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This study aimed to understand state-level variation in participation in the State/Federal Vocational Rehabilitation (State VR) System in the United States among transition-aged youth (persons under the age of 22 years at application for State VR services) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Federal Fiscal Year 2016. A weighted least squares regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship of state-level population size, unemployment rate, and per-capita income to the number of State VR closures in each state for transition-aged youth with TBI. Population size and per-capita income significantly predicted closures, while there was no relationship between closures and unemployment rate. Research is needed that further explores and explains state-level disparities in participation among transition-aged youth with TBI.
The vertebrate, mammalian, and primate patterns of growth are compared with the human differences in pattern. Human uniqueness in brain development and the adolescent growth spurt require novel biology and a special philosophy for human development.
Our study aimed to describe body phenotypes (BP) estimated by multivariate analysis and their association with body mass.
Body phenotypes were defined based on demographic variables, anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds and circumferences), body composition (phase angle measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol ratio/Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), haemoglobin and sexual maturation (pubic hair and breasts or gonads). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to verify the differences between skin colour and the stages of pubertal development, body phenotypes, body composition, anthropometric, and biochemical variables.
Cities of São Paulo-SP, Piracicaba-SP and Florianópolis-SC from Brazil and the United States.
9269 adolescents aged between 10 to 15 years old.
The composition of BP was similar in all surveys, which are: BP1 was composed by skinfolds, body mass and circumferences variables; BP2 by pubic hair, breast in girls or gonad in boys, height and age; BP3 by cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose; and BP4 by phase angle, haemoglobin and glucose (negative loading). There was a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p <0.001) between BP1 and body mass index.
We highlighted independence observed between biochemical parameters, anthropometry, body composition and sexual maturation. BP may support the calculation of scores for diagnosis of obesity based on anthropometric variables and overcome ambiguity in the isolated use of body mass index.
Psychosocial stress in childhood and adolescence is linked to stress system dysregulation, although few studies have examined the relative impacts of parental harshness and parental disengagement. This study prospectively tested whether parental harshness and disengagement show differential associations with overall cortisol output in adolescence. Associations between overall cortisol output and adolescent mental health problems were tested concurrently. Adolescents from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) provided hair samples for cortisol assay at 15 years (N = 171). Caregivers reported on parental harshness and disengagement experiences at 1, 3, 5, 9, and 15 years, and adolescents reported at 15 years. Both parent and adolescent reported depressive and anxiety symptoms and antisocial behaviors at 15. Greater parental harshness from 1–15 years, and harshness reported at 15 years in particular, was associated with higher overall cortisol output at 15. Greater parental disengagement from 1–15 years, and disengagement at 1 year specifically, was associated with lower cortisol output. There were no significant associations between cortisol output and depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or antisocial behaviors. These results suggest that the unique variances of parental harshness and disengagement may have opposing associations with cortisol output at 15 years, with unclear implications for adolescent mental health.
The neurodevelopmental model of psychosis was established over 30 years ago; however, the developmental influence on psychotic symptom expression – how age affects clinical presentation in first-episode psychosis – has not been thoroughly investigated.
Using generalized additive modeling, which allows for linear and non-linear functional forms of age-related change, we leveraged symptom data from a large sample of antipsychotic-naïve individuals with first-episode psychosis (N = 340, 12–40 years, 1–12 visits), collected at the University of Pittsburgh from 1990 to 2017. We examined relationships between age and severity of perceptual and non-perceptual positive symptoms and negative symptoms. We tested for age-associated effects on change in positive or negative symptom severity following baseline assessment and explored the time-varying relationship between perceptual and non-perceptual positive symptoms across adolescent development.
Perceptual positive symptom severity significantly decreased with increasing age (F = 7.0, p = 0.0007; q = 0.003) while non-perceptual positive symptom severity increased with age (F = 4.1, p = 0.01, q = 0.02). Anhedonia severity increased with increasing age (F = 6.7, p = 0.00035; q = 0.0003), while flat affect decreased in severity with increased age (F = 9.8, p = 0.002; q = 0.006). Findings remained significant when parental SES, IQ, and illness duration were included as covariates. There were no developmental effects on change in positive or negative symptom severity (all p > 0.25). Beginning at age 18, there was a statistically significant association between severity of non-perceptual and perceptual symptoms. This relationship increased in strength throughout adulthood.
