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The chapter covers the geography and resources that enabled state formation in Etruria. The first section of the chapter covers the physiography of landscape, relative to the sea, rivers, geology and mountains. The landscape is broken down into four regions: the coast, the Tuscan uplands, the volcanic South and the inland tectonic valleys. These are then matched with the potential of agriculture and minerals, and followed by the application of technology to these resources. This section traces the development of agriculture and metallurgy.
This chapter explores the movement and introduction (translocation) of domestic animal species and some factors relevant to the transference of knowledge and skills associated with their husbandry between the first millennium BC and AD 1500 across the Trans-Saharan zone. Although animal products were traded widely in these regions, live animal movement and husbandry is the main material focus of this work. It reviews the process of animal translocation, considers the impacts associated with the process of moving species, provides evidence for species introductions in these regions and discusses how populations may have encountered and shaped various forms of animal husbandry. Other relevant aspects such as husbandry requirements, feeding strategies, mobility and human perceptions of animal species are also considered. To some extent, these introductions and technological changes are evident in the presence and relative frequencies of domesticate species; these are presented and interpreted to the extent which the data permits. By contextualising the Sahara within patterns of North African and sub-Saharan animal husbandry, the chapter aims to go beyond statements regarding the dates by which species were introduced at individual sites, and contribute to a fuller understanding of the ways in which animals and the techniques used to manage them moved.
One of the key rules of trusts is that there must be ascertainable beneficiaries so a trust for a purpose may fail because the objects are uncertain. There are some limited exceptions which allow purpose trusts to be upheld. These are examined in this chapter. The first group are the anomalous exceptions which include trusts for specific animals. Trusts for animals as a group will be charitable but only if they fulfil the public benefit rule. A trust to erect and maintain a monument has usually been upheld but only where it complies with the perpetuity period. Following the case of re Denley where a trust appears to be for a purpose it may be upheld if there are hidden beneficiaries. In some circumstances an unincorporated association can form an exception to the beneficiary principle. There is a possible solution to the problems created by purpose trusts which is to use an enforcer or protector trust. The chapter discusses how these have been adopted in countries such as the Bahamas and the Channel Islands. It also considers the problem of who enforces against the enforcer of a purpose trust since the enforcer has no interest in the trust property.
Pigs have played a central role in the subsistence and culture of China for millennia. The close relationship between pigs and people began when humans gradually domesticated wild pigs over 8,000 years ago. While pigs initially foraged around settlements, population growth led people to pen their pigs, which made them household trash processors and fertilizer producers. Household pigs were in daily contact with people, who bred them to fatten quickly and produce larger litters. Early modern Europeans found Chinese pigs far superior to their own and bred the two to create the breeds now employed in industrial pork production around the world, including China. In recent decades, industrial farms that scientifically control every aspect of pigs’ lives have spread rapidly. Until recently, most Chinese people ate pork only on special occasions; their ability in recent decades to eat it regularly exemplifies China's increasing prosperity. Meanwhile, vast areas of North and South American farmland are now devoted to growing soybeans to feed hundreds of millions of pigs in China, and the methane, manure, and antibiotic resistance they produce creates environmental and health problems on a global scale.
To perform a validation assessment of a novel porcine ex vivo model for otoplasty training.
A total of nine otolaryngology trainees performed a standard approach otoplasty on a porcine ear. They completed a series of tasks including posterior skin incision, anterior scoring, Mustardé suture placement and concha–mastoid suture placement. Trainees completed a post-task questionnaire assessing face validity, global content validity and task-specific content validity.
Trainees’ median scores for the porcine model were: 4 for face validity (interquartile range, 3–4), 5 for global content validity (interquartile range, 4–5) and 4 for task-specific content validity (interquartile range, 4–4).
This study is the first to formally validate the ex vivo porcine auricular model as a useful tool for training in otoplasty. The model should be incorporated into simulation training for otoplasty in order to improve learning, enable acquisition of specific surgical skills and improve operative outcomes.
