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The October Revolution in 1917 profoundly shocked the cultural ecosystem. The new authorities recast notions of freedom, of the arts, and of the public. Links between and among audiences at different levels that had thrived in the prerevolutionary cultural market were dismantled. Over time the government imposed strictures on culture requiring alignment with political directives. By 1934, the official policy of Socialist Realism was mandatory and compliance enforced by rewards and terror. The early years of revolutionary ferment yielded aesthetic innovation of the highest order, yet the mounting pressures took their toll on creativity. Writers, artists, and performers responded variously. Some took cover in works employing irony and in the (somewhat) safer terrain of children’s literature. By seeding children’s literature with values counter to those practiced by Soviet officialdom, selected writers and artists spread counter-values to a new generation. They worked with the guile of the fox, the flight of the firebird, and, perhaps, the recklessness of the Fool. By keeping alive Russian stories of wise Fools, sentient animals, and magical powers, their creators carried forward folkloric traditions barred from the reigning Socialist Realism. In doing so, they protected limited public space for artistic innovation.
In the dark hours of the 1930s, authors and illustrators drew succor from the compassion in folklore. Goodness is closely allied with Foolishness in Russian folklore; each derives from an amalgam of innocence and kindness. In tale after tale, hapless heroes selflessly help troubled creatures and later reap multiples of the assistance rendered. Authors and illustrators sought sanctuary in this unrealistic parallel world, revisiting and updating tales of talking animals, exotic times and places, and Fools whose wishes are granted. The hidden meanings – their potent messages about the good, the bad, and the wily – slipped under the censors’ radar, reaching adult readers as well as children. Successive new editions of Petr Ershov’s Little Humpbacked Horse (1834) reached wide Soviet audiences. Andrei Platonov developed a remarkable collection of fairytales in the 1940s, while his teenaged son was imprisoned in the GULAG. Sergei Prokofiev’s Peter protected the wolf from hunters. Kornei Chukovsky created a ménage of friendly animals and a kindly Russian Dr. Dolittle to tend them. Daniil Kharms penned a tale of inclusion and tolerance in 1929, as Stalin’s hold on the arts tightened. These and other works countered the cruelty and cynicism of Socialist Realism.
The ongoing translational and reproducibility crisis dominates preclinical research today as results from animal studies often disappoint when transferred to human clinical studies. This problem is especially relevant in the field of brain diseases and translational neuropsychiatry.
Here, we discuss if the 3R concept could be part of the translational crisis.
The focus has been on the 2nd R, which is to reduce the variation between the experimental animals, so that the number of animals per study can be reduced. However, the risk of obtaining false results has also increased. We, therefore, recommend that researchers use a broader perspective as also suggest by Russell and Burch whom founded the 3Rs when considering the 3R concept, which involves the translational aspects described in detail in their 3R book from 1959.
This may together with systematic reviews and well-designed and well-performed animal studies and accurate reporting of the results, indeed contribute to solving the translational crisis in preclinical research.
The present paper summarizes prevalence, epidemiology and clinical disease of natural Toxoplasma gondii infections in humans and animals from Egypt. The current situation of toxoplasmosis in Egypt is confusing. There is no central laboratory or group of researchers actively investigating toxoplasmosis in humans or animals, and no reports on the national level are available. Based on various serological tests and convenience samples, T. gondii infections appear highly prevalent in humans and animals from Egypt. Living circumstances in Egypt favour the transmission of T. gondii. Up to 95% of domestic cats, the key host of T. gondii, are infected with T. gondii; they are abundant in rural and suburban areas, spreading T. gondii oocysts. Many women have been tested in maternity clinics, most with no definitive diagnosis. Toxoplasma gondii DNA and IgM antibodies have been found in blood samples of blood donors. Clinical toxoplasmosis in humans from Egypt needs further investigations using definitive procedures. Reports on congenital toxoplasmosis are conflicting and some reports are alarming. Although there are many serological surveys for T. gondii in animals, data on clinical infections are lacking. Here, we critically review the status of toxoplasmosis in Egypt, which should be useful to biologist, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.
Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Turkey but little is known of the burden of their clinical toxoplasmosis. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Turkey were published in Turkish and often not available widely. Here, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, epidemiology and diagnosis of T. gondii in humans and animals in Turkey. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians. Although one-third of the human population in Turkey is seropositive, the rate of congenital toxoplasmosis is unknown and no information is available in children 12 years old or younger. One large outbreak of acute toxoplasmosis has been reported in 14–18-year old school children in Turkey. An alarming rate (36%) of T. gondii tissue cysts were reported in tissues of sheep and water buffalo meats destined for human consumption; these reports require verification. Genetically, T. gondii strains from domestic cats and wild birds in Turkey were generally classical type II and III, like those prevalent in Europe. A separate genotype, Type 1 Africa, was isolated from two congenitally infected children and a domestic cat in Turkey.
The chapter explores conjectural history, stadial history, and anthropology in the Scottish Enlightenment. In the writings of Adam Smith, John Millar, David Hume, Lord Kames, and many others concepts that had been assumed to have no history — such as sentiment — were rethought against the background of a theory of historical stages and progress. Special attention is paid to the analogies between animals and humans, and to race.
Mia Couto is among the most prominent of contemporary Mozambican writers. Yet he has also enjoyed a career as an environmental biologist and ecologist, having expressed much interest in interrogating the border between what is human and not human through his scientific practice. In this essay I locate the nexus of Couto’s literary and ecological careers in his concern with recovering forms of proximity among humans, environments, and other species. Through an analysis of some of Couto’s recently translated novels, I argue that his work reconceives of the relations between humans and animals through the concept of biosemiotics, an approach attuned to languages conveyed semiotically through embodied and skillful engagement with the larger-than-human world. Couto’s work in turn grounds biosemiotics in segments of African life that find their basis in forms of animism, thus implicating the concept in the postcolonial work of cultural recuperation and decolonization.
Richard Kerridge describes the literary, cultural and scientific context of Plath’s interest in wild animals, landscape, climate and pollution. The letters and journals show that this interest was intense, but also that it was not scientific or systematic, even in a rudimentary way. Plath’s strategy was to preserve the dramatic immediacy of unexpected encounters with wildlife, rather than frame those encounters with scientific information. Nevertheless, an emergent ecological consciousness and environmental concern are evident in her writing. Kerridge provides the historical and scientific background for this concern, by outlining the major conceptual shifts that were taking place in ecological science, the recent history of wild nature in literature, and some of the changing popular attitudes in Britain and the USA.
Animals are to be found in many places and modes in Chaucer’s work. They feature as similes (Palamon and Arcite in the Knight’s Tale are compared to lion, tiger and boar), star in fables (the Nun’s Priest’s Tale) or are simply themselves, like the cow of the lyric Truth, or the spider of the Treatise on the Astrolable. Heeding Lisa Kiser’s caution that animals in literature risk being absorbed into the human mindset, this essay explores some of the animals (and insects) found in Chaucer, and, by reading them alongside Isidore of Seville’s definition of ‘beast’, seeks to demonstrate how they resist such absorption and instead steer our attention to aspects of daily life or concepts we are liable to overlook. Animals may act as vehicles for our thoughts, but sometimes they carry us to places we did not consciously intend.
Chaucer’s God considers how characters invoke God, both in terms of the everyday language of late medieval England and in the ways that the idea of God is reflected in Chaucer’s fiction. Conventional, non-theological utterances of the names for God by Chaucer’s characters as part of their, by turns, outwardly pious and unthinkingly impious phraseologies are discussed in the opening section, God Woot – ‘God knows’. Under the heading God Forwoot – ‘God foreknows’, some of the more challenging invocations of God are considered, such as the implications of divine foreknowledge and predestination on human free will in the Knight’s Tale, the Nun’s Priest’s Tale and Troilus and Criseyde. The concluding section, God in a Cruel World, asks whether in the Clerk’s Tale and the Franklin’s Tale, if Chaucer allowed his tales to reflect, and characters to reflect upon, the heretical notion of a God lacking in compassion for humanity.
