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Social outings can trigger influenza transmission, especially in children and elderly. In contrast, school closures are associated with reduced influenza incidence in school-aged children. While influenza surveillance modelling studies typically account for holidays and mass gatherings, age-specific effects of school breaks, sporting events and commonly celebrated observances are not fully explored. We examined the impact of school holidays, social events and religious observances for six age groups (all ages, ⩽4, 5–24, 25–44, 45–64, ⩾65 years) on four influenza outcomes (tests, positives, influenza A and influenza B) as reported by the City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 2004 to 2009. We characterised holiday effects by analysing average weekly counts in negative binomial regression models controlling for weather and seasonal incidence fluctuations. We estimated age-specific annual peak timing and compared influenza outcomes before, during and after school breaks. During the 118 university holiday weeks, average weekly tests were lower than in 140 school term weeks (5.93 vs. 11.99 cases/week, P < 0.005). The dampening of tests during Winter Break was evident in all ages and in those 5–24 years (RR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22–0.41 vs. RR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.09–0.22, respectively). A significant increase in tests was observed during Spring Break in 45–64 years old adults (RR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.14–3.96). Milwaukee Public Schools holiday breaks showed similar amplification and dampening effects. Overall, calendar effects depend on the proximity and alignment of an individual holiday to age-specific and influenza outcome-specific peak timing. Better quantification of individual holiday effects, tailored to specific age groups, should improve influenza prevention measures.
Behavioural plasticity in animals is tested whenever competitive interactions for space and/or food resources occur between wildlife and human activities. This study uses the concepts of operational and non-operational interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and artisanal fisheries in Alvarado, to search for differences in behaviour, age structure and group size. We conducted 20 surveys between 2015 and 2016, and recorded 64 groups by means of scan sampling from either a research boat or a fixed vantage point. Average dolphin group size was small (
= 3.2, SD = 2.2 individuals) and fewer individuals were commonly present when interaction with fisheries occurred. Operational interactions were defined within the first 30 m and occurred mainly with lone individuals (54% recorded from the lighthouse and 82% during surveys); this benchmark also accounted for higher frequencies in locomotion and feeding (χ2 = 83.10; df = 7; P < 0.001). We found a higher rate of new behavioural events for dolphin groups furthest from human activities, as well as a decrease in behaviours that imply greater body exposure as dolphins approach the fishing spots. Age structure and dolphin group size were not different during and in the absence of interaction with fisheries, but most interactions involved male dolphins. Behavioural variations in the dolphins' repertoire are likely a strategy to reduce the risk of injuries or death when interacting with human activities; these dolphins seem to have habituated to or at least tolerate fishing activities within the study area, possibly constituting a sex-biased pressure.
Chapter 4 takes a developmental perspective. It begins by looking at how embodied metaphors develop in infants and at how the ways in which they are experienced by infants and children differ from the ways in which they are experienced by adults. It then explores the ways in which they are experienced by older adults. It discusses work that has looked at how young children (aged 5–8) make use of embodied metaphor to reason about mathematics and music, and how their embodied metaphorical reasoning behaviour differs from that of adults.
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) have devastating consequences on patients’ quality of life. More specifically, TSCI with spinal fractures (TSCIF) have the most severe neurological impairment, although limited data are available. This study aimed at providing data and analyzing TSCIF in a level I trauma center in the province of Québec, Canada.
Two hundred eighty-two TSCIF were reviewed. Spinal injuries and neurological impairment were assessed with AO classification and AIS, respectively. Variables included age, sex, cause, location, mechanism of injury (MOI), and severity of TSCIF. Chi-squared Pearson determined significant associations (p < 0.05).
Male-to-female ratio was 3.21:1. Patients were 42.5 ± 18.7 years. The leading causes of TSCIF were high-energy falls (28.4%), cars (26.2%) and vehicle without restraint system (motorcycle, all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile, and bicycle) (21.3%). Vehicle collisions, pooling cars and unrestrained vehicles, mostly affected the 20–49-year population (62.2%). The main MOI was distraction in males (47.9%), and axial compression in females (44.8%). There were significant associations between causes and injured spinal level, as well as between MOI and injured spinal level, sex, and TSCIF severity. Most patients involved in unrestrained vehicle accidents sustained a thoracolumbar spine distraction with complete motor deficit. A severe neurologic deficit affected most patients following car accidents that caused cervical spine distraction or axial torsion.
