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Limited information exists on the global economic impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The objective of this manuscript was to estimate the potential yield and economic loss from uncontrolled GR weeds in the major field crops grown in Ontario, Canada. The impact of GR weed interference on field crop yield was determined using an extensive database of field trials completed on commercial farms in southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2021. Crop yield loss was estimated by expert opinion (weed scientists and Ontario government crop specialists) when research data were unavailable. This manuscript assumes that crop producers adjust their weed management programs to control GR weeds, which increases weed management costs but reduces crop yield loss from GR weed interference by 95%. GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed would cause an annual monetary loss of (in millions of Can$) $172, $104, $11, $3, and $0.3, respectively, for a total annual loss of $290 million if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs to control GR biotypes. The increased herbicide cost to control GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed in the major field crops in Ontario is estimated to be (in millions of Can$) $17, $9, $2, $0.1, and $0.02, respectively, for a total increase in herbicide expenditures of $28 million annually. Reduced GR weed interference with the adjusted weed management programs would reduce farm-gate monetary crop loss by 95% from $290 million to $15 million. This study estimates that GR weeds would reduce the farm-gate value of the major field crops produced in Ontario by Can$290 million annually if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs, but with increased herbicide costs of Can$28 million and reduced crop yield loss of 95% the actual annual monetary loss in Ontario is estimated to be Can$43 million annually.
The CoAXium® Production System includes a new herbicide-resistant wheat (AXigen®) that allows for fall and/or spring postemergence (POST) applications of quizalofop-P-ethyl (QPE) for control of winter annual grass weeds. As area planted with AXigen® wheat increases, so will the use of QPE herbicide, and with this comes an increased chance for physical drift, tank contamination, or misapplication to nearby sensitive plants. A total of eight field studies were conducted at four locations during the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 growing seasons to understand the response of nonresistant wheat when exposed to various rates of QPE herbicide. Five rates of QPE were evaluated: 1× (92 g ai ha−1), 1/10×, 1/50×, 1/100×, and 1/200×. Treatments of QPE were applied in the fall (2- to 3-leaf wheat) or in the spring (3- to 4-tiller wheat). Results indicated an interaction between application timing and QPE rate on grain yield for half of the site-years. The 1× rate resulted in complete or near complete grain yield loss regardless of application timing. However, QPE at the 1/10× rate resulted in yield loss ranging from 0% to 41% when fall-applied, whereas spring application resulted in 80% to 100% yield loss. For site-years when only the main effect of QPE rate was significant, 86% to 100% yield loss was observed following exposure to QPE at the 1/10× and 1× rates. For all site-years, it was infrequent that significant yield reductions were observed following the three lowest rates of QPE. If the two highest QPE rates were considered to represent tank contamination or misapplication and the three lowest rates physical drift, we can assume that physical drift of QPE to non-AXigen® wheat is not of major concern if proper application guidelines are followed. Conversely, tank contamination and misapplication should be carefully considered by growers who have planted both AXigen® and non-AXigen® wheat varieties.
Horseweed is a North American indigenous plant species commonly found in Nebraska cropping systems. Horseweed management is challenging because of horseweed’s prolific seed production, long-distance seed dispersal via wind, competitiveness, and rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. Understanding the horseweed emergence pattern across Nebraska can contribute to implementing effective and more sustainable tactics to minimize its impact on cropping systems. Field studies were conducted during fall and spring from 2016 to 2018 in Lincoln (corn and soybean), North Platte (wheat stubble and soybean), and Scottsbluff (corn and fallow) to investigate the emergence pattern of horseweed accessions from Lincoln, North Platte, and Scottsbluff, NE. Results show that most horseweed seedling emergence occurred in fall (99%) and only a few seedlings emerged in spring across locations, except in the wheat stubble experiment at North Platte, where higher spring emergence was detected (3% to 22%). In four out of six experiments, the density of total emerged seedlings of each accession was greatest when established in their site of origin. Our results suggest that late fall and/or early spring is likely the best timing for horseweed management across Nebraska.
Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects wheat yield and grain protein concentration; however, its mismanagement can increase plant lodging. While the use of plant growth regulators such as trinexapac-ethyl (TE) can mitigate plant lodging, their effects on seed physiological quality are not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization and TE on wheat yield, lodging and seed quality of spring wheat varieties. It was carried out in the 2018 growing season in the environments of Londrina and Ponta Grossa, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used with a 2 × 3 × 3 factorial arrangement to evaluate two wheat genotypes (WT 15008 and WT 15025), three top-dressing N rates (0, 40 and 120 kg ha−1), and three TE rates (0, 50 and 100 g ha−1). Agronomic characteristics related to wheat productivity (hectolitre weight, thousand-grain weight, density of fertile spikes, plant height, lodging and grain yield) and seed physiological quality (seed germination and vigour; length and dry matter of normal seedlings) were evaluated. Increasing N rates up to 120 kg ha−1 increased plant lodging up to 26.4 percentage points for WT 15025 in Londrina. TE impaired some traits of seed physiological quality. Spraying 100 g ha−1 TE on the plants reduced seedling length by 9.4% in the seeds of WT 15008 harvested in Ponta Grossa compared to the TE control (0 g ha−1). The dry matter of the seedlings from the seeds harvested in Londrina declined by 7.2% due to the application of 100 g ha−1 TE, compared to the control. However, a lower rate of TE (50 g ha−1) might be enough to minimize plant lodging without impairing the physiological quality of the seeds, depending on the rate of N fertilization. This study is the first step in providing empirical evidence for the detrimental effects of TE in combination with N on wheat seed quality, suggesting that seed producers should exercise caution in managing TE and N fertilization.
Wild radish is the most problematic broadleaf weed in Australian grain production. The propensity of wild radish to evolve resistance to herbicides has led to high frequencies of multiple herbicide–resistant populations present in these grain production regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesotrione to selectively control wild radish in wheat. The initial dose response pot trials determined that at the highest mesotrione rate of 50 g ha−1 applied preemergence (PRE) was 30% more effective than when applied postemergence (POST) on wild radish. This same rate of mesotrione applied POST resulted in a 30% reduction in wheat biomass compared to 0% for the PRE application. Subsequent mesotrione PRE dose response trials identified a wheat selective rate range of >100 and <300 g ai ha−1 that provided greater than 85% wild radish control with less than 15% reduction in wheat growth. Field evaluations confirmed the efficacy of mesotrione at 100 to 150 g ai ha−1 in reducing wild radish populations by greater than 85% following PRE application and incorporation by wheat planting. Additionally, these field trials demonstrated the opportunity for season-long control of wild radish when mesotrione applied PRE was followed by bromoxynil applied POST. The sequential PRE application of mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, followed by POST application of bromoxynil, a herbicide that inhibits photosystem II, has the potential to provide 100% wild radish control with no effect on wheat growth.
Rush skeletonweed is an invasive weed in winter wheat (WW)/summer fallow (SF) rotations in the low to intermediate rainfall areas of the inland Pacific Northwest. Standard weed control practices are not effective, resulting in additional SF tillage or herbicide applications. The objective of this field research was to identify herbicide treatments that control rush skeletonweed during the SF phase of the WW/SF rotation. Trials were conducted near LaCrosse, WA, in 2017–2019 and 2018–2020, and near Hay, WA, in 2018–2020. The LaCrosse 2017–2019 trial was in tilled SF; the other two trials were in no-till SF. Fall postharvest applications in October included clopyralid, clopyralid plus 2,4-D, clopyralid plus 2,4-D plus chlorsulfuron plus metsulfuron, aminopyralid, picloram, and glyphosate plus 2,4-D. Spring treatments of clopyralid, aminopyralid, and glyphosate were applied to rush skeletonweed rosettes. Summer treatments of 2,4-D were applied when rush skeletonweed initiated bolting. Plant density was monitored through the SF phase in all plots. Picloram provided complete control of rush skeletonweed through June at all three locations. Fall-applied clopyralid, clopyralid plus 2,4-D, and clopyralid followed by 2,4-D in summer reduced rush skeletonweed through June at the two LaCrosse sites but were ineffective at Hay. In August, just prior to WW seeding, the greatest reductions in rush skeletonweed density were achieved with picloram and fall-applied clopyralid at the two LaCrosse sites. No treatments provided effective control into August at Hay. Wheat yield in the next crop compared to the nontreated control was reduced only at one LaCrosse site by a spring-applied aminopyralid treatment, otherwise no other reductions were found. Long-term control of rush skeletonweed in WW/SF may be achieved by a combination of fall application of picloram, after wheat harvest, followed by an effective burn-down treatment in August prior to WW seeding.
