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Culture conditions have a profound effect on the quality of in vitro-produced embryos. Co-culturing embryos with somatic cells has some beneficial effects on embryonic development. Considering the ability of stem cells to secrete a broad range of growth factors with different biological activities, we hypothesized that bovine amniotic membrane stem cells (bAMSCs) might be superior to bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) in supporting embryonic development and enhancing their cryo-survival. Bovine abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro. The resultant presumptive zygotes were then cultured up to the blastocyst stage in the following groups: (i) co-culture with bAMSCs, (ii) co-culture with BOECs, and (iii) cell-free culture (Con). Embryos that reached the blastocyst stage were vitrified and warmed, and their post-warming re-expansion, survival and hatching rates were evaluated after 72 h culture. Results showed that the cleavage, blastocyst, and 2 h post-warming re-expansion rates of embryos did not differ between groups. However, their survival rates in BOEC and bAMSC groups were significantly higher compared with the control (72.7, 75.6 and 37.5%, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the cryo-survivability of IVF-derived bovine embryos could be improved through co-culturing with bAMSCs. Moreover, considering the possibility to provide multiple passages from bAMSCs compared with BOECs, due to their stemness properties and their ability to produce growth factors, the use of bAMSCs is a good alternative to BOECs in embryo co-culture systems.
The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) is a widely used measure in developmental science that assesses adults’ current states of mind regarding early attachment-related experiences with their primary caregivers. The standard system for coding the AAI recommends classifying individuals categorically as having an autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied, or unresolved attachment state of mind. However, previous factor and taxometric analyses suggest that: (a) adults’ attachment states of mind are captured by two weakly correlated factors reflecting adults’ dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) individual differences on these factors are continuously rather than categorically distributed. The current study revisited these suggestions about the latent structure of AAI scales by leveraging individual participant data from 40 studies (N = 3,218), with a particular focus on the controversial observation from prior factor analytic work that indicators of preoccupied states of mind and indicators of unresolved states of mind about loss and trauma loaded on a common factor. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that: (a) a 2-factor model with weakly correlated dismissing and preoccupied factors and (b) a 3-factor model that further distinguished unresolved from preoccupied states of mind were both compatible with the data. The preoccupied and unresolved factors in the 3-factor model were highly correlated. Taxometric analyses suggested that individual differences in dismissing, preoccupied, and unresolved states of mind were more consistent with a continuous than a categorical model. The importance of additional tests of predictive validity of the various models is emphasized.
Peak respiratory exchange ratio is an objective marker of patient effort during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We evaluated exercise variables in 175 adult congenital heart disease patients and the impact of respiratory exchange ratio on the prognostic value of exercise variables for short-term cardiac-related events. Of 175 patients, 110 completed the exercise test with a peak respiratory exchange ratio of ≥1.10 and the remaining 65 had a peak respiratory exchange ratio of <1.10. Peak oxygen consumption, the percentage of oxygen consumption at the ventilatory threshold, peak heart rate, percentage predicted peak heart rate, double product, oxygen uptake efficiency slope, and the number of patients with exercise oscillatory ventilation were reduced significantly in patients with a respiratory exchange ratio of <1.10 compared to those with a respiratory exchange ratio of ≥1.10. After a median follow-up of 21 months, total cardiac-related events occurred in 37 (21%) patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the percentage predicted peak oxygen consumption, and oxygen uptake efficiency slope were independent predictors of cardiac-related events only in patients with a peak respiratory exchange ratio of ≥1.10. Sub-maximal exercise performance can be preserved in adult congenital heart disease patients. The percentage predicted oxygen consumption and the oxygen uptake efficiency slope are two independent predictors for short-term cardiac-related events in adult congenital heart disease patients.
