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This chapter shows that in spite of her dominant position in commercial magazines of the late Pahlavi era, "the western woman" was also discursively constituted as the nemesis of the Iranian woman in the competition over the heart of the “eastern man.” The discussion in this chapter is framed by the heated public debate evoked by a 1965 bill to cancel the passports or revoke the citizenship of Iranian students who married foreign women. Backed by a trove of popular materials from the 1970s (including literature and films), the chapter addresses the cultural formation of "the western woman” and "the modern Iranian man” in the context of Iran’s brain drain, fears of cultural assimilation, and the sense that educated, modern Iranian men were being lost as a result of mixed marriages. This discussion is especially intriguing considering the fact that Mohammad Reza Shah’s first marriage to a foreign princess, Queen Fawziya of Egypt, was followed by his second marriage to Soraya, daughter of a German mother and an Iranian father.
To deepen understanding of the relationship between food insecurity, acculturation, and diagnosis of CHD and related health outcomes among immigrant adults.
Using cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey 2011 to 2015, we address two research questions. First, what is the relationship of household food insecurity and acculturation with: CHD, angina pectoris, heart attack, self-rated poor health and obesity? Second, what is the association of food insecurity with these health outcomes over years of living in the USA? We estimate multivariate logistic regressions without (question 1) and with (question 2) an interaction term between food insecurity and acculturation for CHD and related health outcomes.
Low-income immigrant adults.
Food insecurity and acculturation are both associated with diagnosis of CHD and related health outcomes among immigrant adults. Food insecurity and acculturation are associated with the health of female immigrants more than males. Also, the differences by food security status in the probability of having several poor health outcomes (self-rated heath, obesity, women’s angina pectoris) are largest for those in the USA for less than 5 years, decrease for those who have lived in the USA for 5–14 years, and are larger again for those in the USA for 15 or more years.
Recent and long-term food-insecure immigrants are more vulnerable to CHD and related health outcomes than those in the USA for 5–14 years. Further research is needed to understand why.
In this chapter I revisit the literature on culture and emotion through the lens of affective social learning (ASL). Conceptualizing emotions as evaluations of the world, I consider the different processes through which people come to fit in emotionally with their culture as processes of ASL. By describing how children enculturate and immigrant minorities acculturate emotionally, I thus aim to shed more light on ASL. The main results of this undertaking are not only that culture and emotion are integral to the study of ASL, but also that ASL (i) encompasses many more processes than those initially described; (ii) affects children, immigrant minorities and even adult majorities; and (iii) is, in many cases, multidimensional and context-dependent. In closing the chapter, I outline some of the ways forward for studying ASL, such as further integrating it with other literatures and conducting empirical studies that take into account some of the complexities and contextual factors that may shape both its speed and course. By embarking on this journey, it is my hope (and belief) that ASL may become a mature and multidisciplinary approach that can stimulate novel research to shed light on meaning-making in context.
In this chapter we discuss the ways in which expressions of regret provide “lessons” for observers of those expressions, thereby constituting a case of affective social learning. We review three lines of research to argue that another person’s regret tells us something about the aversive consequences of a decision made by that person and influences our own behaviour when we have to make a similar decision. In the first line of research we found that participants who had seen another person acting unfairly but then expressing regret – as opposed to pride – were more likely to anticipate regret if they were to act the same way, and this anticipated emotion affected the likelihood of participants themselves acting fairly. This “lesson” learned by witnessing another person’s regret can also be extended to relations between groups. In the second line of research, observers appeared to “learn” from an out-group’s expression of regret that members of the out-group were unhappy about the decision they took, which encourages the observers to see the out-group as more trustworthy. In the third line of research, we show that similar effects are found when an in-group member expresses regret about the in-group’s failure to reciprocate the trust shown by an out-group. Thus, expressing regret serves the function of communicating the inappropriateness of the in-group’s decision and thereby encourages trusting behaviour in other in-group members. Our contention is that the effects of emotional expression in the experiments described here are due to shifts in the perceived appropriateness of certain behaviours, shifts that result from a process of affective social learning.
Relying on two unique data-sets on Chinese older immigrants (N = 3,157) and younger immigrants with ageing parents (N = 469) in Chicago, this study compared the level of filial expectation among the two groups and examined the predictors and mental health implications of having high filial expectation among each group. Results of t-tests, logistic regression and negative binominal analyses showed that, regardless of socio-demographic variables, acculturation, physical health and family relations, Chinese adult children had higher filial expectations on themselves than older immigrants’ filial expectation on the younger generation. Chinese older immigrants who had less education, lower levels of acculturation, poorer health and closer relationships with children reported higher filial expectation. In the cohort of younger immigrants, high filial expectation was associated with lower income, better health and closer relations with their parents. In addition, having high filial expectation was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety among the older immigrants, but not among the younger cohort. The results indicated that, whereas Chinese older immigrants seemed to adapt their filial expectation in the new society, the younger cohort still strongly adhere to this traditional family norm. Maintaining strong filial expectation might be a protective factor for older immigrants’ mental health. Practice and policy implications of these findings are discussed in the paper.