Yield losses due to weeds are a major threat to wheat production and economic well-being of farmers in the United States and Canada. The objective of this Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) Weed Loss Committee report is to provide estimates of wheat yield and economic losses due to weeds. Weed scientists provided both weedy (best management practices but no weed control practices) and weed-free (best management practices providing >90% weed control) average yield from replicated research trials in both winter and spring wheat from 2007 to 2017. Winter wheat yield loss estimates ranged from 2.9% to 34.4%, with a weighted average (by production) of 25.6% for the United States, 2.9% for Canada, and 23.4% combined. Based on these yield loss estimates and total production, the potential winter wheat loss due to weeds is 10.5, 0.09, and 10.5 billion kg with a potential loss in value of US$2.19, US$0.19, and US$2.19 billion for the United States, Canada, and combined, respectively. Spring wheat yield loss estimates ranged from 7.9% to 47.0%, with a weighted average (by production) of 33.2% for the United States, 8.0% for Canada, and 19.5% combined. Based on this yield loss estimate and total production, the potential spring wheat loss is 4.8, 1.6, and 6.6 billion kg with a potential loss in value of US$1.14, US$0.37, and US$1.39 billion for the United States, Canada, and combined, respectively. Yield loss in this analysis is greater than some previous estimates, likely indicating an increasing threat from weeds. Climate is affecting yield loss in winter wheat in the Pacific Northwest, with percent yield loss being highest in wheat-fallow systems that receive less than 30 cm of annual precipitation. Continued investment in weed science research for wheat is critical for continued yield protection.
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the United States; however, concern is escalating about increasing residues of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil. There is a lack of scientific literature examining the response of cover crops to soil residues of glyphosate or AMPA. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of glyphosate or AMPA residues in silty clay loam soil on emergence, growth, and biomass of cover crops, including cereal rye, crimson clover, field pea, hairy vetch, and winter wheat, as well as their germination in a 0.07% (0.7 g L–1) solution of AMPA or glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln to determine the dose response of broadleaf and grass cover crops to soil-applied glyphosate or AMPA. The results indicated that soil treated with glyphosate or AMPA up to 105 mg ae kg–1 of soil had no effect on the emergence, growth, above-ground biomass, and root biomass of any of the cover crop species tested. To evaluate the impact of AMPA or glyphosate on the seed germination of cover crop species, seeds were soaked in Petri plates filled with a 0.7 g L–1 solution of AMPA or glyphosate. There was no effect of AMPA on seed germination of any of the cover crop species tested. Seed germination of crimson clover and field pea in a 0.7 g L–1 solution of glyphosate was comparable to the nontreated control; however, the germination of cereal rye, hairy vetch, and winter wheat was reduced by 48%, 75%, and 66%, respectively, compared to the nontreated control. The results suggested that glyphosate or AMPA up to 105 mg ae kg–1 in silt clay loam soil is unlikely to cause any negative effect on the evaluated cover crop species.