Although some studies have revealed practitioner disempowerment in cases of older adult mistreatment, this experience is poorly understood. In addition, dementia and contextual influences further complicate cases; yet, little is known about the experience of practitioners with this complexity. This critical inquiry, based on Critical social theory, critical consciousness, and professional agency, aimed to address these gaps. Fifty-one practitioners from diverse health care and social service disciplines from rural and urban communities in Northeastern Ontario participated in interviews, journals, and focus groups. Analysis of data revealed the need for empowerment within a perpetual cycle of non-resolution, to refocus on legal clarity and intervention versus the current legal complexity and education focus, and to develop adequate infrastructure to support interprofessional efforts. The infusion of this knowledge into policy, practice, and research has great potential to improve outcomes for older adults with dementia who are mistreated in their homes.
Relapse rates among individuals with psychotic disorders are high. In addition to the financial burden placed on clinical services, relapse is associated with worse long-term prognosis and poorer quality of life. Robust evidence indicates that stressful life events commonly precede the onset of the first psychotic episode; however, the extent to which they are associated with relapse remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize available research investigating the association between recent stressful life events and psychotic relapse or relapse of bipolar disorder if the diagnosis included psychotic symptoms. PsycINFO, Medline and EMBASE were searched for cross-sectional, retrospective and prospective studies published between 01/01/1970 and 08/01/2020 that investigated the association between adult stressful life events and relapse of psychosis. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project guidelines. Twenty-three studies met eligibility criteria (prospective studies: 14; retrospective studies: 6; cross-sectional: 3) providing data on 2046 participants in total (sample size range: 14–240 participants). Relapse was defined as a return of psychotic symptoms (n = 20), a return of symptoms requiring hospitalization (n = 2) and a return of symptoms or hospitalization (n = 1). Adult stressful life events were defined as life events occurring after the onset of psychosis. Stressful life events included but were not limited to adult trauma, bereavement, financial problems and conflict. Eighteen studies found a significant positive association between adult stressful life events and psychotic relapse and five studies found a non-significant association. We conclude that adult stressful life events, occurring after psychosis onset, appear to be associated with psychotic relapse.
Current evidence suggests that multiple pathways of “early-starting” conduct problems exist, including persisting and declining trajectories. Since relatively little is known about the early onset-declining pathway, this study examined the long-term outcomes of different childhood conduct problem trajectories in a disproportionately high-risk sample (N = 754). Parents reported on children's conduct problems at six time points (kindergarten to grade 7). At age 25, psychosocial outcomes were assessed across five domains (psychopathology, substance use, risky sexual behavior, antisocial behavior, and adaptive outcomes). Four childhood conduct problem trajectories were identified: extremely high increasing (EHI; 3.7%), high stable (HS; 22.0%), moderate decreasing (MD; 38.8%), and low decreasing (LD; 35.5%). The EHI and HS groups displayed the poorest psychosocial functioning at age 25, whereas the LD group exhibited the most positive adjustment. Although individuals in the MD group displayed relatively positive adjustment on some outcomes, they displayed more psychopathology and lower well-being in adulthood than the LD group. These findings suggest that there are diverse pathways of early-starting conduct problems, and that all early starters are at risk for later maladjustment. However, the degree and type of risk is related to the severity of conduct problems throughout childhood.
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD) is still a largely unrecognized psychiatric condition despite its strong impact on individuals’ well-being. Here, we describe the healthcare situation of individuals with incident aADHD over 4 years before and 4 years after initial administrative diagnosis.
A retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis was conducted using German claims data. The InGef database contained approximately 5 million member-records from over 60 nationwide statutory health insurances (SHI). Individuals were indexed upon initial diagnosis of aADHD.
Average age at diagnosis of aADHD was 35 years, and 60% of individuals were male. Comorbidities, resource use, and healthcare costs were substantial before initial diagnosis and decreased within the 4 years thereafter. Only 32% of individuals received initial ADHD medication and adherence was low. The majority received psychotherapy. Individuals with initial ADHD medication showed the highest share in comorbidities, physician visits, medication use for comorbidities, psychotherapy, and costs. Overall, healthcare costs were at over €4,000 per individual within the year of aADHD diagnosis.