This paper investigates the extent of second language (L2) use in four cognitive domains including mental calculation, planning (action plans), note-taking, and shopping lists. Participants include 149 highly educated L2-competent sequential Polish–English bilinguals who relocated to the UK1 in early adulthood, and underwent processes of acculturation. The independent variables in this study include acculturation level, social network profile, predicted future domicile, and length of residence. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Participants completed an online questionnaire and 14 were interviewed by the researcher. The study included the Complementarity Principle (CP) into the operationalisation and measurement of language use in bilinguals (Grosjean, 2010). The results show that acculturation level, social network profile, and predicted future domicile are strong predictors of the extent of L2 use in cognitive domains. Effects of context-specificity and language-dependence were also found, the latter specifically in the domain of mental calculation.
In this chapter, we argue that the timing of societal events in an individual’s life plays a major role in shaping that life through interacting developmental processes at multiple levels. We focus on classic research by Elder showing how two such events in historical proximity dramatically altered the lives of California children who were born at opposite ends of the 1920s, 1920–21 and 1928–29, the Great Depression of the 1930s followed by World War II (1941–45) and the Korean War (1950–53). We employ insights from both Elder’s cohort historical life course approach and developmental science including recent work on developmental neuroscience to understand the life-long impact of exposure to events that occur at different times in life, and the mechanisms through which these exposures may influence development, as well as experiences that may provide turning points in development.
Youth who immigrate to the US navigate unique and increasingly complex challenges. These challenges include stressful or unsafe sociopolitical pre-migration contexts, protracted or unpredictable migration processes, and post-migration stressors while adapting to a new culture. In this chapter, we examine such effects of immigration and acculturation on children in different historical periods. The example of migration from Mexico to the US is used to illustrate how our historical perspectives change and shape developmental possibilities and experiences for children. Our recent historical perspective embraced the goal of assimilating children and families into the US host culture, with little adherence to the values and traditions of the culture of origin. Over time this perspective has shifted to the current view that the goal of acculturation should be a bicultural one. Implications of various migratory paths for children’s adjustment are discussed, as are the developmental implications of current policies related to migration.
We investigated the effects of race and different acculturation strategies on perceptions of immigrants in Australia, an immigrant-based nation with a multicultural policy. Two experimental studies presented participants with scenarios that systematically varied racial group (African, Asian, and European) and acculturation strategy (assimilation, integration, separation, marginalisation), then assessed responses to immigrant targets using measures of warmth, competence, affect, and cultural distance. Attitudes were significantly more positive towards targets who either integrated or assimilated, and negative towards targets who separated. This was regardless of the racial group being assessed, supporting the prediction that acculturation strategy is a stronger influence than race on perceptions of immigrants.
To determine if the association between soda consumption and obesity is uniform among Asian-American population subgroups.
We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses on odds of being obese among seven Asian subgroups and by place of birth using data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.
An omnibus population-based health survey.
Non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or over, residing in California (n 36 271).
Despite low levels of soda consumption in several Asian-American ethnic groups, soda consumption increased the odds of being obese among Chinese, Koreans and Other Asians but not for Whites. Obesity risk varied across Asian subgroups and by place of birth within these subgroups.
More public health efforts addressing soda consumption in Asian-American communities are needed as a strategy for not only preventing chronic diseases but also disparities, considering the varying levels of soda intake across subgroups. Results support the growing body of literature critiquing acculturation theory in immigrant health research by documenting inconsistent findings by place of birth. Future research should take into account the heterogeneity among Asian Americans to advance our understanding of health outcomes and disparities.
The present study examined protective factors associated with the wellbeing of 93 youth from a refugee background resettled in Brisbane, Australia. Wellbeing was defined as an absence of psychological distress and the presence of subjective wellbeing. Students at Milpera State High School, a special English language school, completed a battery of questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between protective factors and wellbeing, while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicated that higher levels of school connectedness and acculturation were significantly associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further, higher levels of school connectedness, acculturation and resilience, in addition to having a permanent visa, were significantly associated with higher levels of subjective wellbeing. Notably, 55% of the variance in subjective wellbeing was explained jointly by these factors. School connectedness, acculturation, resilience, and visa certainty were instrumental in enhancing aspects of wellbeing in the present sample of students from a refugee background. Implications for refugee-related policy and strategies in schools, mental health services, and at broader governmental levels are discussed.
Examine relationships of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns with BMI, sex, age and acculturation among Mexican Americans.
Cross-sectional. Participants completed culturally tailored Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Indices. Multivariable mixed-effect Poisson regression models compared food pattern index scores and dietary intake of specific foods by BMI, sex, age and acculturation defined by language preference and generational status.
Participants recruited from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort study, Texas–Mexico border region, between 2008 and 2011.
Mexican-American males and females aged 18–97 years (n 1250).