In Québec, most TSCIF caused by vehicle collisions affect a young population and have severe neurological impairments. Future efforts should focus on better understanding accidents involving the unrestrained vehicle category to further improve preventive measures.
Mood disturbance is frequent after traumatic brain injury (TBI), often assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Research supports a three-factor HADS structure (anxiety, depression, and psychomotor), although this has not been used to investigate demographic variables and mood outcome post-TBI. This study examined severity of TBI, demographic variables [age, gender, estimated premorbid IQ (EIQ), relationship status, employment status, socio-economic status (SES)], and mood outcome, using HADS factor scores from a large adult population sample in Tasmania.
HADS factor scores were calculated for an initial sample of 596 adults. The sample sizes varied according to those attending at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months post-TBI and the available data for each dependent variable.
Significantly higher anxiety, depression, and psychomotor scores were reported at most follow-ups by females, the middle-aged, and those with lower IQs. Longer post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) was associated with significantly greater mood problems. Occasional significant findings at earlier follow-ups for the factors were noted for those unemployed. Other variables were rarely significant. PTA, premorbid IQ, and Age were included in most Multiple Regression equations predicting outcome for the factors, with Gender included for Anxiety and depression at 6 months after injury.
Key demographic variables and PTA severity relate to mood post-TBI, and contribute to predicting mood outcome. Differences in findings for the three factors support their use in clinical practice.
The Global Societal Accounts (GSA) answer some fundamental questions about society: How many are we? Who are we? How are we organised? What do we do? Stock/flow accounting can be used to create demographic accounts using characteristics such as age, education and skills. A network perspective can be used to connect concepts such as social capital and institutions. The final accounts of the GSA are the time use of all individuals in society.
The previous chapters have shown that there is one powerful community (“the GDP multinational") which is being challenged by a heterogeneous and weakly organised community (“the Beyond-GDP cottage industry). The ever-expanding range of Beyond-GDP initiatives will not lead to success however. A new strategy is based on the GDP success story and aims to create an institutionalised community with a clear goal and coherent structure based on a common language. The chapter argues that the community should not be based on the SDGs, green accounting or the SEEA. It also argues that the community should not be based on economic terminology and theory but rather on multidisciplinary building blocks such as stock/flow accounting, networks and limits. The aim of the community is to enhance well-being and sustainability and one of its most important features is its common language: the System of Global and National Accounts (SGNA). The SGNA has four system accounts (environment, society, economy and distribution), which describe how the systems are developing. However, this does not yet tell people whether the developments are good or bad. This is left to the quality accounts.
Objectives: Reduction in the amount of information (storage capacity) retained in working memory (WM) has been associated with sleep loss. The present study examined whether reduced WM capacity is also related to poor everyday sleep quality and, more importantly, whether the effects of sleep quality could be dissociated from the effects of depressed mood and age on WM. Methods: In two studies, WM was assessed using a short-term recall task, producing behavioral measures for both the amount of retained WM information (capacity) and how precise the retained WM representations were (precision). Self-report measures of sleep quality and depressed mood were obtained using questionnaires. Results: In a sample of college students, Study 1 found that poor sleep quality and depressed mood could independently predict reduced WM capacity, but not WM precision. Study 2 generalized these sleep- and mood-related WM capacity effects to a community sample (aged 21–77 years) and further showed that age was associated with reduced WM precision. Conclusions: Together, these findings demonstrate dissociable effects of three health-related factors (sleep, mood, and age) on WM representations and highlighte the importance of assessing different aspects of WM representations (e.g., capacity and precision) in future neuropsychological research.
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia, but they can also appear in otherwise healthy individuals. Imaging studies implicate language networks in the generation of AVH; however, it remains unclear if alterations reflect biologic substrates of AVH, irrespective of diagnostic status, age, or illness-related factors. We applied multimodal imaging to identify AVH-specific pathology, evidenced by overlapping gray or white matter deficits between schizophrenia patients and healthy voice-hearers.
Diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in 35 schizophrenia patients with AVH (SCZ-AVH), 32 healthy voice-hearers (H-AVH), and 40 age- and sex-matched controls without AVH. White matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and gray matter thickness (GMT) were computed for each region comprising ICBM-DTI and Desikan–Killiany atlases, respectively. Regions were tested for significant alterations affecting both SCZ-AVH and H-AVH groups, relative to controls.
