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It is argued that Theophanes the Confessor derives his information concerning the name of the baths where Constans II was allegedly assassinated from Theophilus of Edessa. It is further argued that Theophilus’ claim that Andrew deliberately killed Constans by hitting him with a bucket is rather unconvincing and may represent the hypothetical reconstruction of the event by an imperial administration that could not accept that the emperor had died as a result of an unfortunate accident.
The paper describes an ongoing effort in developing a declarative system for supporting operators in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control room. The focus is on two modules: diagnosis and explanation of events that happened in NPPs. We describe an Answer Set Programming (ASP) representation of an NPP, which consists of declarations of state variables, components, their connections, and rules encoding the plant behavior. We then show how the ASP program can be used to explain the series of events that occurred in the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2) NPP accident, the most severe accident in the USA nuclear power plant operating history. We also describe an explanation module aimed at addressing answers to questions such as “why an event occurs?” or “what should be done?” given the collected data.
Most medical emergencies requiring first-aid occur at home. Little is known about the prevalence of these medical emergencies.
The objective of this study is to describe medical emergencies occurring at people’s homes requiring first aid; characteristics, burdens and impact on functional outcome, and to address the national public knowledge and practice of first aid.
A confidential, cross-sectional survey, primarily based on the 2015 American Heart Association (AHA) and American Red Cross first aid guidelines, was conducted among adults (>18 years) from 12 educational centers, under the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic affairs, State of Kuwait.
A total of 3000 self-administered questionnaires were distributed from September 16 2019 to November 30, 2019. The response rate was 34% (n = 1033 participants) of which 1% (n = 11) were partially answered questionnaires leaving 1022 questionnaires for valid statistical analysis. The prevalence of medical emergencies was 118.5 out of 100000 per year and the level of public knowledge was 19%. Medical emergencies were more likely to occur in Hawali province (49%, n = 149), women were more likely to encounter medical emergencies (78%, n = 238). Victims above 18 years of age were more likely to experience hypoglycemia (39%, n = 55) and children were more likely to suffer from hypoglycemia (19%, n = 22) or burns (17%, n = 20). Compliance with First aid guidelines was seen in hypoglycemia (31%, n = 44) but lacking in burn incidents (44%, n = 15). Participants called the ambulance in seizures (50%, n = 13), with 62% of medical emergencies requiring attendance at a health-care facility and 29% requiring hospital admission. Of the victims, 15% missed school or a day of work, and 25% had impaired functional outcomes.
Medical emergencies occurring at home are relatively common in Kuwait, and public training on first aid is low. Kuwait has unique medical emergencies, with hypoglycemia, seizures and burns being the most frequent emergencies that occur at home. These emergencies cause a burden on the health-care system with a quarter of them having negative impact on the victim’s functional outcome.
Triage - the sorting of patients according to urgency of need for clinical care - is an essential part of delivering effective and efficient emergency care. But when frequent over- or under-triaging occurs, finite time and resources are diverted away from those in greatest need of care and the entire Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is strained. In resource-constrained settings, such as South Africa, poor triage in EMS only serves to compound other contextual challenges. This study examined the accuracy of dispatcher triage over a one-year period in the Western Cape Government (WCG) EMS system in South Africa.
A retrospective analysis of existing dispatch and EMS data to assess the accuracy of dispatch-assigned priorities was conducted. The mismatch between dispatcher-assigned call priority and triage levels determined by EMS personnel was analyzed via over- and under-triage rates, sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs, respectively).
A total of 185,166 records from December 2016 through November 2017 were analyzed. Across all dispatch complaints, the over-triage rate was 67.6% (95% CI, 66.34-68.76) and the under-triage rate was 16.2% (95% CI, 15.44-16.90). Dispatch triage sensitivity for all included records was 49.2% (95% CI, 48.10-50.38), specificity 71.9% (95% CI, 71.00-72.92), PPV 32.5% (95% CI, 30.02-34.88), and NPV 83.8% (95% CI, 81.93-85.73).