We conclude that earlier recognition of aADHD could prevent the development and aggravation of comorbid mental illnesses. At the same time, comorbid conditions may have masked (“over-shadowed”) aADHD and delayed diagnosis. The burden of disease in aADHD is high, which was noticeable especially among individuals who received initial ADHD-medication, suggesting that psychopharmacological treatment was mainly considered for the most severely ill. We conclude that measures to facilitate access of aADHD patients to clinical experts are required to improve reality of care in the outpatient setting.
To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China.
A cross-sectional study.
A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50–64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18–34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35–49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50–64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31).
Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.
Serous otitis media is a recognised presentation of Eustachian tube dysfunction secondary to post-nasal space pathology. Post-nasal space biopsies are commonly taken in patients with isolated serous otitis media, despite normal nasendoscopy findings, without robust evidence for doing so. This study examined cases of unilateral serous otitis media with effusion in adults. It is the largest known retrospective study to investigate whether post-nasal space biopsies are indicated in non-endemic regions.
A retrospective analysis was performed of 119 patients who underwent post-nasal space biopsy because of isolated serous otitis media, in a tertiary referral centre, from 2007 to 2017. Endoscopic examination and final histological report findings were reviewed.
Of the 119 patients identified, 6 (5.0 per cent) were found to have abnormal histology. In all six cases, suspicious clinical findings had been noted on nasendoscopic examination prior to biopsy.
Suspicious findings pre-operatively predict sinister pathology. Biopsies are not recommended in cases of adult serous otitis media with normal nasendoscopy findings if no other risk factors exist. A UK-wide retrospective study or prospective study over the next 10 years will help provide the evidence necessary to support this guidance.
Hoarding disorder (HD) is a psychiatric condition that negatively impacts individual sufferers, their families and the larger community. The disorder goes beyond problems with excessive clutter; it also presents with deficits in executive functioning, attachment and affect regulation deficits. This paper focusses on the needs of adult children of parents with HD, who directly experience the consequences of the disorder throughout their life cycle. We explore the existing research on the psychological, relational and social impact of parental hoarding on adult offspring. We discuss the clinical implications of these findings and offer possible psychological interventions that may be of help in this vulnerable population.
In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, the novel coronavirus ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome 2’ (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered as the cause of a pneumonia-like illness and subsequently named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 spread and is now a global pandemic. With few exceptions, countries in the Northern hemisphere have higher mortality rates from COVID-19. This may be due to an increased prevalence of older people in Northern Europe at higher risk of having cardio-pulmonary and metabolic comorbidities as well as hypovitaminosis D. With increasing age, immunosenescence and ‘inflammaging’ lead to impaired and maladaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections, contributing to the enhanced prevalence of severe COVID-19 in older patients. The association of ageing with increased vitamin D deficiency, which is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and disease and worse prognosis in COVID-19 infection, is discussed. Considerable experimental evidence demonstrates the immuno-modulatory properties of vitamin D, in particular, its role in regulating and suppressing the inflammatory cytokine response to viral respiratory infections links the importance of vitamin D sufficiency as a potential protective factor in COVID-19. There is an urgent need for prospective randomised studies to examine whether hypovitaminosis D correlates with severity of COVID-19 disease and the actual benefit of repletion. Moreover, given what has been described as a ‘pandemic of vitamin D deficiency’, especially in Europe, and in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 contagion, the authors support the call for public health doctors and physicians, with support from Governments, to prioritise and strengthen recommendations on vitamin D intake and supplementation.
Drawing on a 2010 analysis of the reform and costs of adult social care commissioned by Downing Street and the UK Department of Health, this paper sets out projected future costs under different reform scenarios, reviews what happened in practice from 2010-19, explores the impact of the growing gap between need and funding, and explores the relationship between future spending and economic growth. In the process, it identifies a ‘lost decade’ in which policy makers failed to act on the warnings which they received in 2010, draws attention to the disproportionate impact of cuts on older people (compared to services for people of working age) and calls for urgent action before the current system becomes unsustainable.