Chapter 1 explains a natural law understanding of cooperation with evil, uses it to develop an understanding of consumer boycotts, and applies this understanding to the question: What kinds of choices are appropriate with respect to the boycott of the meat industry proposed by vegetarians, vegans, and others? The chapter pays particular attention to the so-called threshold argument against consumer meat purchases.
Reciprocity has roots that predate humans, and is something that is fundamental to the animal kingdom. Much of this behaviour is instinctive (i.e. attitudinal) – e.g. cats licking each other – but these actions may have served as the kernel for the development of more complex, deliberative forms of reciprocity. By common consent, however, although there are some examples of non-human primates and even other species arguably demonstrating a deliberative form of reciprocity and although we have much to learn about animal behaviours, a tendency towards more sophisticated forms of reciprocity that rely on memory and a sense of obligation is predominantly human. Indeed, the human talent for deliberative reciprocity and hence cooperation is an important explanation for why humans have been so successful at populating the planet and dominating other species. This urge to act reciprocally lies very deep within the human psyche. For instance, there is some evidence that very young children show tendencies towards deliberative reciprocity, and demonstrate some concern for a person’s reputation, which is crucial for the effective operation of indirect reciprocity.
I defend a form of humanism on which we have reason to care about human beings that we do not have to care about other animals, and human beings have rights against us that other animals lack. Humanism respects the equal worth of those born with severe congenital cognitive disabilities. I address the charge of speciesism and explain how being human is an ethically relevant fact.
Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite known to cause giardiasis throughout the world. Potential transmission vehicles for this zoonotic parasite are both water and food sources. As such consumption of water contaminated by feces, or food sources washed in contaminated water containing parasite cysts, may result in outbreaks. This creates local public health risks which can potentially cause widespread infection and long-term post-infection sequelae. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of G. duodenalis assemblages, sub-assemblages, hosts and locations identified. It also summarizes knowledge of potential infection/transmission routes covering water, food, person-to-person infection and zoonotic transmission from livestock and companion animals. Public health implications focused within the UK, based on epidemiological data, are discussed and recommendations for essential Giardia developments are highlighted.
Human activity has eliminated many of the natural lowland ecosystems of the Middle and Lower Yellow River Valley, and has modified the rest, making it difficult to understand what species are native to the region. As a step towards the reconstruction of these lost environments, this paper employs zooarchaeological and other evidence to identify the native mammals of the region. We provide basic ecological information about these animals and discuss controversial or difficult cases in more depth. Our goal is not only to study China's environmental history, but also to make clear that conventional understandings of species ranges are based on the distributions of animals in the modern period, when many had already been eliminated from large areas by human activity.
In this retrospective study, we describe and analyse Salmonella data from four livestock species in Great Britain between 1983 and 2014, focusing on Salmonella Typhimurium. A total of 96 044 Salmonella isolates were obtained during the study period. S. Typhimurium was the predominant serovar isolated from cattle and pigs and represented 40.7% (18 455/45 336) and 58.3% (4495/7709) of isolates from these species respectively, while it only accounted for 6.7% (2114/31 492) of chicken isolates and 8.1% (926/11 507) of turkey isolates. Over the study period, DT104 was the most common phage type in all four species; however, DT104 peaked in occurrence between 1995 and 1999, but is currently rare.
Monophasic strains of S. Typhimurium represented less than 3% of all Salmonella isolates in cattle and chickens in 2014, but accounted for 10.4% of all turkey isolates and 39.0% of all pig isolates in the same year.
Salmonella isolates were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Antimicrobial resistance of S. Typhimurium isolates is largely influenced by the dominance of specific phage types at a certain time, which are commonly associated with particular resistance patterns. Changes in resistance patterns over time were analysed and compared between species.