This study provides the first evaluation of dispatch triage accuracy in the WCG EMS system, identifying that the system is suffering from both under- and over-triage. Despite variance across dispatch complaints, both under- and over-triage remained higher than widely accepted norms, and all rates were significantly above acceptable target metrics described in similar studies. Results of this study will be used to motivate the development of more rigorous training programs and resources for WCG EMS dispatchers, including improved dispatch protocols for conditions suffering from high over- and under-triage.
As tugboats interact very closely with ships in restricted waters, the possibility of accidents increases in these operations. Despite the high accident possibility, there is a gap in studies on tugboat accidents. This study aims to analyse accidents involving tugboats using data mining. For this purpose, a tugboat accidents dataset consisting of a total of 496 accident records for the period from 2008 to 2019 was collected. Logistic regression and decision tree algorithms were implemented to the dataset. The results revealed that tugboat propulsion type is the most important and influential factor in the severity of tugboat accidents. The inferences drawn from these results could be beneficial for tugboat operators and port authorities in enhancing their awareness of the factors affecting tugboat accidents. In addition, the outputs of this study can be a reference for management units in developing strategies for preventing tugboat accidents and can also be used in effective planning for practicable prevention programmes and practices.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are an important cause of mortality and disability around the world. Early intervention and stabilization are necessary to obtain optimal outcomes, yet little is written on the topic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim is to provide a descriptive analysis of patients with TBI treated by Service d’Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU), the prehospital ambulance service in Kigali, Rwanda.
What is the incidence and nature of TBI seen on the ambulance in Kigali, Rwanda?
A retrospective descriptive analysis was performed using SAMU records captured on an electronic database from December 2012 through May 2016. Variables included demographic information, injury characteristics, and interventional data.
Patients with TBIs accounted for 18.0% (n = 2,012) of all SAMU cases. The incidence of TBIs in Kigali was 234 crashes per 100,000 people. The mean age was 30.5 (SD = 11.5) years and 81.5% (n = 1,615) were men. The most common mechanisms were road traffic incidents (RTIs; 78.5%, n = 1,535), assault (10.7%, n=216), and falls (7.8%, n=156). Most patients experienced mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS] ≥ 13; 83.5%, n = 1,625). The most common interventions were provision of pain medications (71.0%, n = 1,429), placement of a cervical collar (53.6%, n = 1,079), and administration of intravenous fluids (48.7%, n = 979). In total, TBIs were involved in 67.0% of all mortalities seen by SAMU.
Currently, TBIs represent a large burden of disease managed in the prehospital setting of Kigali, Rwanda. These injuries are most often caused by RTIs and were observed in 67% of mortalities seen by SAMU. Rwanda has implemented several initiatives to reduce the incidence of TBIs with a specific emphasis on road safety. Further efforts are needed to better prevent these injuries. Countries seeking to develop prehospital care capacity should train providers to manage patients with TBIs.
To explore the changes in quality of life from the acute hospitalization period to 6 months after discharge in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke and to identify the association between resilience and the course of quality of life.
A prospective longitudinal cohort study.
This study was conducted in Shanghai, China.
Two hundred and seventeen stroke patients were recruited for an initial questionnaire survey from two tertiary hospitals from February 2017 to January 2018.
Quality of life was measured using the Stroke Scale Quality of Life. Resilience was assessed using the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. Other validated measurement instruments included the modified Rankin Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A multilevel model was used for the analysis of repeated measurements and to determine the association between resilience and quality of life.
Quality of life scores significantly improved over the 6 months after discharge (B = 7.31, p < .0001). The multilevel model indicated that resilience was positively correlated with the course of quality of life (B = .133, p < .0001), independent of stroke severity (B = −.051, p = .0006), neurological function (B = −.577, p < .0001), hospitalization days (B = .023, p = .0099), anxiety (B = −.100, p =< .0001), depression (B = −.149, p < .0001), time (B = .360, p < .0001), and the interactions of time with hospitalization days (B = −.008, p = .0002), neurological function (B = .021, p < .0024), depression (B = −.014, p = .0273), and time (B = −.031, p < .0001).