Late-season control of Palmer amaranth in postharvest wheat stubble is important for reducing the seedbank. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of late-season postemergence herbicides for Palmer amaranth control, shoot dry biomass, and seed production in postharvest wheat stubble. Field experiments were conducted at Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center near Hays, KS, during 2019 and 2020 growing seasons. The study site had a natural seedbank of Palmer amaranth. Herbicide treatments were applied 3 wk after wheat harvest when Palmer amaranth plants had reached the inflorescence initiation stage. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 96% to 98% 8 wk after treatment and shoot biomass as well as seed production was prevented when paraquat was applied alone or when mixed with atrazine, metribuzin, flumioxazin, 2,4-D, sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone, or flumioxazin + metribuzin, and with glyphosate + dicamba, glyphosate + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + 2,4-D, glufosinate + dicamba + glyphosate, and glufosinate + 2,4-D + glyphosate. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 89% to 93% with application of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + atrazine, and saflufenacil + metribuzin resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 15 to 56 g m−2 and production of 1,080 to 7,040 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth control was less than 86% with application of dicamba, 2,4-D, dicamba + atrazine, and saflufenacil resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 38 to 47 g m−2 and production of 3,110 to 6,190 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth was controlled 63% and 72%, shoot biomass was 178 and 161 g m−2, and seed production was 35,180 and 39,510 seeds m−2, respectively, with application of 2,4-D + bromoxynil + fluroxypyr, and bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole + atrazine. Growers should use these effective postemergence herbicide mixes for Palmer amaranth control to prevent seed prevention postharvest in wheat stubble.
The benefits of no-till fallow, which include reduced soil erosion, improved soil health, and increased stored soil water, are in jeopardy because of the widespread development of glyphosate resistance in Russian thistle. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of soil-active, residual herbicides for Russian thistle control in no-till fallow. The combinations of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin alone were each applied in late fall, late winter, and split-applied in late fall and late winter at three sites: Adams, OR, in 2017–2018; Lind, WA, in 2018–2019; and Ralston, WA, in 2019–2020. All treatments provided good to excellent control of the initial flush of Russian thistle when assessed in mid-May, except the late-fall application of metribuzin at all three sites, and the late-fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone at Adams. Cumulative Russian thistle densities, evaluated monthly throughout the fallow season, were lowest for the sulfentrazone + carfentrazone treatments, except for the late-fall application at Adams. However, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone and metribuzin provided greater control of tumble mustard and prickly lettuce than did sulfentrazone + carfentazone. Sulfentrazone + carfentrazone, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin can all be used for Russian thistle control in fallow. To reduce the risk for crop injury to subsequently planted winter wheat, a late-fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone may be the preferred treatment in low-rainfall regions where winter wheat–fallow is commonly practiced. A late-winter application may be preferred in higher rainfall regions where a 3-year rotation (e.g., winter wheat–spring wheat–fallow) is common. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone should be considered if other broadleaf weeds, such as tumble mustard or prickly lettuce, are of concern. The use of these soil-applied herbicides will reduce the need for the frequent application of glyphosate for Russian thistle control in no-till fallow.
Chaff lining and chaff tramlining are harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems that involve the concentration of chaff material containing weed seed into narrow (20 to 30 cm) rows between or on the harvester wheel tracks during harvest. These lines of chaff are left intact in the fields through subsequent cropping seasons in the assumption that the chaff environment is unfavorable for weed seed survival. The chaff row environment effect on weed seed survival was examined in field studies, and chaff response studies determined the influence of increasing amounts of chaff on weed seedling emergence. The objectives of these studies were to determine the influences of (1) chaff lines on the summer–autumn seed survival of selected weed species and (2) chaff type and amount on rigid ryegrass seedling emergence. There was frequently no difference (P > 0.05) in seed survival of four weed species (rigid ryegrass, wild oat, annual sowthistle, and turnip weed) when seeds were placed beneath or beside chaff lines. In one instance, wild oat seed survival was increased (P < 0.05) when seed were placed beneath compared to beside a chaff line. The pot studies determined that increasing amounts of chaff consistently resulted in decreasing numbers of rigid ryegrass seedlings emerging through chaff material. The suppression of emergence broadly followed a linear relationship in which there was approximately a 2.0% reduction in emergence with every 1,000 kg ha–1 increase in chaff material. This relationship was consistent across wheat, barley, canola, and lupin chaff types, indicating that the physical presence of the chaff was more important than chaff type. These studies suggested that chaff lines may not affect the survival over summer–autumn of the contained weed seeds but that the subsequent emergence of weed seedlings will be restricted by high amounts of chaff (>40,000 kg ha–1).