The Conclusion reflects on the implications of the study’s findings for future research, particularly in cultural theory. Victorian adaptive appearance is considered as a discourse that in certain ways prefigured the works of Charles Sanders Peirce and Jakob von Uexküll, and more recent theorisations of biosemiotics and zoosemiotics. The study shows that contemporary concepts of non-human and cross-species semiosis are less new than they may seem. However, it also problematises post-humanist celebrations of the supposed collapsing of the human/non-human binary. Similarly, the study shows that biosemiotic thinking does not necessarily align with progressive politics, as is sometimes assumed. As a cultural trope, adaptive appearance could both undermine and reinforce essentialist views of identity. It is suggested that the study’s discussions of visibility, recognition and appearance signpost new ways of approaching the politics of the gaze and the ideological stakes of female visibility. Some hints are offered on how researchers might explore the afterlives of adaptive appearance in twentieth-century science and culture. The chapter also notes how adaptive appearance has featured in retrospective fictive depictions of Victorian society and culture. Finally, parallels are suggested between Victorian adaptive appearance and current representations of environmental crisis.
Analysing the fiction of Thomas Hardy, Chapter 4 considers Hardy’s depictions of deception, concealment and misleading appearances among humans alongside his interest in adaptive appearance. This interest clashed with Hardy’s channelling of the pastoral, which characterised the natural world and rural life by honesty and transparency. Critics have noted that Hardy’s fiction problematizes the ethics of honesty. It is argued here that the logic of adaptive appearance energised this tendency as characters’ fates depend on chance misperceptions and ambiguous appearances. This sense of Darwinian contingency complicates characters’ moral agency by suggesting that many of their acts, which have the effect of deceiving, are unconscious. Apparently purposeful behaviours blur with the more mechanised displays of natural and sexual selection. Through his evolutionary vision, Hardy sometimes reframes honesty and dishonesty as outgrowths of opposing primitive instincts toward altruism and egoism. However, this utilitarian framework also rendered deception morally ambiguous, allowing for the possibility of noble deceptions that would spare others pain. Hardy’s fiction further biologized deception by depicting physical bodies that hid or falsified their owners’ identities. Random variations and chance resemblances cause characters to interpret erroneous ancestral histories in each other, sometimes with disastrous consequences.
Chapter 3 explores divine responses to the ways God responds to the ruptures wrought by violence in the physical world, especially as presented in Genesis 8-9. In Gen 8:22, God assures humanity that he would uphold the cycles of creation in the face of human corruption, such that it would not sustain the impact of violence as it did before the flood. Psalm 74 portrays an analogous world in which God’s ongoing power over creation subdues the chaotic ruin that violence unleashes in the world. I also suggest that God’s promise to never again curse the land reverses the land curse arising from Cain’s act of violence (4:12). This chapter also addresses the ‘laws’ of Gen 9:1-6. Some understand Gen 9:1-6 to address humanity’s bloodlust for violence. God tolerates a modicum of violence against animals, but restrains it. I suggest by contrast that the ‘fear and dread’ reflects the fractured relationship between humans and animals. Also, the so-called ‘laws’ only point toward the need for law, and in the world of the story, indicate only what God himself will do. Moreover, the text restricts humanity’s power over the life(blood) of animals. Finally, the creation covenant (9:7-18) reflects ways that God restricts the use of divine violence in the post-flood world. This creation covenant anticipates God’s later covenants with Israel and the land.
The chapter includes a comprehensive account of the Darwinian problem of evil, centered on evolutionary animal suffering inscribed by natural selection into the conditions of existence. The author contends that the problem arises from the unveiling of a Darwinian World by modern scientists. They have unveiled four interconnected truths about the natural realm, as it has been in the past, and as it is now. The unveilings are (1) “deep evolutionary time,” (2) a “plurality of worlds” existing successively in the planetary past, (3) “aniti-cosmic micro-monsters” that cause widespread, brutal suffering for animals, and (4) “evil inscribed,” i.e., that animal suffering in nature is not accidental, but is systemic – inscribed by natural selection into the conditions of existence for animals. It seems that the source of evolutionary evils suffered by animals is not a Fall, as traditionally alleged by theists, but the design of nature itself.