These findings suggest that as maturation proceeds, perceptual symptoms attenuate while non-perceptual symptoms are enhanced. Findings underscore how pathological brain–behavior relationships vary as a function of development.
To explore the perceptions of adolescents and their caregivers on drivers of diet and physical activity in rural India in the context of ongoing economic, social and nutrition transition.
A qualitative study comprising eight focus group discussions (FGD) on factors affecting eating and physical activity patterns, perceptions of health and decision-making on food preparation.
Villages approximately 40–60 km from the city of Pune in the state of Maharashtra, India.
Two FGD with adolescents aged 10–12 years (n 20), two with 15- to 17- year-olds (n 18) and four with their mothers (n 38).
Dietary behaviour and physical activity of adolescents were perceived to be influenced by individual and interpersonal factors including adolescent autonomy, parental influence and negotiations between adolescents and caregivers. The home food environment, street food availability, household food security and exposure to television and digital media were described as influencing behaviour. The lack of facilities and infrastructure was regarded as barriers to physical activity as were insufficient resources for public transport, safe routes for walking and need for cycles, particularly for girls. It was suggested that schools take a lead role in providing healthy foods and that governments invest in facilities for physical activity.
In this transitioning environment, that is representative of many parts of India and other Lower Middle Income Countries (LMIC), people perceive a need for interventions to improve adolescent diet and physical activity. Caregivers clearly felt that they had a stake in adolescent health, and so we would recommend the involvement of both adolescents and caregivers in intervention design.
Adolescence is a period of social, physical, and neurobiological transitions that may leave individuals more vulnerable to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Extant research demonstrates that executive functioning (EF) is associated with psychopathology outcomes in adolescence; however, it has yet to be examined how EF and psychopathology develop transactionally over time. Data were collected from 167 adolescents (47% female, 13–14 years old at Time 1) and their primary caregiver over 4 years. At each time point, adolescents completed three behavioral tasks that capture the underlying dimensions of EF, and both adolescents and their primary caregiver completed measures of adolescent psychopathology. Latent growth curve modeling was used to test the associations between initial levels and trajectories of EF and psychopathology. Results indicated that higher initial levels of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology were associated with lower EF at Time 4 (controlling for Time 1 EF). Initial levels of EF did not predict changes in internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. These findings suggest that early psychopathology may be a risk factor for maladaptive EF development in adolescence.
Previous research indicates that body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with risk of suicidality. However, studies have relied on small and/or specialist samples and largely focussed on adults, despite these difficulties commonly emerging in youth. Furthermore, the aetiology of the relationship remains unknown.
Two independent twin samples were identified through the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, at ages 18 (N = 6027) and 24 (N = 3454). Participants completed a self-report measure of BDD symptom severity. Young people and parents completed items assessing suicidal ideation/behaviours. Logistic regression models tested the association of suicidality outcomes with: (a) probable BDD, classified using an empirically derived cut-off; and (b) continuous scores of BDD symptoms. Bivariate genetic models examined the aetiology of the association between BDD symptoms and suicidality at both ages.
Suicidal ideation and behaviours were common among those with probable BDD at both ages. BDD symptoms, measured continuously, were linked with all aspects of suicidality, and associations generally remained significant after adjusting for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between BDD symptoms and suicidality (72.9 and 77.7% at ages 18 and 24, respectively), but with significant non-shared environmental influences (27.1 and 22.3% at ages 18 and 24, respectively).
BDD symptoms are associated with a substantial risk of suicidal ideation and behaviours in late adolescence and early adulthood. This relationship is largely explained by common genetic liability, but non-shared environmental effects are also significant and could provide opportunities for prevention among those at high-risk.
Adults with significant childhood trauma and/or serious mental illness may exhibit persistent structural brain changes within limbic structures, including the amygdala. Little is known about the structure of the amygdala prior to the onset of SMI, despite the relatively high prevalence of trauma in at-risk youth.
Data were gathered from the Canadian Psychiatric Risk and Outcome study. A total of 182 youth with a mean age of 18.3 years completed T1-weighted MRI scans along with clinical assessments that included questionnaires on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants also completed the Childhood Trauma and Abuse Scale. We used a novel subfield-specific amygdala segmentation workflow as a part of FreeSurfer 6.0 to examine amygdala structure.