In southern Australia, annual sowthistle and prickly lettuce have become more prevalent following the adoption of reduced tillage cropping systems. They are especially problematic in lentil and other pulse crops, which are weakly competitive and have few herbicide options available for POST control of broadleaf weeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of management in a previous cereal crop on weed densities in a subsequent crop. At two field sites, crop seeding density and POST herbicide treatments (a conventional choice that included metsulfuron-methyl and MCPA; and a proactive choice that included bromoxynil, picolinafen, and MCPA) were applied to a wheat crop, and weed density was assessed at the beginning of the following season to measure for a legacy effect of the treatments. Study site populations were also screened for herbicide resistance and were found to have high (≥90% survival) ALS inhibitor resistance. Crop competition treatments had no effect on weed populations, and effects of herbicide treatment were significant at only one of the sites. At this site, both herbicide treatments had lower weed densities than the nontreated in the first year, but the legacy effect was only significant for annual sowthistle density in the proactive treatment. At both sites, even where weeds were extremely sparse or completely controlled following herbicide treatment in the first year, moderate densities were observed the following year, indicating that colonization from the seedbank or adjacent areas could be contributing to weed numbers. Weed density assessments and accurate knowledge of the herbicide resistance status of target weeds should guide herbicide selection to maximize control.
Glyphosate-resistant horseweed is difficult to manage in no-tillage crop production fields and new strategies are needed. Cover crops may provide an additional management tool but narrow establishment windows and colder growing conditions in northern climates may limit the cover crop biomass required to suppress horseweed. Field experiments were conducted in 3 site-years in Michigan to investigate the effects of two fall-planted cover crops, cereal rye and winter wheat, seeded at 67 or 135 kg ha−1, to suppress horseweed when integrated with three preplant herbicide strategies in no-tillage soybean. The preplant strategies were control (glyphosate only), preplant herbicide without residuals (glyphosate + 2,4-D), and preplant herbicide with residuals (glyphosate + 2,4-D + flumioxazin + metribuzin). Cereal rye produced 79% more biomass and provided 12% more ground cover than winter wheat in 2 site-years. Increasing seeding rate provided 41% more cover biomass in 1 site-year. Cover crops reduced horseweed density 47% to 96% and horseweed biomass by 59% to 70% compared with no cover at the time of cover crop termination. Cover crops provided no additional horseweed suppression 5 wk after soybean planting if a preplant herbicide with or without residuals was applied, but reduced horseweed biomass greater than 33% in the absence of preplant herbicides. Cover crops did not affect horseweed suppression at the time of soybean harvest or influence soybean yield. Preplant herbicide with residuals and without residuals provided at least 52% and 20% greater soybean yield compared with the control at 2 site-years, respectively. Cereal rye and winter wheat provided early-season horseweed suppression at biomass levels below 1,500 kg ha−1, lower than previously reported. This could give growers in northern climates an effective strategy for suppressing horseweed through the time of POST herbicide application while reducing selection pressure for horseweed that is resistant to more herbicide sites of action.