The diagnosis of an advanced cancer in young adulthood can bring one's life to an abrupt halt, calling attention to the present moment and creating anguish about an uncertain future. There is seldom time or physical stamina to focus on forward-thinking, social roles, relationships, or dreams. As a result, young adults (YAs) with advanced cancer frequently encounter existential distress, despair, and question the purpose of their life. We sought to investigate the meaning and function of hope throughout YAs’ disease trajectory; to discern the psychosocial processes YAs employ to engage hope; and to develop a substantive theory of hope of YAs diagnosed with advanced cancer.
Thirteen YAs (ages 23–38) diagnosed with a stage III or IV cancer were recruited throughout the eastern and southeastern United States. Participants completed one semi-structured interview in-person, by phone, or Skype, that incorporated an original timeline instrument assessing fluctuations in hope and an online socio-demographic survey. Glaser's grounded theory methodology informed constant comparative methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation.
Findings from this study informed the development of the novel contingent hope theoretical framework, which describes the pattern of psychosocial behaviors YAs with advanced cancer employ to reconcile identities and strive for a life of meaning. The ability to cultivate the necessary agency and pathways to reconcile identities became contingent on the YAs’ participation in each of the psychosocial processes of the contingent hope theoretical framework: navigating uncertainty, feeling broken, disorienting grief, finding bearings, and identity reconciliation.
Significance of Results
Study findings portray the influential role of hope in motivating YAs with advanced cancer through disorienting grief toward an integrated sense of self that marries cherished aspects of multiple identities. The contingent hope theoretical framework details psychosocial behaviors to inform assessments and interventions fostering hope and identity reconciliation.
While medical nutrition therapy is an essential part of the care for critically ill patients, uncertainty exists about the right form, dosage, timing and route in relation to the phases of critical illness. As enteral nutrition (EN) is often withheld or interrupted during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, combined EN and parenteral nutrition (PN) may represent an effective and safe option to achieve energy and protein goals as recommended by international guidelines. We hypothesise that critically ill patients at high nutritional risk may benefit from such a combined approach during their stay on the ICU. Therefore, we aim to test if an early combination of EN and high-protein PN (EN+PN) is effective in reaching energy and protein goals in patients at high nutritional risk, while avoiding overfeeding. This approach will be tested in the here-presented EFFORTcombo trial. Nutritionally high-risk ICU patients will be randomised to either high (≥2·2 g/kg per d) or low protein (≤1·2 g/kg per d). In the high protein group, the patients will receive EN+PN; in the low protein group, patients will be given EN alone. EN will be started in accordance with international guidelines in both groups. Efforts will be made to reach nutrition goals within 48–96 h. The efficacy of the proposed nutritional strategy will be tested as an innovative approach by functional outcomes at ICU and hospital discharge, as well as at a 6-month follow-up.
With the growing number of adults requiring operations for CHD, prolonged length of stay adds an additional burden on healthcare systems, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to identify factors associated with prolonged length of stay in adult patients undergoing operations for CHD.
This retrospective study included all adult patients (≥18 years) who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for their CHD from 2011 to 2016 at a tertiary-care private hospital in Pakistan. Prolonged length of stay was defined as hospital stay >75th percentile of the overall cohort (>8 days).
This study included 166 patients (53.6% males) with a mean age of 32.05 ± 12.11 years. Comorbid disease was present in 59.0% of patients. Most patients underwent atrial septal defect repair (42.2%). A total of 38 (22.9%) patients had a prolonged length of stay. Post-operative complications occurred in 38.6% of patients. Multivariable analysis showed that pre-operative body mass index (odds ratio: 0.779; 95% confidence interval: 0.620–0.980), intraoperative aortic cross-clamp time (odds ratio: 1.035; 95% confidence interval: 1.009–1.062), and post-operative acute kidney injury (odds ratio: 7.392; 95% confidence interval: 1.036–52.755) were associated with prolonged length of stay.
