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Magical realism, primitivism and ethnography are historically and theoretically interrelated discourses. Mavellous folk and fairy tales, legends and myths are remote origins that received renewed attention with the rise of the avant-grade and American archaeology in the early twentieth century. In the Hispanic tradition, antecedents date back to medieval lore, which inspired chivalric and pastoral romances as well as the picaresque novel, finding a seminal synthesis in Don Quixote. In the New World, the Chronicles of the Indies, with their outlandish tales of discovery, drew not only from medieval and early Renaissance worldviews, but also from marvellous sources as varied as John Mandeville, Marco Polo, Ptolemy, Pliny and the Bible. Latin American authors have consistently cited these sources of magical realism, yet they looked at them through the prism of the avant-garde. Alejo Carpentier conceived of his seminal concept of lo real maravilloso americano as an answer to the Surrealists’ artificial merveilleux. Carpentier and Miguel Ángel Asturias, with his Surrealist view of the ancient Maya, coincided in late 1920s Paris with avant-garde primitivism and another magic realist, Venezuelan Arturo Uslar-Pietri, a close associate of Massimo Bontempelli, whose version of magical realism became their true spark, whereas Franz Roh’s influence in Latin America was negligible. Later authors like Juan Rulfo and Gabriel García Márquez significantly developed magical realist narratology, consolidating the Latin American trend and making it indispensable for understanding its international expansion based on the allegorical reinterpretation, and subversion, of dominant history – a crucial postcolonial endeavour for cultures around the world.
This chapter discusses the Ottoman sphere in relationship to anti-Western, anti-materialist thought as it evolved in various locations throughout the nineteenth century. Unlike the eloquent and persuasive writings of authors such as Dostoevsky, Ottoman texts turning against the West are written in a vain of disappointment that the West did not keep its part of a bargain or failed to honor the Ottomans' achievements, rather than an intellectual challenge to modernity.
Retirement timing can have important health implications. Little is known, however, about older adults’ views on this issue and whether they consider it better to retire later, earlier, on time or anytime. This knowledge gap about older adults’ views is particularly true outside North America and Europe. This qualitative study aims to examine older Chileans’ ideas about the relationship between retirement timing and health and to explore gender and class patterns in qualitative themes identified, knowledge which may strengthen quantitative population-based approaches. Framework analysis was conducted on qualitative accounts from a purposive, non-random sample of 40 older Chileans in six focus groups, stratified by gender and class as marked by lifetime occupation. Transcriptions were coded by two independent reviewers (inter-coder reliability = 81%) according to four deductive categories of retirement timing as well as inductive coding of emergent themes. The content and sequence of codes were visually represented in MAXQDA's document portraits and illustrated with descriptive quotes. Results indicate that participants’ views about when to retire in order to maximise health did not highlight retirement age or timing (later, earlier, on time, anytime). Instead, these older Chileans emphasised that the optimal retirement age depends on other conditions, such as employment quality, retirement income and gender. These views were patterned: lower occupational-class participants emphasised income and job hazards, higher-class males emphasised job satisfaction and higher-class females emphasised gendered patterns. Women and lower-class participants were relatively more favourable to earlier retirements than men and higher-class participants. Overall, qualitative analyses of lay perspectives from understudied country contexts complement and extend population-based models focused on timing or retirement age, suggest specific characteristics of retirement transitions that may moderate health consequences, and highlight class and gender differences in views of retirement timing. More research is needed using mixed-methods approaches and leveraging both purposive and random samples.
Sibling resemblance in crime may be due to genetic relatedness, shared environment, and/or the interpersonal influence of siblings on each other. This latter process can be understood as a type of ‘peer effect’ in that it is based on social learning between individuals occupying the same status in the social system (family). Building on prior research, we hypothesized that sibling pairs that resemble peer relationships the most, i.e., same-sex siblings close in age, exhibit the most sibling resemblance in crime.
Drawing on administrative microdata covering Finnish children born in 1985–97, we examined 213 911 sibling pairs, observing the recorded criminality of each sibling between ages 11 and 20. We estimated multivariate regression models controlling for individual and family characteristics, and employed fixed-effects models to analyze the temporal co-occurrence of sibling delinquency.
Among younger siblings with a criminal older sibling, the adjusted prevalence estimates of criminal offending decreased from 32 to 25% as the age differences increased from less than 13 months to 25–28 months. The prevalence leveled off at 23% when age difference reached 37–40 months or more. These effects were statistically significant only among same-sex sibling pairs (p < 0.001), with clear evidence of contemporaneous offending among siblings with minimal age difference.
Same-sex siblings very close in age stand out as having the highest sibling resemblance in crime. This finding suggests that a meaningful share of sibling similarity in criminal offending is due to a process akin to peer influence, typically flowing from the older to the younger sibling.
