunaliella salina. The results of algal growth indicated that 3 M NaCl was the optimal concentration of salt, since the highest enhancement in fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids, soluble sugar, glycerol, protein and starch content was observed in comparison to other concentrations. The amount of these metabolites declined in the concentrations under optimum salinity. The least and highest amounts of MDA were observed at 1 and 4 M NaCl respectively. Polyploidy in optimum concentration of salt, caused further increment of the above growth parameters. In relation to this, in most cases, treatment of 0.1% colchicine was most effective. The beneficial effects of polyploidy in non-optimal conditions were also found in some parameters such as biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, proteins and starch. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD and POD showed a positive significant correlation with salt stress and these were maximized at 4 M NaCl. Polyploidy (especially colchicine 0.1%) affected activity of these antioxidant enzymes in some concentrations of salt. Overall, our results suggest that the microalgae has significantly different responses to salt stress based on ploidy levels.