The uptake of glucose by Acanthocheilonema viteae was studied in vitro. The process was selective for the D-isomer and saturatable with a Km of 2 mM. The rate of glucose transport/utilization was inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, mannose, 5-thioglucose and dipyridamole but, unlike mammalian systems, was not impaired by cytochalasin B, phloretin, phloridzin, 3-O-methylglucose and 4, 6-ethylideneglucose. A potential chemotherapeutic advantage of selectively inhibiting filarial glucose transport exists for the following reasons. (1) The glucose transporter present in A. viteae was shown to be different from the one present in some mammalian systems. (2) Incubation under glucose-free conditions led to glycogen depletion, loss of motility and worm death. (3) Worms maintained in vitro for more than 18 h without glucose did not survive when implanted into gerbils.