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Causes of the comorbidity of substance misuse with anxiety-related and depressive disorders (anxiety/depression) remain poorly known. We estimated associations of substance misuse and anxiety/depression in the general population and tested them while accounting for genetic and shared environmental factors.
We studied individuals born in Sweden 1968–1997 (n = 2 996 398) with follow-up in nationwide register data for 1997–2013. To account for familial effects, stratified analyses were conducted within siblings and twin pairs. Substance misuse was defined as ICD-10 alcohol or drug use disorder or an alcohol/drug-related criminal conviction. Three dimensions of ICD-10 anxiety and depressive disorders and a substance misuse dimension were identified through exploratory factor analysis.
Substance misuse was associated with a 4.5-fold (95% CI 4.50–4.58) elevated risk of lifetime generalized anxiety/depression, 4.7-fold (95% CI 4.63–4.82) elevated risk of panic disorder and agora/social phobia, and 2.9-fold elevated risk of phobias/OCD (95% CI 2.82–3.02) as compared to those without substance misuse. The associations were attenuated in within-family analyses but we found elevated risks in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for substance misuse as well as significant non-shared environmental correlations. The association between anxiety/depression and substance misuse was mainly driven by generalized anxiety/depression, whereas other anxiety/depression dimensions had minor or no independent associations with substance misuse.
Substance misuse and anxiety/depression are associated at the population level, and these associations are partially explained by familial liabilities. Our findings indicate a common genetic etiology but are also compatible with a potential partially causal relationship between substance misuse and anxiety/depression.
The effects of psychoactive substance abuse are not limited to the user, but extend to the entire family system, with children of substance abusers being particularly at risk. This meta-analysis attempted to quantify the longitudinal relationship between parental alcohol, tobacco, and drug use and child well-being, investigating variation across a range of substance and well-being indices and other potential moderators. We performed a literature search of peer-reviewed, English language, longitudinal observational studies that reported outcomes for children aged 0 to 18 years. In total, 56 studies, yielding 220 dependent effect sizes, met inclusion criteria. A multilevel random-effects model revealed a statistically significant, small detriment to child well-being for parental substance abuse over time (r = .15). Moderator analyses demonstrated that the effect was more pronounced for parental drug use (r = .25), compared with alcohol use (r = .13), tobacco use (r = .13), and alcohol use disorder (r = .14). Results highlight a need for future studies that better capture the effect of parental psychoactive substance abuse on the full breadth of childhood well-being outcomes and to integrate substance abuse into models that specify the precise conditions under which parental behavior determines child well-being.
Heavy alcohol use is pervasive and one of our most significant global health burdens. Early theories posited that certain alcohol response phenotypes, notably low sensitivity to alcohol (‘low-level response’) imparts risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, other theories, and newer measures of subjective alcohol responses, have challenged that contention and argued that high sensitivity to some alcohol effects are equally important for AUD risk. This study presents results of a unique longitudinal study in 294 young adult non-dependent drinkers examined with alcohol and placebo testing in the laboratory at initial enrolment and repeated 5 years later, with regular follow-up intervals assessing AUD (trial registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00961792). Findings showed that alcohol sedation was negatively correlated with stimulation across the breath alcohol curve and at initial and re-examination testing. A higher rather than lower alcohol response phenotype was predictive of future AUD. The findings underscore a new understanding of factors increasing vulnerability to AUD.
Alcohol consumption may be wrongly estimated because of inaccurate information on actual portion sizes. We compared portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home with the Dutch standard drink sizes.
Participants measured portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits at home up to a maximum of three times and reported these via an online survey. Average portion sizes (in millilitres) were compared with the Dutch standard drink sizes. Portion sizes were compared between subgroups of gender, age, BMI and level of education, and for different glass types.
Wageningen and surroundings, the Netherlands.
Adults (N 201) living in the Netherlands and consuming wine and/or straight spirits at home at least once per week.
Participants poured on average 129·4 ml white wine and 131·7 ml red wine, which is significantly more than the standard of 100 ml. For fortified wine, the average poured amount was 94·0 ml, significantly more than the standard of 50 ml; also for straight spirits the poured amount was significantly more than the standard (47·0 v. 35 ml).