This chapter comprises dicussion of both informal and formal arguments against belief in the God of theism. Informal arguments rely on an “anyone-can-see” atheistic intuition about nature, unveiled in Darwinian terms. Formal arguments rely on an atheistic inference made from evidence – from the configuration of evolutionary evils suffered by animals in the natural realm, past and present. A successful God-justifying account will have to weaken the atheistic force of these arguments, if not mitigate them altogether. The author proposes that the prospects for success are poor, so long as we approach the problem of God and evolutionary animal suffering on conventional ethical norms for the moral agency of God in creating species. He looks ahead to proposing that aesthetics will play a major role in his own approach to both the teleological and moral aspects of the Darwinian Problem.
This chapter is focused on versions of Only Way Theodicy, according to which Darwinian evolution was the only means by which God could have created a sufficiently valuable world. In short, creation by Darwinian means was the only way of world making open to God. The author gives reasons for skepticism towards this “only-way” intuition about God and creation. He then considers several prominent examples of the approach, and he concludes that none of them identifies evolutionary goods that either outweigh or defeat the evolutionary evils that scientists have unveiled. However, the evolutionary goods identified do generate partial justification for evolutionary evils, and they should be taken into serious account in the controversy. Further, he proposes that one version of this theodicy – John Haught’s version – is more promising than the others, for it calls attention to aesthetic properties of evolution that can become part of a different sort of theodicy, not built on an “only-way” ethical intuition, but rather on an aesthetic analogue for God.
From the first reviews of The Orchard Keeper, Cormac McCarthy’s debut novel – published just three years after William Faulkner’s death and edited by Albert Erskine, who had worked with the Nobel laureate at Random House – comparisons with Faulkner’s work have been irresistible in the discussion of McCarthy’s fiction. This chapter focuses on key moments in McCarthy’s oeuvre that suggestively cite, parody, contest, unwrite, or otherwise engage Faulkner’s writings, to mine these connections for deeper insights into theme, form, and vision in two of the most distinguished bodies of work in American fiction. Most explicit in Suttree, with its overt echoes and revisions of The Sound and the Fury, McCarthy’s running intertextual dialogue with Faulkner also surfaces to notable effect in All the Pretty Horses, Blood Meridian, The Crossing, The Road, and the many places in McCarthy’s work where the county figures as a meaningful imaginative geography, political formation, or social unit – thereby conjuring the specter of Faulkner’s fictional Mississippi county of Yoknapatawpha, perhaps his supreme imaginative achievement. Other Faulkner works discussed include Absalom, Absalom!, Go Down, Moses, and A Fable.
Mark Twain was a lifelong lover of animals, particularly cats and dogs, and he wrote about animals throughout his writing career: his first national success, “The Jumping Frog,” included a variety of animals, and in his last decade, he wrote works on behalf of animal rights, including “A Dog’s Tale” and “A Horse’s Tale.” Late in his life, he was a prominent spokesman for animal rights and anti-vivisection. He called man “the lowest animal,” but his regard for and interest in other animals never wavered.
A critique of modernity and the European Enlightenment is persistent in Cormac McCarthy’s work. In the Appalachian novels, the ancient and the pre-industrial are yet to be swamped by the hegemony of modernity, though its depredations are clearly visible. A shift arrives with Judge Holden in Blood Meridian. Informed by his anthropocentric notion of “suzerainty,” Holden embodies the notion that violence and progress are inseparable. The development of modernity is dependent on this rational, instrumental, and necessary relationship. The Enlightenment has liberated man from the spiritual and physical constraints of previous arrangements. This strain of thinking reaches its apotheosis in the wasteland of The Road in which modernity and its technologies have facilitated planetary apocalypse. There is, however, resistance. The behavior and consciousness of animals, and landscape and the non-animate world, are imbued with it, and there is an elusive spirituality connected to these phenomena that defies modernity’s disenchantment of the world. We are dared by McCarthy to call from the depths of our imagination a different kind of world, in which humanity recognizes the proximity of its kinship to all that which is in some way alive on our planet.