Participants with higher trauma scores were more likely to have smaller amygdala volumes, particularly within the basal regions. Among various types of childhood trauma, sexual and physical abuse had the largest effects on amygdala subregions. Abuse-related differences in the right basal region mediated the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, even though no participants met criteria for clinical diagnosis at the time of assessment.
The experience of physical or sexual abuse may leave detectable structural alterations in key regions of the amygdala, potentially mediating the risk of psychopathology in trauma-exposed youth.
Background: Negative body image predicts many adverse outcomes. The current study prospectively examined patterns of body esteem development in early adolescence and identified predictors of developmental subtypes. Methods: 328 girls and 429 boys reported annually across a 4-year period (Mage at baseline = 11.14, SD = 0.35) on body esteem, appearance ideal internalization, perceived sociocultural pressures, appearance comparisons, appearance-related teasing, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and dietary restraint. We performed latent class growth analyses to identify the most common trajectories of body esteem development and examine risk and protective factors for body image development. Results: Three developmental subgroups were identified: (a) high body esteem (39.1%); (b) moderate body esteem (46.1%); and (c) low body esteem (14.8%). Body esteem was stable within the low trajectory and there were minor fluctuations in the high and moderate trajectories. Greater appearance-related teasing, lower self-esteem, less positive affect, and higher dietary restraint predicted the low trajectory, whereas higher self-esteem and lower dietary restraint best predicted the high trajectory. Conclusions: Low body esteem appears to be largely stable from age 11 years. Prevention programming may be enhanced by incorporating components to address transdiagnostic resilience factors such as self-esteem and positive affect.
Adolescents’ engagement with online social networking platforms is advancing at an exponential rate and research is needed to investigate any impact on young users’ mental health. This study examined appearance-related activity (e.g. looking at photos of friends) on social media and body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls.
Self-report measures of online appearance-related activity, social comparisons to female target groups, internalization of the thin ideal, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem were administered to 210 girls (mean age = 15.16 years).
Body dissatisfaction was significantly related to (i) time spent engaged in social comparisons and (ii) upward social comparisons with various female targets while online. Evaluating oneself less favorably than the target group of close friends was most strongly associated with poorer body image appraisals. Serial multiple mediation analysis revealed that even after controlling for age and self-esteem, time spent engaged in social comparisons significantly mediated the relationship between online appearance-related activity and body dissatisfaction. This association was then further partially mediated by internalization of the thin ideal, which significantly mediated the relationship between time engaged in social comparisons and body dissatisfaction.
Results are discussed in terms of online social media platforms representing an additional appearance culture environment for adolescent girls. The effects of this on the mental health of vulnerable users and how future research should investigate protective factors that may buffer young girls from the adverse effects of social media are considered.
LMNA mutations cause a variety of inherited diseases referred to as laminopathies which are associated with a wide spectrum of disease phenotypes, ranging from skeletal muscle disease, pre-mature ageing, metabolic disorders, and cardiac abnormalities. We present a case of a 14-year-old boy with dilated cardiomyopathy induced by the LMNA mutation (p. R429C) and described its electrocardiogram and imaging features.
Depression is a major cause of disability in adolescents. Higher dietary fibre intake has been associated with lower depressive symptoms in adults, but there is a lack of research in adolescents. We examined the association between dietary fibre intake (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) FFQ) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory for Youth) in adolescents with prospective data from the Raine Study Gen2 14- and 17-year follow-ups (n 1260 and 653). Odds of moderate/extreme (clinically relevant) depressive symptoms by quartile of fibre intake were calculated using mixed-effects logistic regression for all participants, in a paired sample without moderate/extreme depressive symptoms at 14 years and in a sub-sample of participants with available inflammatory data at the ages of 14 and 17 years (n 718 and 547). Odds of moderate/extreme depressive symptoms were lower in the fourth (highest) quartile of overall fibre intake (OR 0·273, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·81) compared with the first (lowest) quartile, adjusting for sex, age, energy intake, adiposity, and family and lifestyle factors. However, further adjustment for dietary patterns attenuated the results. Associations of depressive symptoms with cereal or fruit and vegetable fibre intake were not significant in the final model. Adjustment for inflammation had no effect on OR. The association between a higher dietary fibre intake and lower odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms may be more reflective of a high-fibre diet with all its accompanying nutrients than of an independent effect of fibre.