Resilience played an important role in predicting the self-reported course of quality of life in stroke patients. Our findings emphasized the reasonableness and importance of developing suitable resilience-targeted clinical strategies for improving prognosis in stroke patients.
Peritraumatic dissociation is a risk factor for developing PTSD. The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) is a self-report inventory used to assess dissociation that occurred at the time of a trauma. The aim of this study was the validation the PDEQ in French.
Ninety French speaking traumatized victims presenting to the emergency department were recruited. They were administered the PDEQ shortly after exposure and others trauma-related measures 2 weeks and 1 month posttrauma.
Principal components factor analyses suggested a single factor solution for the PDEQ. Significant correlations between the PDEQ and acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms indicated moderate to strong convergent validity. The PDEQ also showed satisfactory test–retest reliability and internal consistency.
This study is the first one to investigate such detailed psychometric findings on the PDEQ. This confirms the unity of the concept of peritraumatic dissociation and the value of the PDEQ-French Version to assess it.
Les AVP sont le principal pourvoyeur d’ESPT (Kupchik et al., 2007), dont la prévalence fluctue de 6 à 45 % entre les études (Heron-Delaney et al., 2013). En l’absence de repérage clinique, l’ESPT peut se chroniciser (Kessler et al., 1995). Les outils actuels permettent son diagnostic (Jackson et al., 2011), mais pas de dépister précocement les sujets à risque de développer un ESPT post-AVP en aigu (8 semaines) comme en chronique (6 mois) ou en tardif (1 an). Nous présentons une étude longitudinale réalisée sur 274 patients répartis sur 6 centres de traumatologie ayant pour objectif principal de valider un outil infirmier de dépistage précoce d’ESPT après un AVP (DEPITAC). Dix questions ont été soumises à tout patient hospitalisé dans les 15 jours après un AVP, ainsi qu’une PDI et un MINI DSM-IV. La PCL-S (cut-off à 44) a permis le diagnostic à 8 semaines, 6 mois et 1 an. L’analyse statistique a été réalisée avec le logiciel SAS Institute 9.4. Le score total DEPITAC était significativement associé au diagnostic d’ESPT à 1 an (OR : 1,43 ; IC95 % : 1,14–1,79) avec un pouvoir discriminant de 0,64 (IC95 % : 0,56–0,72). DEPITAC était corrélé à l’échelle PDI (p < 0,0001) avec un faible coefficient de corrélation (r = 0,32) montrant une faible redondance. Seules 3 questions après analyses bivariées s’avèrent significatives : « présence d’autres blessés ou décédés lors de l’AVP », « présence d’une dissociation post-AVP » et « s’être vu mourir lors de l’AVP » avec un pouvoir discriminant de 0,65 (IC95 % : 0,57–0,73). Aucun effet centre n’a été mis en évidence (p = 0,90). Nos résultats semblent montrer qu’à l’aide de seulement 3 questions de dépistage, les équipes infirmières pourraient repérer les patients à risque de développer un ESPT aigu ou tardif, leur permettant ainsi d’alerter précocement les équipes psychiatriques de liaison ou de pschotraumatologie.
To integrate scholastic literature regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the psychological consequences faced by survivors of the 2011 Fukushima earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster, we conducted a systematic review of survivor studies concerning the Fukushima disaster. In August 2019, four literature databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and ICHUSHI) were used in the literature search. Peer-reviewed manuscripts reporting psychological consequences, either in English or Japanese, were selected. A total of 79 studies were selected for the review. Twenty-four studies (30.4%) were conducted as part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey—large-scale cohort study recruiting the residents of the entire Fukushima prefecture. Study outcomes were primarily nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. The rates of high-risk individuals determined by the studies varied significantly owing to methodological differences. Nevertheless, these rates were mostly high (nonspecific psychological distress, 8.3%-65.1%; depressive symptoms, 12%-52.0%; and post-traumatic stress symptoms, 10.5%-62.6%). Many studies focused on vulnerable populations such as children, mothers of young children, evacuees, and nuclear power plant workers. However, few studies reported on the intervention methods used or their effect on the survivors. As a conclusion, high rates of individuals with psychological conditions, as well as a wide range of mental conditions, were reported among the Fukushima nuclear disaster survivors in the first 8 years after the disaster. These findings demonstrate the substantial impact of this compound disaster, especially in the context of a nuclear catastrophe.