A possible role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of depression is currently speculative, with more rigorous research needed to assess this association in large adult populations. The current study assesses prospective associations between vitamin D status and depression in middle-aged adults enrolled in the UK Biobank.
We assessed prospective associations between vitamin D status at the baseline assessment (2006–2010) and depression measured at the follow-up assessment (2016) in 139 128 adults registered with the UK Biobank.
Amongst participants with no depression at baseline (n = 127 244), logistic regression revealed that those with vitamin D insufficiency [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–1.22] and those with vitamin D deficiency (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.13–1.36) were more likely to develop new-onset depression at follow-up compared with those with optimal vitamin D levels after adjustment for a wide range of relevant covariates. Similar prospective associations were reported for those with depression at baseline (n = 11 884) (insufficiency: aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23; deficiency: aOR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.13–1.50).
The prospective associations found between vitamin D status and depression suggest that both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be risk factors for the development of new-onset depression in middle-aged adults. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency (and to a lesser extent insufficiency) might be a predictor of sustained depressive symptoms in those who are already depressed. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is very common, meaning that these findings have significant implications for public health.
Recent analysis of Early Bronze Age human remains from Staarvey Farm on the Isle of Man has revealed a rare bone knife pommel and 20 other bone objects, offering insight into the importance of bone ornaments and artefact fittings at this time. This article adopts a relational typological approach to analyse the Staarvey burial and comparable assemblages, identifying patterns in the deposition of knife pommels in central and southern Britain. In exploring regional interaction in Early Bronze Age Britain and Ireland, the authors refine and move beyond traditional typologies to trace types of both objects and practice. This approach allows them to consider multiple, overlapping spheres of funerary practice and their relation to identities at different regional scales.
This chapter explores ageism and prejudice against age as revealed in our language. We look at childism/adultism, middle age, and intergenerational battles of Boomers vs. Millennials. We discuss the way we talk about growing older. We investigate stereotypes and negative attitudes toward age and ageing, ageism in the workplace, and consider ageism as an intersectional form of discrimination that will ultimately affect us all.
What makes the chapters on Monsoon Asia unique is the analysis of the Dutch Empire from the point of view of Asian societies. First of all, it is stressed that, from a global point of view, the rise of the Dutch seaborne empire is part of a much wider and earlier coastal turn, which in Asia has been described as an Age of Commerce. It is not only European, but also Chinese and Islamic, expansion that characterises this phase of increasing maritime globalisation. Those Eurasian empires that continued to exploit the nomadic horsepower of the Eurasian Arid Zone were soon able to incorporate this maritime dynamic. In these empires, the Dutch retained a marginal presence as meek merchants subject to the whims of indigenous brokers and local governments. In other, more tropical parts of Asia, the aggressive operations of the Dutch prevented indigenous states such as Mataram and Kandy from incorporating the booming coastal regions of Java and Ceylon, respectively. In these insular areas, the Dutch were able to create territorial power and impose their monopoly on the production and sale of cloves, nutmeg, mace and cinnamon. In Maluku we can even speak of a Dutch ‘heart of darkness’ as much of its population was decimated, to be replaced by colonists and slaves. In almost all cases, the Dutch could sustain territorial power only with the help of overseas Chinese communities which offered both a vital urban middle class (primarily in the Dutch colonial headquarters of Batavia) and access to extensive commercial networks. So far completely ignored is the case of Ceylon. In this early-modern laboratory of colonial rule, the reformist policies of enlightened Dutch governors had a deep impact on the local society through mapping, law and education. One of the first revolutionaries in the late eighteenth-century Netherlands was a Tamil intellectual raised in Dutch schools in Ceylon.
Chapter 6 offers summary reflections on the conclusions and contributions of the present work, including its findings for the study of the royal palms, the study of Syro-Palestinian inscriptions, Hebrew Bible theology, and the history of Israelite religion. In addition to proposing a new analytic for royal psalms (i.e. psalms of defeat), the book adds depth and specificity to previous scholarship on the theology of the royal psalms. It draws in sharper silhouette the animating commitment of royal psalms: Yhwh’s loyalty to his one individual client king. The book also calls attention to the non-narrative and lyric qualities of inscriptions, and it emphasizes the rhetorical centrality of their closing curse sections. For the study of Hebrew Bible theology, the present work holds up the important and distinctive theological offer of royal psalms. Historically, Levantine memorial inscriptions reflect an earlier engagement with Neo-Assyrian royal ideology and its monuments than scholars have argued heretofore, and a deeper indigenization.