This chapter recasts the intellectual history of US sociology as a reception study of the poems of Walt Whitman, focusing on “Song of Myself.” Prominent early sociologists such as Robert Ezra Park and Daniel Brinton engaged Whitman under the banner of “social science.” They recirculated poetic extracts to illuminate the range of issues – from mass media and crowd psychology to race relations and urban studies – that became the foci of modern sociology. As the fledgling discipline probed for new conceptual models of social development in a modern, secular age, this professionalizing, reform-minded class of social scientists employed nineteenth-century verse to explicate twentieth-century social theory. More than most, Whitman’s poetry, which demanded empathy as well as observation, furnished the vocabulary for a compassionate, impartial, and distinctively American sociology.
The ongoing translational and reproducibility crisis dominates preclinical research today as results from animal studies often disappoint when transferred to human clinical studies. This problem is especially relevant in the field of brain diseases and translational neuropsychiatry.
Here, we discuss if the 3R concept could be part of the translational crisis.
The focus has been on the second R, which is to reduce the variation between the experimental animals, so that the number of animals per study can be reduced. However, the risk of obtaining false results has also increased. We, therefore, recommend that researchers use a broader perspective as also suggest by Russell and Burch who founded the 3Rs when considering the 3R concept, which involves the translational aspects described in detail in their 3R book from 1959.
This may together with systematic reviews and well-designed and well-performed animal studies and accurate reporting of the results indeed contribute to solving the translational crisis in preclinical research.
The October Revolution in 1917 profoundly shocked the cultural ecosystem. The new authorities recast notions of freedom, of the arts, and of the public. Links between and among audiences at different levels that had thrived in the prerevolutionary cultural market were dismantled. Over time the government imposed strictures on culture requiring alignment with political directives. By 1934, the official policy of Socialist Realism was mandatory and compliance enforced by rewards and terror. The early years of revolutionary ferment yielded aesthetic innovation of the highest order, yet the mounting pressures took their toll on creativity. Writers, artists, and performers responded variously. Some took cover in works employing irony and in the (somewhat) safer terrain of children’s literature. By seeding children’s literature with values counter to those practiced by Soviet officialdom, selected writers and artists spread counter-values to a new generation. They worked with the guile of the fox, the flight of the firebird, and, perhaps, the recklessness of the Fool. By keeping alive Russian stories of wise Fools, sentient animals, and magical powers, their creators carried forward folkloric traditions barred from the reigning Socialist Realism. In doing so, they protected limited public space for artistic innovation.
In the dark hours of the 1930s, authors and illustrators drew succor from the compassion in folklore. Goodness is closely allied with Foolishness in Russian folklore; each derives from an amalgam of innocence and kindness. In tale after tale, hapless heroes selflessly help troubled creatures and later reap multiples of the assistance rendered. Authors and illustrators sought sanctuary in this unrealistic parallel world, revisiting and updating tales of talking animals, exotic times and places, and Fools whose wishes are granted. The hidden meanings – their potent messages about the good, the bad, and the wily – slipped under the censors’ radar, reaching adult readers as well as children. Successive new editions of Petr Ershov’s Little Humpbacked Horse (1834) reached wide Soviet audiences. Andrei Platonov developed a remarkable collection of fairytales in the 1940s, while his teenaged son was imprisoned in the GULAG. Sergei Prokofiev’s Peter protected the wolf from hunters. Kornei Chukovsky created a ménage of friendly animals and a kindly Russian Dr. Dolittle to tend them. Daniil Kharms penned a tale of inclusion and tolerance in 1929, as Stalin’s hold on the arts tightened. These and other works countered the cruelty and cynicism of Socialist Realism.