Participants were primarily female (55·3 %), overweight or obese (85·7 %), preferred Spanish language (68·0 %) and first-generation status (60·3 %). Among first-generation participants, bilingual participants were less likely to have a healthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (rate ratio (RR)=0·79, P=0·0218). This association was also found in males (RR=0·81, P=0·0098). Preferred English-speaking females were less likely to consume healthy foods than preferred Spanish-speaking females (RR=0·84, P=0·0293). Among second-generation participants, preferred English-speaking participants were more likely to report a higher unhealthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (RR=1·23, P=0·0114). Higher unhealthy eating patterns were also found in females who preferred English v. females who preferred Spanish (RR=1·23, P=0·0107) or were bilingual (RR=1·26, P=0·0159). Younger, male participants were more likely to have a higher unhealthy eating pattern. BMI and diabetes status were not significantly associated with healthy or unhealthy eating patterns.
Acculturation, age, sex and education are associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. Nutrition interventions for Mexican Americans should tailor approaches by these characteristics.
Military deployment is typically considered a stressful period for families, generally lasting between 3 to 6 months for Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel. To date, insufficient research has been conducted concerning children and families who experience deployment within an Australian context. This study seeks to provide valuable insight into families with young children and explore their experiences of military deployment in an Australian context. Using a socio-constructivist approach, where truth is socially constructed both individually and culturally, ADF parents’ perceptions of their experiences are examined. Using Narrative Research, multiple methods of data collection are combined to gather various insights into families’ experiences. Data analysis was conducted using thematic verification identifying two main themes. Embracing an interpretivist epistemology, the researcher aims to create a shared knowledge around families’ understanding and experiences of deployment. Such knowledge will be helpful for effective support of parents, educators and professionals in their role with these children in the community.
Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health.
Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, ‘Other Latinos’).
Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ21 = 11.04, p < 0.001), (2) longer time in the United States (linear χ21 = 10.52, p < 0.01), (3) greater English-language orientation (linear χ21 = 14.57, p < 0.001), (4) lower Latino composition of social network (linear χ21 = 15.03, p < 0.001), and (5) lower Latino ethnic identification (linear χ21 = 7.29, p < 0.01). However, the associations were less consistent among Cubans and Other Latinos, and no associations with acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans.
The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions.
Taiwanese migrants who have settled in Brisbane, Australia (N = 271) completed a questionnaire battery available in both Mandarin and English. A series of multiple and hierarchical regression analyses were used to investigate the factors associated with these migrants’ acculturation and indicators of psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that various personal factors (age, English language proficiency, and duration of stay) were associated with acculturation and indicators of psychological wellbeing. Acculturation was not associated with wellbeing. Social support was associated with the indicators of the participants’ wellbeing. The outcome indicated that although associated with similar personal and environmental factors, acculturation and psychological wellbeing occurred separately. The study highlights the significance of certain personal resources and social support.
To describe key characteristics of the dietary habits of Samoans residing in Logan, Queensland and to compare these characteristics with comparable populations.
Dietary intake was measured using a self-administered structured questionnaire between December 2012 and March 2013. Demographic characteristics included age and sex. Questionnaire results were compared with data from samples of Brisbane residents of similar social and economic characteristics and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand. The association between demographic characteristics and diet was investigated.
Logan, Queensland, Australia.
Samoans aged 16 years and older.
A total of 207 Samoans participated, ninety-six (46 %) of whom were male. Of the participants, seventy-nine (38 %) were aged 16–29 years, sixty-three (30 %) were aged 30–49 years and sixty-five (31 %) were aged ≥50 years. Younger adults were significantly more likely to eat hamburgers, pizza, cakes, savoury pastries, potato crisps, sweets and soft drinks (all variables P<0·001). Among Samoans, 44·7 % consumed two or more pieces of fruit daily, compared with 43·8 % of comparable Brisbane residents (relative risk=1·0; 95 % CI 0·8, 1·2). Three or more servings of vegetables each day were consumed by 9·2 % of Samoans compared with 36·6 % of comparable Brisbane residents (relative risk=3·8; 95 % CI 2·5, 6·0).
Samoans are consuming significantly fewer vegetables and more discretionary foods than other populations. Socio-economic factors, length of stay in Australia and cultural practices may impact upon Samoans’ diets. Further comprehensive studies on Samoans’ dietary habits in Australia are recommended.
We examined structures of (trans)national mother–child relationships in adulthood among non-Western immigrants in the Netherlands and assessed how acculturation impacted these intergenerational ties. From the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean respondents were selected whose mother lived in the Netherlands (N = 360) or abroad (N = 316). First, extending a previous typology of immigrant mother–child relations in the Netherlands, Latent Class Analysis was conducted for transnational relations. As expected, combining information about given and/or received emotional and financial support resulted in an emotional-interdependent and detached transnational mother–child relationship. Second, acculturation effects were estimated by using relationship assignment as a dependent variable, performing Logistic Regressions on our uni-national and transnational sample. Findings were mixed, suggesting acculturation impacts differently on family relations within and across borders. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of reciprocal affective ties in a transnational context, also in the absence of financial or practical support, and show the relevance of distinguishing different facets of acculturation.