The World Health Organization defines ageism as “stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination towards people based on their age” (WHO, 2018). Ageist beliefs and stereotypes are expressed in cultural and media representations, institutional and governmental policies, and social practices that may limit people’s access to the resources necessary to lead healthy and productive lives, such as employment opportunities, housing choices, and health services. Under these circumstances, older persons are more vulnerable to social exclusion, political disempowerment, income insecurity, financial exploitation, homelessness, violence, and abuse leading to human rights violations such as the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. This chapter examines how these violations impact older persons from a social psychological perspective through a selective literature review focused on ageism issues, including the impact of ageism on how old age is defined as a social category in various societies; how older persons are portrayed in culture and media; and how they are differently perceived and treated as migrants, patients, and workers. Possible best practices to reduce or eliminate ageism globally are also discussed.
Eurasian steppes experienced frequent cultural transfers, human migration, and diffusion of techniques during the Bronze Age. The Hami Oasis is one of the most dynamic areas and has attracted multiple cultural flows. It is an important area that connects various routes of the Tianshan Corridor with the Hexi Corridor in western China. The Tianshanbeilu cemetery is the largest Bronze Age cemetery in Hami. Thirty-seven new radiocarbon dates allowed us to establish a new and more accurate chronology for Tianshanbeilu. Our results showed that the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was used from approximately 2022–1802 cal BC and remained in use from 1093–707 cal BC. This indicates that Tianshanbeilu is the earliest and longest-used known cemetery in eastern Xinjiang. By incorporating the typology of artifacts and stratigraphic relationships, the development of the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was divided into four phases. The first phase was from 2011–1672 cal BC, the second phase was from 1660–1408 cal BC, the third phase was from 1385–1256 cal BC, and the fourth phase was from 1214–1029 cal BC.
Old-age pensions are the most widespread social security programmes around the world. While many case studies have focused on the historical origins of old-age pensions, global and comparative studies are limited mainly due to missing data. To address this shortcoming, this article introduces the novel PENLEG dataset (Pension Legislation around the World, 1880–2010), which comprises data on: (1) the timing of the first pension introductions; (2) the pension design; (3) the mode of financing; (4) eligibility criteria; (5) benefit generosity and (6) coverage rates for all independent countries. Additionally, the article describes global pension patterns and highlights case evidence. It shows that economic development strategies, political incentives to bind citizens to the state, administrative reasons as well as colonial legacies and the Soviet model of social security have strongly affected the origins of old-age pensions.
This chapter discusses what are apt comparisons between ages. It notes the social forces compelling change, in particular increased life expectancy, and considers how these are changing our views about age equality. It reviews the way age discrimination laws work and considers the proposals for new laws.
The chapter addresses and reviews the role of connectivity in Etruria and its relationship to settlement distributions by examining various classes of material culture ranging from metalwork to ceramics to inscriptions. The aim is to show how the rich studies of Etruscan material culture overlay the political organisation of the landscape.
This paper investigates whether typical stress patterns in English nouns and verbs are available as a prosodic cue for categorisation and accelerated word learning during first language acquisition. The stress typicality hypothesis states that left-stressed nouns and right-stressed verbs should be acquired earlier than the reverse configurations if stress effectively signals lexical class membership. In this view, class-typical stress patterns are expected to facilitate learning of novel items. A series of generalized additive models (GAMs) based on a comprehensive set of lexical data (CELEX) as well as a large set of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and concreteness ratings reveals that stress typicality plays a minor role in early acquisition, as it is generally superseded by a preference for left-hand (or ‘trochaic’) patterns in both nouns and verbs. This may be explained by general cognitive constraints (perceptual salience and recency) or exposure to the dominant pattern in the ambient language.
Evaluate associations between orange juice (OJ) consumption and anthropometric parameters.
Prospective cohort study assessing the association between OJ intake and changes in BMI and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) using mixed linear regression.
Children from the Growing Up Today Study II (n 7301), aged 9–16 years at enrollment.
OJ consumption was positively associated with 2-year change in HAZ in girls (mean (se)): 0·03 (0·01) for non-consumers, 0·03 (0·02) for 1–3 glasses/month, 0·06 (0·01) for 1–6 glasses/week and 0·09 (0·02) for ≥1 glass/d after full adjustment (Ptrend = 0·02). However, OJ consumption was not associated with 2-year change in BMI percentile (kg/m2, mean (se)): –0·44 (0·36) for non-consumers, 0·20 (0·41) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·04 (0·34) for 1–6 glasses/week and –0·77 (0·62) for ≥1 glass/d in girls, Ptrend = 0·81; –0·94 (0·53) for non-consumers, –1·68 (0·52) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·81 (0·38) for 1–6 glasses per week and –1·12 (0·61) for ≥1 glass/d in boys, Ptrend = 0·49.
OJ consumption was favourably associated with height growth but unrelated to excess weight gain. OJ may be a useful alternative to whole fruit in the event that whole fruit intake is insufficient.