Predictors of prolonged length of stay include lower body mass index, longer aortic cross-clamp time, and development of post-operative acute kidney injury. Shorter operations, improved pre-operative nutritional optimisation, and timely management of post-operative complications could help prevent prolonged length of stay in patients undergoing operations for adult CHD.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic, and there is limited data on effective therapies. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, a live-attenuated strain derived from an isolate of Mycobacterium bovis and originally designed to prevent tuberculosis, has shown some efficacy against infection with unrelated pathogens. In this study, we reviewed 120 consecutive adult patients (≥18 years old) with COVID-19 at a major federally qualified health centre in Rhode Island, United States from 19 March to 29 April 2020. Median age was 39.5 years (interquartile range, 27.0–50.0), 30% were male and 87.5% were Latino/Hispanics. Eighty-two (68.3%) patients had BCG vaccination. Individuals with BCG vaccination were less likely to require hospital admission during the disease course (3.7% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.019). This association remained unchanged after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities (P = 0.017) using multivariate regression analysis. The finding from our study suggests the potential of BCG in preventing more severe COVID-19.
Adults with CHD are known to greatly benefit from a prompt access to continuous expert care. On the other hand, coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has determined a dramatic worldwide reconfiguration of the healthcare systems, with rapid redeployment of resources towards this emergency. Italy was the first Western country affected by a large-scale spread of coronavirus disease 2019. The aim of our study is to analyse the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on in-hospital care of patients with CHD in an Italian tertiary centre.
Methods and results:
We retrospectively reviewed data on CHD hospital admissions in our centre since 1 March, 2020, when the adoption of a strict infection containment policy throughout the country resulted in limited access of patients to routine hospital care and resources reallocation to the care of infected patients. Comparison with data from the previous year was performed in order to identify any relevant differences attributable to the outbreak. Despite cancellation of all elective procedures, the overall number of urgent hospital admission remained stable throughout the period of study. Patients admitted during the pandemic had greater disease complexity (p = 0.001) with longer length of in-hospital stay (p = 0.01). No adverse events or positive swabs were reported among CHD patients who were admitted to hospital or medical personnel caring for these patients.
Data from our early experience suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic did not impact significantly on the provision of urgent care to adult patients with CHD.
Delusional infestation is a condition at the interface of tactile and visual hallucinations and delusions. Individuals with this condition hold the fixed and false belief that their body or their environment is infested with parasites, insects or other organisms.
There are no guidelines or publications detailing the psychological assessment, formulation, intervention and evaluation of this presentation. This paper aims to address this gap.
Single case experimental design methodology was employed to evaluate the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for delusional infestation in a 70-year-old male who was intolerant of anti-psychotic medication. ‘Tom’ had a large, mature infarct in the middle cerebral artery territory as well as a left posterior parietal infarct post-stroke, which may have precipitated his symptoms. After a baseline period of 3 weeks, Tom received eight sessions of CBT based on the model by Collerton and Dudley (2004).
Post-intervention, there was a reliable improvement on clinical measures as well as a large reduction in distress levels, which was maintained at 3-month follow-up. The conviction in the belief that the infestation was real did not shift.
This case demonstrated the potential for the use of CBT to address distress related to delusional infestation. This work is discussed in relation to post-stroke psychosis, psychological therapies with older adults, and suggestions are made for future research.
Multiword units play an important role in language learning and use. It was proposed that learning from such units can facilitate mastery of certain grammatical relations, and that children and adults differ in their use of multiword units during learning, contributing to their varying language-learning trajectories. Accordingly, adults learn gender agreement better when encouraged to learn from multiword units. Previous work has not examined two core predictions of this proposal: (1) that children also benefit from initial exposure to multiword units, and (2) that their learning patterns reflect a greater reliance on multiword units compared to adults. We test both predictions using an artificial-language. As predicted, both children and adults benefit from early exposure to multiword units. In addition, when exposed to unsegmented input – adults show better learning of nouns compared to article-noun pairings, but children do not, a pattern consistent with adults’ predicted tendency to focus less on multiword units.