Compared with controls, the SCZ-AVH showed widespread FA and GMT reductions; but no significant differences emerged between H-AVH and control groups. While no overlapping pathology appeared in the overall study groups, younger (<40 years) H-AVH and SCZ-AVH subjects displayed overlapping FA deficits across four regions (p < 0.05): the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, as well as the anterior limbs of the internal capsule. Analyzing these regions with free-water imaging ascribed overlapping FA abnormalities to tissue-specific anisotropy changes.
We identified white matter pathology associated with the presence of AVH, independent of diagnostic status. However, commonalities were constrained to younger and more homogenous groups, after reducing pathologic variance associated with advancing age and chronicity effects.
For the first time, the results of the study of the age and growth of blue hake Antimora rostrata in the waters of the Lazarev and Weddell seas (Antarctic) are presented. The longline catches were represented by fish from 42 to 69 cm in total length with weights between 420 and 2,900 g, and most individuals aged 25 to 27 years. A minimum age of 16 years was observed in a fish 47 cm long and weighing 450 g, while a maximum age of 35 years was recorded for an individual of 69 cm in length and 1,640 g in weight. The blue hake in the Lazarev and Weddell seas shows similar growth patterns to the fish from the Ross Sea and waters off Greenland.
There is an unprecedented demand for bushmeat in large cities in sub-Saharan Africa, and this is a major threat to many species. We conducted 2,040 interviews in six cities in four West African countries, in forest and savannah settings. We analysed age- and sex-related differences in the frequency of bushmeat consumption. Overall, we found similar patterns in all cities: 62.2% of men and 72.1% of women said they would never eat bushmeat, whereas 12.8% of men and 8.8% of women said they liked bushmeat and ate it regularly. Younger generations of both sexes tended not to eat bushmeat, regardless of their city of origin. This study of the effects of age, gender and geographical location on bushmeat consumption in African cities provides insights regarding which population groups to target in campaigns to change behaviours.
The impact of age on the development of depression among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at stages before dialysis is not well known. We aimed to explore the incidence of major depression among predialysis CKD patients of successively older ages through midlife.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the longitudinal health insurance database 2005 in Taiwan. This study investigated 17,889 predialysis CKD patients who were further categorized into study (i.e. middle and old-aged) groups and comparison group aged 18–44. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was applied for coding diseases.
The group aged 75 and over had the lowest (hazard ratio [HR] 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32–0.69) risk of developing major depression, followed by the group aged 65–74 (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.49–0.92), using the comparison group as reference. The adjusted survival curves showed significant differences in cumulative major depression-free survival between different age groups. We observed that the risk of major depression development decreases with higher age. Females were at a higher risk of major depression than males among predialyasis CKD patients.
The incidence of major depression declines with higher age in predialysis CKD patients over midlife. Among all age groups, patients aged 75 and over have the lowest risk of developing major depression. A female preponderance in major depression development is present. We suggest that depression prevention and therapy should be integrated into the standard care for predialysis CKD patients, especially for those young and female.
Certain factors such as age and gender seem to affect the risk of developing post-concussion syndrome (PCS). We assessed the interactions between age, gender, concussion history and mechanism of injury in PCS patients so that a better understanding could guide the development of targeted prevention strategies.
Demographic data including age, gender, concussion mechanism of injury and concussion history were collected from (1) a prospective study evaluating PCS biomarkers and (2) a retrospective chart review of PCS patients. A total of 437 PCS patients who were assessed at the Canadian Concussion Centre or Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, were included.
Overall, there were more men with PCS; however, a greater percentage of women had PCS after a single concussion. The results showed that age, gender and concussion history are conditionally dependent on the mechanism of injury, and independent of one another. The relative frequency of having PCS was greater in the following instances: (1) being a woman and having had concussion from a fall or motor vehicle collision (MVC), (2) being older and having had concussion from a fall or MVC or (3) having a single concussion with cause being MVC or fall.
In patients with PCS, age and gender interact with the mechanism of injury to influence the risk of concussion. Targeted prevention strategies may be essential to prevent injuries leading to PCS.
The life history traits of bathydraconids, deep-living fishes distributed all around the Antarctic continent, are poorly known. In particular, very few data are available on the relatively rare genera Akarotaxis and Bathydraco. With the aim to fill this gap, sagittal otoliths and gonads were analysed to assess individual age and reproductive features of Akarotaxis nudiceps (Waite, 1916), Bathydraco macrolepis Boulenger 1907 and Bathydraco marri Norman, 1938 collected in the Weddell Sea. Based on the annual growth increment patterns, age estimates ranged between 6–11, 5–11 and 8–11 years for A. nudiceps, B. macrolepis and B. marri, respectively. Most of the gametogenetic processes could be described based on gonad histology for both sexes. Females shared the reproductive features commonly reported in notothenioids, such as group-synchronous ovary development and prolonged gametogenesis. Total fecundity estimates were comparable between the two species of Bathydraco (1500–2500 eggs/female), whereas that of Akarotaxis was one order of magnitude smaller (200–250 eggs/female). Consistently, the mean size of late vitellogenic oocytes showed an opposite trend, being 1.6–1.8 mm in Bathydraco and 2.2 mm in Akarotaxis.