To compile the findings of studies assessing emotional and behavioral changes in the survivors of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, we performed a systematic review in August 2019 using four literature databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and ICHUSHI). Peer-reviewed manuscripts, either in English or Japanese, were included in the searches. Sixty-one studies were retrieved for the review. Of these, 41 studies (67.2%) assessed emotional consequences, 28 studies (45.9%) evaluated behavioral consequences, and 8 studies (13.1%) evaluated both emotional and behavioral outcomes. The main research topic in emotional change was radiation exposure-associated risk perception, as reported in 15 studies. This risk perception included immediate health effects (eg, acute radiation syndrome) as well as future health effects (eg, future cancer and genetic effects). Lowered subjective well-being was reported in eight studies. Six studies reported perceived discrimination/stigmatization in the disaster survivors. The most critical behavioral change was an increase in suicides compared with residents in the whole of Japan or affected by the earthquake and tsunami, but not by the nuclear disaster. Increased rate of alcohol and tobacco use was reported, although the effect on one’s health was inconsistent. As a conclusion, the Fukushima nuclear disaster survivors suffered issues in risk perception, well-being, stigmatization, and alcohol/tobacco use in the first 8 years after the disaster. The present study is important in order to better understand the emotional and behavioral responses to future nuclear/radiological disasters as well as other “invisible” disasters, such as chemical and biological public health crises.
The essay explores the ways in which Edith Wharton’s early work, written as facts were emerging about corrupt insurance industry practices, inspired questions that Wharton would raise throughout her oeuvre about the monetization of life and death, the evaluation of pain and suffering, and the larger consequences of a managed and insured society. By the early twentieth century, insurance was a central institution in the organization and management of modern life, although it is rarely recognized as a cultural force or context in Wharton’s work. This essay corrects this neglect by asking how an early twentieth-century insurance scandal inspired Wharton’s exploration of a growing wound culture intent on regulating and managing pain and suffering, life and death, and by examining Wharton’s representations of a managerial society rather than the society of manners for which she is still best known.
The impact of compensable injury on moods was investigated in 106 individuals using the Visual Analog Mood Scales. Results indicated markedly negatively skewed distributions of ratings on being Sad, Energetic, Tired, Happy, or Tense. A contrasting pattern of positive and negative mood responses was evident. There were notable differences in mood conditions between different types of injuries: (a) anger and tiredness featured in brain injury; (b) sadness and tiredness characterized psychological injuries; and (c) most moods were moderate across musculoskeletal injuries with the possible exception of being energetic. The extent of psychological problems was related to mood levels.
We aimed to investigate the relationships between use of media to obtain information on radiation and radiation anxiety among community residents in Fukushima, 5.5 years after the nuclear power plant accident.
A questionnaire survey was administered between August and October 2016 to 2000 randomly sampled residents in Fukushima prefecture. Radiation anxiety toward health and regarding discrimination and prejudice were assessed with 4- and 3-item scales, respectively. Participants nominated their most-used media for acquiring information on radiation by choosing up to 3 sources from 12 information sources listed (eg, local newspaper, TV news, websites, social networking sites [SNS], local government newsletter, word of mouth). We investigated associations of most-used media types and radiation anxiety, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety regarding radiation’s health effects immediately after the accident, using multivariate linear regression analyses.
Valid responses were obtained from 790 (39.5%) residents. Acquiring information about radiation by word of mouth was related to higher radiation anxiety toward health. Regarding radiation anxiety concerning discrimination and prejudice, SNS use was related to higher anxiety, whereas acquiring information through Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) TV news was related to lower anxiety.