Participants’ portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home were on average larger than the Dutch standard drink sizes. This suggests that at-home alcohol consumption in the Netherlands is underestimated.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health epidemic. Diet and lifestyle changes have been demonstrated as effective measures in managing T2DM and preventing or delaying the progression from prediabetes to diabetes, yet the relationship between diet, prediabetes and diabetes is still not entirely clear. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between diet, diabetes and especially prediabetes. A total of 1542 participants of the cross-sectional, population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) FF4 study (2013/2014) were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was derived using a method combining information from a FFQ and repeated 24-h food lists. Glucose tolerance status was assessed via oral glucose tolerance tests in all participants without a previous physician-confirmed diagnosis of T2DM, and was classified according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria. Crude and fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations between diet and prediabetes, undetected diabetes mellitus (UDM) and prevalent T2DM. After adjusting for major covariates, fruit was significantly inversely and total meat, processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages and moderate alcohol significantly associated with UDM and/or prevalent diabetes. Sex-specific analyses showed that in men, coffee was significantly inversely (OR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·96) and heavy alcohol significantly (OR 1·84; 95 % CI 1·14, 2·95) associated with prediabetes. Our findings on diet and T2DM are consistent with current literature, while our results regarding coffee, heavy alcohol consumption and prediabetes highlight new possible targets for primary prevention of the derangement of glucose homeostasis.
Cape Town's black population of the early twentieth century actively pursued lifestyles that might be described as respectable. But respectability was expensive, and poverty —characterised by poor housing, ill health and shortened lifespans — stood in the way of some of its most essential elements: cleanliness, sexual restraint, sobriety, and the creation of nuclear and gendered households. Black respectability, therefore, could not simply replicate that of the dominant white bourgeoisie. Most challenging was the development of rampant black criminality, often seen by contemporary observers as the result of the failure of black women to realise respectable households. Even attempts on the part of the state to create respectable citizenries floundered, partly because these initiatives were incompatible with the policies of racial segregation. The state and the dominant bourgeoisie put their faith in the black elite as the standard-bearers of respectability, but the reality was that the respectability of the ‘superior’ class was frequently indistinguishable from those below, a consequence of the fact that the boundary between these classes was highly porous.
The relationship between Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and alcohol addiction is poorly characterized. Arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) can serve as a proxy for alcohol addiction. Therefore, the potential association between DUI and AD could be helpful in understanding the relationship between alcohol abuse and AD.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective, population-based cohort study using state health and law enforcement data was performed. The study cross-referenced 141,281 South Carolina Alzheimer’s Disease Registry cases with state law enforcement data.
Of the 2,882 registry cases (1.4%) found to have a history of at least one DUI arrest, cases were predominantly White (58.7%) and male (77.4%). Results showed a correlation coefficient of 0.7 (p < 0.0001) between the age of first DUI arrest and the age of AD diagnosis. A dose-response relationship between the number of DUIs and age of AD onset was found to exist, where those with a history of DUI arrest were diagnosed an average of 9.1 years earlier, with a further 1.8 years earlier age at diagnosis in those with two or more arrests for DUI. A history of DUI arrest was also found to be negatively associated with survival after diagnosis, with a 10% decreased life expectancy in those with a DUI arrest history.
Driving under the influence, a potential indicator of alcohol addiction, is associated with an earlier onset of AD registry diagnosis and shortened survival after diagnosis. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence suggesting that some cases of AD are alcohol related and, possibly, postponable or preventable.
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between oil spill exposure, trauma history, and behavioral health 6 years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DHOS). We hypothesized that prior trauma would exacerbate the relationship between oil spill exposure and behavioral health problems.
The sample included 2,520 randomly selected adults in coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico. Participants reported their level of oil spill exposure, trauma history, depression, anxiety/worry, illness anxiety, and alcohol use.
Individuals with more traumatic experiences had a significantly higher risk for all measured behavioral health problems after controlling for demographic factors and DHOS exposure. Those with higher levels of DHOS exposure were not at greater risk for behavioral health problems after controlling for prior trauma, with the exception of illness anxiety. There was no evidence that trauma history moderated the association between DHOS exposure and behavioral health.
Findings suggest that trauma exposure may be a better indicator of long-term behavioral health risk than DHOS exposure among disaster-prone Gulf Coast residents. DHOS exposure may be a risk factor for illness anxiety but not more general behavioral health concerns. Trauma history did not appear to exacerbate risk for behavioral health problems among Gulf residents exposed to the DHOS. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:497-503)
There is a growing body of literature relating to mass-gathering events. A common thread amongst this literature, particularly the literature relating to music festivals, is the incidence of patients presenting with substance and/or alcohol intoxication. However, the impact of alcohol and/or drugs on the provision of in-event health care services has not been explored in detail.