Understanding the effects of crop management practices on weed survival and seed production is imperative in improving long-term weed management strategies, especially for herbicide-resistant weed populations. Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] is an economically important weed in western North American cropping systems for many reasons, including prolific seed production and evolved resistance to numerous herbicide sites of action. Field studies were conducted in 2014 in a total of four field sites in Wyoming, Montana, and Nebraska to quantify the impact of different crop canopies and herbicide applications on B. scoparia density and seed production. Crops used in this study were spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). Herbicide treatments included either acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors effective on non-resistant B. scoparia or a non–ALS inhibiting herbicide effective for both ALS-resistant and ALS-susceptible B. scoparia. Bassia scoparia density midseason was affected more by herbicide choice than by crop canopy, whereas B. scoparia seed production per plant was affected more by crop canopy compared with herbicide treatment. Our results suggest that crop canopy and herbicide treatments were both influential on B. scoparia seed production per unit area, which is likely a key indicator of long-term management success for this annual weed species. The lowest germinable seed production per unit area was observed in spring wheat treated with non–ALS inhibiting herbicides, and the greatest germinable seed production was observed in sugar beet treated with ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The combined effects of crop canopy and herbicide treatment can minimize B. scoparia establishment and seed production.
The adoption of chemical fallow rotations in Pacific Northwest dryland winter wheat production has caused a weed species composition shift in which scouringrush has established in production fields. Thus, there has been interest in identifying herbicides that effectively control scouringrush in winter wheat–chemical fallow cropping systems. Field experiments were established in growers’ fields near Reardan, WA, in 2014, and The Dalles, OR, in 2015. Ten herbicide treatments were applied to mowed and nonmowed plots during chemical fallow rotations. Scouringrush stem densities were quantified the following spring and after wheat harvest at both locations. Chlorsulfuron plus MCPA-ester resulted in nearly 100% control of scouringrush through wheat harvest. Before herbicide application, mowing had no effect on herbicide efficacy. We conclude chlorsulfuron plus MCPA-ester is a commercially acceptable treatment for smooth and intermediate scouringrush control in winter wheat–chemical fallow cropping systems; however, the lack of a positive yield response when scouringrushes were controlled should factor into management decisions.
In 2015, winter wheat growers in Virginia reported commercial failures of thifensulfuron to control mouse-ear cress. This was the first reported case of field-evolved acetolactate synthase (ALS) resistance in mouse-ear cress, so research was conducted to evaluate alternative herbicide options as well as to document potential yield loss in winter wheat from mouse-ear cress. Efficacy studies were conducted at three site-years in 2015 to 2016 and 2016 to 2017 as well as a POST greenhouse trial. In the PRE study, flumioxazin, pyroxasulfone, saflufenacil, and metribuzin resulted in more than 80% mouse-ear cress control 15 wk after planting across all sites with no observable wheat injury. No differences were observed in wheat yield in two of three sites in the PRE herbicide study; yield differences were attributed to common chickweed and not to mouse-ear cress. In the POST herbicide study, 2,4-D, dicamba, and metribuzin resulted in greater than 75% control in the field and greenhouse. Metribuzin, dicamba, and pyroxsulam resulted in crop injury 3 wk after treatment at some sites, but injury was transient. Yield from all POST treatments was similar to the nontreated plots. No yield loss was observed by mouse-ear cress densities greater than 300 plants m–2, indicating that mouse-ear cress is not very competitive with winter wheat. Growers should make herbicide decisions based on other weeds in the field and can incorporate the aforementioned herbicides for mouse-ear cress control.
In response to concerns about acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor–resistant weeds in wheat production systems, we explored the efficacy of managing Bromus spp., downy and Japanese bromes, in a winter wheat system using alternative herbicide treatments applied in either fall or spring. Trials were established at Lethbridge and Kipp, Alberta, and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada over three growing seasons (2012–2014) to compare the efficacy of pyroxasulfone (a soil-applied very-long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor; WSSA Group 15) and flumioxazin (a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor; WSSA Group 14) against industry-standard ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy and Japanese brome control. Winter wheat injury from herbicide application was minor, with the exception of flucarbazone application at Scott. Bromus spp. control was greatest with pyroxsulam and all herbicide treatments containing pyroxasulfone. Downy and Japanese bromes were controlled least by thiencarbazone and flumioxazin, respectively, whereas Bromus spp. had intermediate responses to the other herbicides tested. Herbicides applied in fall resulted in reduced winter wheat yield relative to the spring applications. Overall, pyroxasulfone or pyroxsulam provided the most efficacious Bromus spp. control compared with the other herbicides and consistently maintained optimal winter wheat yields. Therefore, pyroxasulfone could facilitate management of Bromus spp. resistant to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat in the southern growing regions of western Canada. Improved weed control and delayed herbicide resistance may be achieved when pyroxasulfone is applied in combination with flumioxazin.