Older workers make up a substantial portion of today’s labor force. Yet little is known about the beliefs held by this age group. Our study offers some much needed insights into intersectionality around this group, by investigating how older workers’ perceptions of supervisors performing a gendered leadership behavior are impacted by a supervisors’ sex, age, and gendered attributes. The results show that these supervisors are perceived most favorably when they possess communal qualities and/or when they are depicted as being older than their direct reports. Our results also reveal that, when these supervisors are not perceived as communal, male but not female supervisors, experience a backlash. Within this context, young female leaders appear to be at an advantage when compared with young male leaders. This study advances the literature on the ‘think manager–think male’ stereotype and has the practical benefit of offering insights into leader-follower interactions in today’s aging workplace.
Training students has been proven to be the optimal way to deliver cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. However, it is somehow unknown whether or not the current recommendations appropriate for Caucasian students are also suitable for East Asian students. The purpose of this study is to explore the best age for East Asian students to receive CPR training.
Students were recruited from six schools. Students participated in a standard CPR training program provided by tutors. Each student attended a 60-minute training session with a manikin. After being trained, within one hour, the student’s compression quality was assessed.
A total of 360 students who constituted 12 continuous grades were recruited for this study. Adequate compression depth and satisfactory compression rate with correct hand position could be achieved since the age of 12. However, successful compression rate and complete release could be achieved since the younger age of six.
Current recommendations for Caucasian students to cultivate a full-capacity CPR rescuer at the age of 12 are also appropriate for East Asian students. However, the optimal age for students to receive CPR training should be decided based on evidence and importance assessment of CPR.
He D, Huang K, Yang Y, Jiang W, Yang N, Yang H. What is the optimal age for students to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation training? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):394–398.
Globally, the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) disease is higher in males. This study examined the effect of sex and age on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Demographic and exposure data were collected on household contacts of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in Brazil. Contacts with tuberculin skin test induration ⩾10 mm at baseline or 12 weeks were considered Mtb infected. The study enrolled 917 household contacts from 160 households; 508 (55.4%) were female, median age was 21.0 years (range 0.30–87.0) and 609 (66.4%) had Mtb infection. The proportion infected increased with age from 63.3% in girls <5 years to 75.4% in women ⩾40 years and from 44.9% in boys <5 years to 73.6% in men ⩾40 years. Multivariable modelling showed the odds of infection increased between age 5 and 14 years among female contacts (OR 1.5 per 5-year age increase; 95% CI 1.1–2.2; P = 0.02) and between ages 0–4 and 15–39 years among male contacts (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.83–8.9 and 1.1, 95% CI 0.99–1.3 per 5-year age increase; P = 0.10, 0.07, respectively). The study suggests that the age at which Mtb infection increases most is different in females compared with males. Studies are needed to explore whether these findings are due to differences in host susceptibility, exposure outside the household or other factors.
Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister is a potential biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). This study was carried out to understand the effect of abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) on the induction and termination of diapause in Z. bicolorata. We also evaluated the effect of diapause on longevity and fecundity of Z. bicolorata. In Z. bicolorata the induction of diapause occurred between the months of July and December. No diapause was observed in May and June, which coincided with the commencement of the monsoon rains. The percentage of diapause induction in Z. bicolorata was found to increase from one generation to another as well as with the age of adults. Diapause significantly increased the fecundity of females as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapause conditions. Soil moisture (80% RH) played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. Similarly, 18.4 and 12.5% of diapause adults resumed their activity in 6 and 5 days when exposed to temperatures of 40° and 45° C for 2 h every day, respectively. Exposure of adults to low temperatures, i.e. 5° and 10° C induced 94.3 and 92.5% diapause, respectively, with no adult mortality. Thus, our findings reveal suitable conditions for preventing and inducing diapause in Z. bicolorata, which is of great importance in the suppression of P. hysterophorus. We discuss the implications of these findings in the control of P. hysterophorus.