The goal of this review was to develop an understanding of the impact of alcohol and/or drugs on in-event health care services at mass-gathering events.
This paper used integrative review as a methodology. The articles included in this literature review were sourced by searching databases inclusive of Medline (Ovid; US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Scopus (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands), PsycINFO (Ovid; American Psychological Association; Washington DC, USA), and Pub Med (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA). Identified manuscripts that met the inclusion criteria were thematically analyzed.
In total, 12 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria for this review. A thematic analysis of these manuscripts identified three main themes: (i) predictive factors, (ii) patient presentation rates, and (iii) levels of care.
Substance use and/or intoxication can place a strain on in-event medical services at mass-gathering events. Of the various types of mass-gathering events, music festivals appear to be the most affected by substance use and intoxication.
BullockM, RanseJ, HuttonA.Impact of Patients Presenting with Alcohol and/or Drug Intoxication on In-Event Health Care Services at Mass-Gathering Events: An Integrative Literature Review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):539–542.
CHD is becoming an increasing priority worldwide, as it is one of the main causes of death in low- and middle-income countries lately. This study aims to evaluate the association between beverage consumption patterns and the risk of CHD among Mexican adult population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 6640 adults participating in the Health Workers’ Cohort Study. Factor analysis was performed to identify beverage patterns using sex-specific Framingham prediction algorithms to estimate CHD risk. The prevalence of moderate to high CHD risk was 17·8 %. We identified four major beverage consumption patterns, which were categorised as alcohol, coffee/tea, soft drinks and low-fat milk. We observed a lower risk of CHD (OR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·80; and OR=0·58; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·79, respectively) among participants in the upper quintile of alcohol or low-fat milk consumption compared with those in the bottom quintile. In contrast, a higher consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with CHD risk (OR=1·64; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·20) when compared with other extreme quintiles. Finally, coffee/tea consumption was not significantly associated with CHD risk. Our findings suggest that a beverage pattern characterised by a higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages may be associated with an increased risk of CHD among the Mexican adult population, whereas patterns of moderate alcohol intake and low-fat milk may be associated with a reduced risk.
Problematic alcohol use is associated with detrimental cognitive, physiological and social consequences. In the emergency department (ED), Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is the recommended approach to identify and treat adolescent alcohol-related concerns, but is underused by physicians.
This study examined pediatric emergency physicians’ perceptions of adolescent drinking and treatment, and their current self-reported SBIRT practices.
Physicians in the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada database (n=245) received a 35-item questionnaire that was administered through a web-based platform and paper-based mail-outs. Recruitment followed a modified Dillman four-contact approach.
From October 2016 to January 2017, 166 pediatric emergency physicians (46.4% males; mean age=43.6 years) completed the questionnaire. The response rate was 67.8%. Physicians recognized the need (65%) and responsibility (86%) to address adolescent alcohol problems. However, confidence in knowledge and abilities for SBIRT execution was low. Twenty-five percent of physicians reported never having practiced all, or part of, SBIRT while 1.3% reported consistent SBIRT delivery for adolescents with alcohol-related visits. More alcohol education and counselling experience was associated with higher SBIRT use; however, physicians generally reported to have received minimal alcohol training. SBIRT practices were also associated with physician perceptions of problematic alcohol use and its treatability.
Pediatric emergency physicians acknowledge the need to address problematic adolescent alcohol use, but routine SBIRT use is lacking. Strategies to educate physicians about SBIRT and enhance perceived self-competency may improve SBIRT use. Effectiveness trials to establish SBIRT impact on patient outcomes are also needed.
Non-psychotic affective symptoms are important components of psychotic syndromes. They are frequent and are now thought to influence the emergence of paranoia and hallucinations. Evidence supporting this model of psychosis comes from recent cross-fertilising epidemiological and intervention studies. Epidemiological studies identify plausible targets for intervention but must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, causal inference can be strengthened substantially using modern statistical methods.
Directed Acyclic Graphs were used in a dynamic Bayesian network approach to learn the overall dependence structure of chosen variables. DAG-based inference identifies the most likely directional links between multiple variables, thereby locating them in a putative causal cascade. We used initial and 18-month follow-up data from the 2000 British National Psychiatric Morbidity survey (N = 8580 and N = 2406).