The presence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms in adolescents with eating disorders is poorly described. This study provides a detailed characterization of adolescents affected by eating disorders in the absence or presence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms, taking into account a wide set of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical variables.
Ninety-four adolescents diagnosed with eating disorders were interviewed, focusing on clinical anamnesis and sociodemographic data collection. The Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) was used to assess the presence (HR+) or absence (HR−) of subthreshold psychosis. The clinicians completed a questionnaire on eating disorders severity, whereas patients provided self-report measures of global social functioning and psychological symptoms associated with eating disorders.
Attenuated psychotic symptoms were highly frequent (84% of subjects). HR+ patients experienced more frequently purging behaviors and dysmorphophobia and received a greater amount of antipsychotic drugs. Compared to HR− counterparts, HR+ patients reported higher eating disorders severity and psychological symptoms (i.e., ineffectiveness, interpersonal and affective problems) associated with eating disorders. Finally, a significant correlation between global social functioning and eating disorders severity emerged only for HR− subjects.
These descriptive data are warranted to identify a potential psychotic core in eating disorders, mainly concerning body image and weight as well as specific psychological features. The availability of reliable and valid markers of risk can further increase our capacity to detect the early emergence of psychosis in adolescents with eating disorders, whose outcome might be worsened by the presence of psychotic symptoms.
Individual variability in tonic (resting) and phasic (reactivity) respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) may underlie risk for dysregulated emotion and behavior, two transdiagnostic indicators that permeate most psychological disorders in youth. The interaction between tonic and phasic RSA may specify unique physiological profiles during the transition to adolescence. The current study utilized clinically referred youth (Mage = 12.03; s.d. = 0.92) to examine baseline RSA, RSA reactivity, and their interaction as predictors of dysregulated emotion and behavior in daily life.
Participants were 162 youth (47% female; 60% minority) in psychiatric treatment for any mood or behavior problem. RSA was assessed during three, 2-minute baselines and an 8-minute parent-child conflict discussion task. Dysregulated emotion and behavior were assessed during a 4-day ecological momentary assessment protocol that included 10 time-based prompts over a long weekend.
Greater RSA withdrawal to the conflict was associated with dysregulated basic emotion (sadness, anger, nervousness, stress) in daily life. Two distinct interactions also emerged, such that baseline RSA was related to dysregulated complex emotion (shame, guilt, loneliness, emptiness) and dysregulated behavior as a function of RSA reactivity to conflict. Lower baseline RSA and greater RSA withdrawal were associated with dysregulated complex emotion, while higher baseline RSA and greater RSA withdrawal were associated with dysregulated behavior.
Findings point to physiological profiles that increase the risk of dysregulated emotion and behavior during the transition to adolescence. Excessive RSA withdrawal uniquely, and in combination with baseline RSA, increased risk for dysregulation in daily life, underscoring the role of autonomic stress responding as a risk factor for psychopathology.
One in six adolescents suffers from mental health problems. Despite the presence of general information on Italian adolescents' mental health, researches conducted with standardized assessment tools are scarce in the literature. We evaluated the prevalence of self-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a group of Italian adolescents and examined their relation to socio-demographical variables.
This population-based sampling survey was conducted on high school students aged 14–18 from urban areas of Rome and Latina. Participants completed Youth Self-Report (YSR) and a socio-demographic schedule to collect information on age, gender, type of school attended, socio-economic status, urbanicity.
Final sample consisted of 1400 adolescents (38.61% male, mean age 16 years, s.d. 1.42). Prevalence of Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Total Problems was 29.55%, 18.34% and 24.13%. In our multivariable model, Internalizing Symptoms were not explained by sociodemographic variables while Externalizing Symptoms were explained by Male Gender [OR = 1.53 (1.14–2.06)], older age [OR = 2.06 (1.52–2.79)] and attending a Technical and Professional Institute [OR = 2.15 (1.53–3.02)], with an adjusted R2 = 4.32%. Total Problems were explained by School Type [Technical and Professional Institutes and Art and Humanities v. Grammar and Science School; OR respectively 1.93 (1.40–2.67) and 1.64 (1.08–2.47)], adjusted R2 = 1.94.
The study provides, for the first time, evidence of a great prevalence of self-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a large sample of Italian adolescents, highlighting the role of different socio-demographic variables as risk factors for externalizing behaviors. Our results emphasize the urgent need for implementing prevention programs on mental health in adolescence.