Phytotoxic effects of metabolites from a naturally occurring rhizobacterial isolate, Pseudomonas syringae strain 3366, were determined on downy brome and ‘Hill 81’ winter wheat, along with 10 other weed and crop species. Centrifuged supernatant and concentrated ethyl acetate extracts from aerobic shake cultures of strain 3366 suppressed germination of seeds and reduced root and shoot growth in agar diffusion assays, soil assays, and under field conditions. Generally, root growth was inhibited more than shoot growth. Strain 3366 metabolites applied in soil inhibited all species tested. Crude ethyl acetate extracts in soil inhibited downy brome at concentrations that had little effect on winter wheat. Inhibitory activity was greater in Palouse silt loam (pH 5.8, 3.6% organic matter) than in Shano silt loam (pH 9.0, 0.8% organic matter). Activity of extracted metabolites decreased rapidly in wet soil but remained high in dry soil. Active metabolites were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and crystallization. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 2-amino phenoxazone, and 2-amino phenol. Activity of these metabolites against downy brome was confirmed in agar assays. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, the major identifiable metabolite present in ethyl acetate extracts (20% by weight), inhibited downy brome root growth by 99% at concentrations of 5.7 mg L−1. Production of these metabolites in field soil by live bacteria of strain 3366 was confirmed with thin-layer chromatography.
Toxicities of the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], SC-0224 (trimethylsulfonium carboxymethylaminomethylphosphonate), and SC-0545 (trimethylsulfoxonium carboxymethylaminomethylphosphonate) were similar to hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Centurk 78′) at equal dosages, carrier volumes, carrier water qualities, and sulfuric acid concentrations in the greenhouse and field at Lincoln, NE. Toxicity of HOE-00661 [ammonium (3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-methylphosphinate] was less than the other herbicides at equal dosages. Rate of development of injury to wheat was similar at 0.4 kg/ha for glyphosate, SC-0224, and SC-0545, but greater for HOE-00661 up to 4 days after application and less thereafter. Reductions in carrier volume from 190 to 96 L/ha resulted in improved phytotoxicities for glyphosate, SC-0224, and SC-0545 at 0.1 kg/ha and HOE-00661 at 0.4 kg/ha. Addition of 0.25% (v/v) concentrated sulfuric acid to 190 L/ha of well water carrier resulted in improved phytotoxicities for glyphosate, SC-0224, and SC-0545 at 0.1 kg/ha and HOE-00661 at 0.4 kg/ha. Carrier water with reduced levels of polyvalent cations resulted in increased phytotoxicities of glyphosate, SC-0224, and SC-0545 at 0.1 kg/ha in 190 L/ha. Phytotoxicity of HOE-00661 was not affected by carrier water quality. Glyphosate, SC-0224, and SC-0545 at equal rates and HOE-00661 at a 4 X rate showed similar toxicity to wheat.
A biotype of kochia resistant to chlorsulfuron has been isolated from a Kansas wheat field that had been treated with chlorsulfuron for five consecutive years. In greenhouse tests, the biotype also was resistant to both preemergence and postemergence herbicides with the same mode of action including imazapyr, CGA-131036, the methyl ester of metsulfuron, DPX-M6316, DPX-L5300, and the methyl ester of sulfometuron. The degree of cross resistance varied among the herbicides tested. Herbicides with different modes of action, including atrazine, bromoxynil, MCPA, and diuron, effectively controlled the resistant biotype in the greenhouse.