We analysed persecutory ideation, hallucinations, a range of affective symptoms and the effects of cannabis and problematic alcohol use. Worry was central to the links between symptoms, with plausible direct effects on insomnia, depressed mood and generalised anxiety, and recent cannabis use. Worry linked the other affective phenomena with paranoia. Hallucinations were connected only to worry and persecutory ideation. General anxiety, worry, sleep problems, and persecutory ideation were strongly self-predicting. Worry and persecutory ideation were connected over the 18-month interval in an apparent feedback loop.
These results have implications for understanding dynamic processes in psychosis and for targeting psychological interventions. The reciprocal influence of worry and paranoia implies that treating either symptom is likely to ameliorate the other.
Problem drinking accounts for 9.6% of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. It disproportionally affects men and has disabling physical, psychological, and behavioral consequences. These can lead to a cascade of negative effects on men's families, with documented ties to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment. These multi-level problems are often exacerbated where poverty rates are high, including low and middle-income countries (LMICs). In contexts where strong patriarchal norms place men in positions of power, family-level consequences are often even more pronounced.
We conducted a systematic review of the literature on interventions in LMICs targeting men's problem drinking and any family-related outcomes. Cochrane and PRISMA procedures guided the review. The search was conducted in PsychInfo, PubMed, and Web of Science.
The search yielded 1357 publications. Nine studies from four different countries met inclusion criteria. Of those, only one had the primary goal of simultaneously improving drinking and a related family-level outcome (IPV). Six of the studies documented modest improvements on both drinking and couples or family outcomes. Strategies common to these included cognitive-behavioral techniques, communication skills training, narrative therapy, and participatory learning. Gender-transformative approaches were associated with reduced IPV and more equitable gender norms, and motivational interviewing and behavioral approaches were beneficial for reducing alcohol use.
Findings highlight the scarcity of interventions addressing men's drinking and its effects on families, particularly for parent-child outcomes. However, results point to strategies that, combined with other evidence-based family interventions can guide the development and rigorous evaluation of integrated programs.
Alcohol consumption around the time of conception is highly prevalent in Western countries. Exposure to ethanol levels during gestation has been associated with altered development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in rats and increased propensity to addiction, however the effect of exposure only around the time of conception is unknown. The current study investigated the effects of periconceptional alcohol exposure (PC:EtOH) on alcohol and palatable food preferences and gene expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens of the adult offspring. Rats were exposed to a liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) (12.5% vol/vol) or a control diet from 4 days before mating until 4 days after mating. PC:EtOH had no effect on alcohol preference in either sex. At 15 months of age, however, male PC:EtOH offspring consumed more high-fat food when compared with male control offspring, but this preference was not observed in females. Expression of the dopamine receptor type 1 (Drd1a) was lower in the VTA of male PC:EtOH offspring compared with their control counterparts. There was no effect of PC:EtOH on mRNA expression of the µ-opioid receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), dopamine receptor type 2 (Drd2) or dopamine active transporter (Slc6a3). These data support the hypothesis that periconceptional alcohol exposure can alter expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway and heighten the preference of offspring for palatable foods and may therefore increase their propensity towards diet-induced obesity. These results highlight the importance of alcohol avoidance when planning a pregnancy.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is an urgent global health problem. Root causes for VAWG include the individual- and family-level factors of alcohol abuse, mental health problems, violence exposure, and related adverse experiences. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) have assessed the effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing VAWG. This randomized controlled trial, part of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls consortium, examines the effectiveness of a common elements treatment approach (CETA) for reducing VAWG and comorbid alcohol abuse among families in Zambia.
Study participants are families consisting of three persons: an adult woman, her male husband or partner, and one of her children aged 8–17 (if available). Eligibility criteria include experience of moderate-to-severe intimate partner violence by the woman and hazardous alcohol use by her male partner. Family units are randomized to receive CETA or treatment as usual. The primary outcome is VAWG as measured by the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, assessed along with secondary outcomes at 24 months post-baseline. Interim assessments are also conducted at 4–5 months (following CETA completion) and 12 months post-baseline.