Adolescence is an important phase of development during which youth experience dramatic neurobiological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes. Decades of research have demonstrated gender similarities and differences during adolescence. This chapter takes both a gender perspective and a sociocultural perspective to understand adolescent development. For each of the following seven areas of adolescent development, we summarize latest research findings on gender similarities and differences in diverse cultures (e.g., North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia). We then particularly focus on singleton adolescent girls’ and boys’ development under the One-Child Policy in China as a case in point of sociocultural influences on gendered development during adolescence. Future directions of both theoretical and methodological concerns are discussed.
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between nutrition literacy (NL) and food habits (FH) in adolescents, and the factors affecting the relationship.
The study used a cross-sectional design. The data were collected using socio-demographic information forms, the Adolescent Nutrition Literacy Scale (ANLS) and the Adolescent Food Habit Checklist (AFHC). The socio-demographic characteristics of adolescents were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the factors affecting NL and FH were determined using the t test, Mann–Whitney U test and ANOVA. The correlation between ANLS and AFHC scores was tested with correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis was employed to predict the change in the NL of adolescents at the level of FH.
The study was conducted in the city of Izmir in Turkey.
The study consisted of a total of 467 adolescents.
There was a statistically significant relationship between NL of adolescents and their gender, education level of the father, grade, BMI values and daily lifestyle behaviours (DLB), as well as between their FH and DLB. There was a positive and significant relationship between ANLS and AFHC. The ANLS and its subscales were found to have a statistically significant effect on AFHC. According to the linear regression analysis, the nutritional habits of adolescents were found to be significantly affected by NL (β = 0·357).
As ANLS scores increased, AFHC scores were determined to increase as well. This finding shows that the FH of adolescents have changed positively with increase in their NL.
To explore, adolescents’ and caregivers’ perspectives, about shaping of diet and physical activity habits in rural Konkan, India.
Five focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with adolescents and two with caregivers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
FGD were conducted in secondary schools located in remote rural villages in the Ratnagiri district, Konkan region, Maharashtra, India.
Forty-eight adolescents were recruited including twenty younger (10–12 years) and twenty-eight older (15–17 years) adolescents. Sixteen caregivers (all mothers) were also recruited.
Three themes emerged from discussion: (i) adolescents’ and caregivers’ perceptions of the barriers to healthy diet and physical activity, (ii) acceptance of the status quo and (iii) salience of social and economic transition. Adolescents’ basic dietary and physical activity needs were rarely met by the resources available and infrastructure of the villages. There were few opportunities for physical activity, other than performing household chores and walking long distances to school. Adolescents and their caregivers accepted these limitations and their inability to change them. Increased use of digital media and availability of junk foods marked the beginning of a social and economic transition.
FGD with adolescents and their caregivers provided insights into factors influencing adolescent diet and physical activity in rural India. Scarcity of basic resources limited adolescent diet and opportunities for physical activity. To achieve current nutritional and physical activity recommendations for adolescents requires improved infrastructure in these settings, changes which may accompany the current Indian social and economic transition.
Given the prevalence of adolescent depression and the modest effects of current treatments, research ought to inform development of effective intervention strategies. Self-compassion is inversely associated with depression, and self-compassion interventions have demonstrated promising effects on reducing depression. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying that relationship. Maladaptive self-processing is a characteristic of depression that contributes to the onset and chronicity of depression. Because our own face is an automatic and direct cue for self-processing, this study investigated whether self-compassion was associated with neural responses during sad v. neutral self-face recognition and explore their relationship with depression severity in depressed adolescents and healthy controls (HCs).
During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 81 depressed youth and 37 HCs were instructed to identify whether morphed self or other faces with sad, happy, or neutral expressions resembled their own.
Self-compassion correlated negatively with activity during sad v. neutral self-face recognition in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the total sample, and in the right posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in HCs, respectively. In depressed adolescents, higher self-compassion correlated with lower activity during sad v. neutral self-face recognition in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), implying that less cognitive effort might be needed to avoid dwelling on sad self-faces and/or regulate negative affect induced by them. Moreover, higher self-compassion mediated the relationship between lower DLPFC activity and reduced depression severity.
Our findings imply that DLPFC activity might be a biological marker of a successful self-compassion intervention as potential treatment for adolescent depression.