Interpersonal interactions rather than gaining information from media – characterized by unidirectional information exchange – may increase radiation anxiety.
This chapter explains how the courts of common law, by way of contrast to the courts of equity, were only in a position to recognise equitable doctrines such as equitable assignment. However,they were unable to give effect to such doctrines: they could not (and still may not) grant common law remedies to enforce such equitable entitlements. This resulted in a potential problem of proceedings being brought at common law, as well as in equity. Consequently, to forestall such problems, joinder of the assignor of a common law chose even when proceedings were brought in equity became the norm.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in the long-term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from ten centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding (n 604, 60 % male, age 58 years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37 %). Patients were long-term tube fed (4·1 years tube feeding, 3·5 years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71 %) and sedentary (70 %). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22 %) who were significantly more active (79 %) and lived at home (97 %), while those with cerebral palsy (12 %) were typically younger (age 31 years) but sedentary (94 %). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46 %), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top-up to oral diet or to mimic mealtimes. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85 % of patients, with 51 % of these being compact-style ONS (2·4 kcal (10·0 kJ)/ml, 125 ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common among UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) have devastating consequences on patients’ quality of life. More specifically, TSCI with spinal fractures (TSCIF) have the most severe neurological impairment, although limited data are available. This study aimed at providing data and analyzing TSCIF in a level I trauma center in the province of Québec, Canada.
Two hundred eighty-two TSCIF were reviewed. Spinal injuries and neurological impairment were assessed with AO classification and AIS, respectively. Variables included age, sex, cause, location, mechanism of injury (MOI), and severity of TSCIF. Chi-squared Pearson determined significant associations (p < 0.05).
Male-to-female ratio was 3.21:1. Patients were 42.5 ± 18.7 years. The leading causes of TSCIF were high-energy falls (28.4%), cars (26.2%) and vehicle without restraint system (motorcycle, all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile, and bicycle) (21.3%). Vehicle collisions, pooling cars and unrestrained vehicles, mostly affected the 20–49-year population (62.2%). The main MOI was distraction in males (47.9%), and axial compression in females (44.8%). There were significant associations between causes and injured spinal level, as well as between MOI and injured spinal level, sex, and TSCIF severity. Most patients involved in unrestrained vehicle accidents sustained a thoracolumbar spine distraction with complete motor deficit. A severe neurologic deficit affected most patients following car accidents that caused cervical spine distraction or axial torsion.
In Québec, most TSCIF caused by vehicle collisions affect a young population and have severe neurological impairments. Future efforts should focus on better understanding accidents involving the unrestrained vehicle category to further improve preventive measures.
Radiocarbon (14C) analysis was performed on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) tree rings from Koriyama, Fukushima prefecture. Our primary aim was to detect any 14C release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on 11 March 2011. We also completed and assessed the 14C level in Japanese tree rings for the period of 1990–2014 because of the lack of environmental 14C results in the Japanese island that time. For this reason, we used a trajectory model to investigate the air mass forward and backward trajectories at the area of the power plant and sampling site. The modeling data show that the air masses mainly moved to the Pacific Ocean, both during March 2011 and during the growing season (March–September). During the period 1990–2014 there was no significant 14C excess in any of the samples, but there was a detectable Suess effect in almost every tree ring sample. The average fossil contribution was 0.83 ± 0.01% and the calculated anthropogenic component ratio, the 14C excess varied between +0.5 and –1.6%. The Δ14C value decreased from 150.0‰ to 9.5‰ from 1990–2014, which follows the decline of the 14C bomb peak, in addition to any detectable Suess effect.
This paper presents a history of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme as a struggle between two competing normative paradigms that justify the core reform of the replacement of civil actions for victims of personal injury with a comprehensive no-fault scheme. Under ‘community insurance’, the scheme represents the community taking moral and practical responsibility for members who are injured in accidents, while for ‘compulsory insurance’ the scheme is a specific form of compulsory accident insurance. Understanding the history of the scheme in this way helps explain both the persistence of the scheme and important changes made to it by different governments.