This ongoing trial is one of the first in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate the use of an evidence-based common elements approach for reducing VAWG by targeting a range of individual- and family-level factors, including alcohol abuse. Results of this trial will inform policy on what interventions work to prevent VAWG in LMIC with local perspectives on scale up and wider implementation.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been a major cause of family, social, and personal strife for centuries, with current prevalence estimates of 14% for 12-month and 29% lifetime AUD. Neuropsychological testing of selective cognitive, sensory, and motor functions complemented with in vivo brain imaging has enabled tracking the consequences of AUD, which follows a dynamic course of development, maintenance, and recovery or relapse. Controlled studies of alcoholism reviewed herein provide evidence for disruption of selective functions involving executive, visuospatial, mnemonic, emotional, and attentional processes, response inhibition, prosody, and postural stability and brain systems supporting these functions. On a hopeful front, longitudinal study provides convincing evidence for improvement in brain structure and function following sustained sobriety. These discoveries have a strong legacy in the International Neuropsychological Society (INS), starting from its early days when assumptions regarding which brain regions were disrupted relied solely on patterns of functional sparing and impairment deduced from testing. This review is based on the symposium presentation delivered at the 2017 annual North American meeting of the INS in celebration of the 50th anniversary since its institution in 1967. In the spirit of the meeting’s theme, “Binding the Past and Present,” the lecture and this review recognized the past by focusing on early, rigorous neuropsychological studies of alcoholism and their influence on research currently conducted using imaging methods enabling hypothesis testing of brain substrates of observed functional deficits. (JINS, 2017, 23, 843–859)
Alcohol use is a well-documented risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV); however, the majority of research comes from high-income countries.
Using nationally representative data from 86 024 women that participated in the Demographic and Health Surveys, we evaluated the relationship between male partner alcohol use and experiencing IPV in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using multilevel mixed-effects models, we calculated the within-country, between-country, and contextual effects of alcohol use on IPV.
Prevalence of partner alcohol use and IPV ranged substantially across countries (3–62 and 11–60%, respectively). Partner alcohol use was associated with a significant increase in the odds of reporting IPV for all 14 countries included in this analysis. Furthermore, the relationship between alcohol use and IPV, although largely explained by partner alcohol use, was also attributable to overall prevalence of alcohol use in a given country. The partner alcohol use–IPV relationship was moderated by socioeconomic status (SES): among women with a partner who used alcohol those with lower SES had higher odds of experiencing IPV than women with higher SES.
Results of this study suggest that partner alcohol use is a robust correlate of IPV in SSA; however, drinking norms may independently relate to IPV and confound the relationship between partner alcohol use and IPV. These findings motivate future research employing experimental and longitudinal designs to examine alcohol use as a modifiable risk factor of IPV and as a novel target for treatment and prevention research to reduce IPV in SSA.
Knowledge about the association between alcohol and Barrett’s oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis is conflicting. In this case–control study we evaluated the role of specific alcoholic beverages (red and white wine, beer and liquors) in 339 Barrett’s oesophagus and 462 oesophagitis patients compared with 619 endoscopic controls with other disorders, recruited in twelve Italian endoscopic units. Data on alcohol and other individual characteristics were obtained from structured questionnaires. No clear, monotonic significant dose–response relationship was pointed out for red wine. However, a generalised U-shaped trend of Barrett’s oesophagus/oesophagitis risk due to red wine consumption particularly among current drinkers was found. Similar results were also found for white wine. Liquor/spirit consumption seemed to bring about a 1·14–2·30 risk excess, although statistically non-significant, for current Barrett’s oesophagus/oesophagitis drinkers. Statistically significant decreasing dose–response relationships were found in Barrett’s oesophagus for frequency and duration of beer consumption. Similar, but less clear downward tendencies were also found for oesophagitis patients. In conclusion, although often not statistically significant, our data suggested a reduced risk of Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophagitis with a low/moderate intake of wine and beer consumption. A non-significant increased risk of Barrett’s oesophagus/oesophagitis was observed with a higher intake of any type of heavy alcohol consumption, but no conclusion can be drawn owing to the high number of non-spirit drinkers and to the small number of drinkers at higher alcohol intake levels.
Older persons with alcohol problems have today become an all too common part of everyday elder care, but research in this area is still scarce. This article has a Swedish context with the aim of describing and analysing home care workers’ narratives about older people who can be characterised as heavy drinkers, i.e. people with severe alcohol problems who need considerable care for extended periods. Limited knowledge is available concerning this age group. This article therefore fills a knowledge gap about home care workers’ perspective about body work and the abject, and breaches the myth that older individuals should be able to drink as they prefer and/or notions of drinking alcohol as a last enjoyment in life. The care workers talked about how they got drawn into the daily lives of the care recipients and how they ended up in situations where they, on the one hand, removed the consequences of drinking, and on the other, felt that they sustained the drinking by cleaning out dirt and washing the care recipients’ bodies.