The neurodevelopmental model of psychosis was established over 30 years ago; however, the developmental influence on psychotic symptom expression – how age affects clinical presentation in first-episode psychosis – has not been thoroughly investigated.
Using generalized additive modeling, which allows for linear and non-linear functional forms of age-related change, we leveraged symptom data from a large sample of antipsychotic-naïve individuals with first-episode psychosis (N = 340, 12–40 years, 1–12 visits), collected at the University of Pittsburgh from 1990 to 2017. We examined relationships between age and severity of perceptual and non-perceptual positive symptoms and negative symptoms. We tested for age-associated effects on change in positive or negative symptom severity following baseline assessment and explored the time-varying relationship between perceptual and non-perceptual positive symptoms across adolescent development.
Perceptual positive symptom severity significantly decreased with increasing age (F = 7.0, p = 0.0007; q = 0.003) while non-perceptual positive symptom severity increased with age (F = 4.1, p = 0.01, q = 0.02). Anhedonia severity increased with increasing age (F = 6.7, p = 0.00035; q = 0.0003), while flat affect decreased in severity with increased age (F = 9.8, p = 0.002; q = 0.006). Findings remained significant when parental SES, IQ, and illness duration were included as covariates. There were no developmental effects on change in positive or negative symptom severity (all p > 0.25). Beginning at age 18, there was a statistically significant association between severity of non-perceptual and perceptual symptoms. This relationship increased in strength throughout adulthood.
These findings suggest that as maturation proceeds, perceptual symptoms attenuate while non-perceptual symptoms are enhanced. Findings underscore how pathological brain–behavior relationships vary as a function of development.
The Arctic winter seasonal sea ice (WSSI) concentration from 1979 to 2019 is derived from passive microwave data. Based on Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, the WSSI time series includes regionally different trends, abrupt shifts and interannual variations. The time series of the first EOF mode (PC1) mainly represents the WSSI trend, which is characterized by an increase, particularly in the Pacific sector. PC1 confirms two abrupt shifts in WSSI in 1989 and 2007, with a variance of 31%. After 2007, the large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly shows a strengthened wavenumber 3 structure at high latitudes associated with a mid-tropospheric low-pressure anomaly in central and western Siberia and a high-pressure anomaly in eastern Siberia in summer and autumn. These patterns have promoted the increased transport of moist static energy to the central Arctic and contributed to increased near-surface air temperatures that may enhance ice melting in summer and reduce ice growth in autumn and winter. The changes in ice melt and growth have had opposite effects in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors: WSSI has increased in the Pacific sector due to the replacement of multi-year ice by WSSI, and decreased in the Atlantic sector due to the replacement of WSSI by open water.
Although bilinguals benefit from semantic context while perceiving speech-in-noise in their native language (L1), the extent to which bilinguals benefit from semantic context in their second language (L2) is unclear. Here, 57 highly proficient English–French/French–English bilinguals, who varied in L2 age of acquisition, performed a speech-perception-in-noise task in both languages while event-related brain potentials were recorded. Participants listened to and repeated the final word of sentences high or low in semantic constraint, in quiet and with a multi-talker babble mask. Overall, our findings indicate that bilinguals do benefit from semantic context while perceiving speech-in-noise in both their languages. Simultaneous bilinguals showed evidence of processing semantic context similarly to monolinguals. Early sequential bilinguals recruited additional neural resources, suggesting more effective use of semantic context in L2, compared to late bilinguals. Semantic context use was not associated with bilingual language experience or working memory.
To explore determinants of dietary and physical activity behaviours among women of reproductive age.
Data were collected through focus group discussions (FGD). The FGD guide was based on a modified theoretical framework; theory of planned behaviour was incorporated with constructs of health belief model, precaution adoption process model, social cognitive and social support theory. Discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.
Women were categorised into young adults; 18–34 years and adults; 35–45 years
Separate FGD with independent participants were conducted for dietary and physical activity behaviours until data saturation was achieved. Six FGD were conducted per behaviour. Determinants of dietary behaviours at intra-individual level included gaps in food skills, knowledge and self-efficacy, food safety concerns, convenience, finances and physiological satisfaction. The social-cultural norms were relationship between vegetable consumption and low social status, consideration of fruits as a snack for children and not food and habitual orientation towards carbohydrate foods. At environment level, social networks and increased availability of energy-dense, nutrient poor, street and processed foods influence dietary behaviour. For physical activity, intra-individual determinants were knowledge gaps and self-efficacy, while socio-cultural norms included gender stereotypes. Home (limited space and sedentary entertainment like social media and TV) and physical environment (cheap motorised transportation) influence physical activity.
The existing cultural beliefs promote dietary and physical activity behaviours which are divergent from healthy recommendations. Therefore, a comprehensive intervention is needed to address socio-cultural misconceptions, financial and time limitations in urban Uganda.