To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chapter 15, ‘Women and Music Education in Schools: Pedagogues, Curricula, and Role Models’, surveys women’s contribution to music education. Although women in music has gained a steady foothold in university and conservatoire education over the last two decades, music education at school level (this chapter’s focus) has tended to remain fairly conservative. Robert Legg discusses women’s access to the teaching profession, highlighting that, while it has always been relatively open to women, persistent barriers remain, including a lack of women in leadership roles and the gender pay gap. He also critiques the body/mind dualist view of music education, the lack of female role models in many curricula, and recent pedagogical debates of the twenty-first century.
This Element discusses how shiny, an R package, can help instructors teach quantitative methods more effectively by way of interactive web apps. The interactivity increases instructors' effectiveness by making students more active participants in the learning process, allowing them to engage with otherwise complex material in an accessible, dynamic way. The Element offers four detailed apps that cover two fundamental linear regression topics: estimation methods (least squares, maximum likelihood) and the classic linear regression assumptions. It includes a summary of what the apps can be used to demonstrate, detailed descriptions of the apps' full capabilities, vignettes from actual class use, and example activities. Two other apps pertain to a more advanced topic (LASSO), with similar supporting material. For instructors interested in modifying the apps, the Element also documents the main apps' general code structure, highlights some of the more likely modifications, and goes through what functions need to be amended.
Given that the pedagogical potential of corrective feedback (CF) for second language (L2) pronunciation development has received rapidly increasing interest in recent years (e.g., Saito & Lyster, 2012 in Language Learning), it is timely and prudent to provide a piece of scholarly work which focuses on synthesizing and presenting the current state of affairs. According to existing descriptive studies, both teachers and learners equally consider the provision of CF to be a crucial component of L2 pronunciation development, especially when the errors in question hinder successful communication. More recently, a growing number of scholars have investigated the acquisitional value of pronunciation-focused CF by conducting quasi-experimental studies with a pre-test/post-test design in both classroom and laboratory settings. Whereas the results have generally shown that pronunciation-focused CF facilitates the development of both segmental and suprasegmental accuracy, the effectiveness of such CF techniques appears to be subject to a great deal of individual variability. Specifically, the potentials of pronunciation-focused CF can be maximized (a) when L2 learners have enough phonetic knowledge, conversational experience, and perceptual awareness of target sounds; (b) when CF provides model pronunciation forms (e.g., recasts rather than prompts); and (c) when the target of instruction concerns communicatively important and salient features.
This chapter explains how and why The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Race would have been nearly impossible to create thirty years ago. It traces how the volume requires scholars who know not only Shakespeare’s works, the historical and cultural milieu of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries in England and Europe, and the archives that hold the historical documents from these time periods, but also the history of imperialism, alternative archives that reveal more about the various lives of people of color in the early modern world, and the history of Shakespeare’s employment in various theatrical, educational, and political moments in history – from the seventeenth century to the twenty-first century. Post-colonial studies, African American studies, critical race studies, and queer studies allow scholars to apply new methodologies to Shakespeare and his contemporaries.
The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Race shows teachers and students how and why Shakespeare and race are inseparable. Moving well beyond Othello, the collection invites the reader to understand racialized discourses, rhetoric, and performances in all of Shakespeare's plays, including the comedies and histories. Race is presented through an intersectional approach with chapters that focus on the concepts of sexuality, lineage, nationality, and globalization. The collection helps students to grapple with the unique role performance plays in constructions of race by Shakespeare (and in Shakespearean performances), considering both historical and contemporary actors and directors. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Race will be the first book that truly frames Shakespeare studies and early modern race studies for a non-specialist, student audience.
Peritonsillar abscess, or quinsy, is one of the most common emergency presentations to ENT departments, and is the most common deep tissue infection of the head and neck. In the UK, junior members of the ENT team are regularly required to independently assess, diagnose and treat patients with peritonsillar aspiration or incision and drainage.
Inexperienced practitioners can stumble at several obstacles: poor access due to trismus; poor lighting; difficulty in learning the therapeutic procedure; and difficulty in accurately documenting findings and treatment.
To counter these and other difficulties, the authors describe the routine use of video endoscopy as a training tool and therapeutic adjunct in the management of quinsy.
As industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists, we have expertise in applying psychological and/or organizational science to the workplace. However, many of us haven’t taken the time to think about how our I-O psychology knowledge can apply to our teaching practice. We walk through some examples of how I-O psychology research can help us be better teachers, and the goal of our paper is to encourage readers to make evidence-based changes to their teaching based on I-O psychology research. We organize our discussion around four areas: training and development, diversity and inclusion, groups and teams, and leadership. Within each, we offer small, medium, and large changes that could be incorporated into classrooms. We hope that readers will be inspired to build on what they do in their classrooms to help students learn about (and be inspired by) our field.
Examining sympathy or empathy as a part of ethics may seem odd, especially if one is accustomed to thinking that ethics is a purely intuitive, rational, procedural, or codified matter. The answer to the question of what sympathy or empathy have to do with ethics can, however, take a number of both beneficial and detrimental directions. Even so, Dewey’s conclusion is that sympathy is such a crucial aspect of ethical inquiry and action that ethical reflection and maturation would be greatly impoverished without it. He holds that sympathy is pertinent to everyone but especially to those who interact regularly with children and youth and with those who are fulfilling normative responsibilities. As we pursue his thought, some details of the ethical difficulties and opportunities at the Academy are used to demonstrate why sympathy can be helpful but deserves “protection from sentimentality” and other distorting influences (LW 7, 270). In addition, it is also obvious that more than sympathy is necessary: inquiry, facts, data, deliberation, and experimentation are important too. Consequently, in districts and schools, there may be grounds to argue that there should be ongoing projects to help synthesize research about empathy and related topics. Suffice it to say, now, there is much to learn by examining psychological as well as philosophical considerations that illuminate empathy and ethics education.
The chapter draws on The Lion and the Unicorn to argue that Nineteen Eighty-Four, like ‘Such, Such Were the Joys’, represents a shift in Orwell’s thought as he critiques a meritocratic social order in a depiction of a dystopian society ordered around intellectual ability. The chapter examines intellectual control in Oceania through two processes: firstly, ‘doublethink’, a process through which the most intelligent members of society must submit themselves more completely to an act of self-hypnosis and secondly, the chapter contextualizes Ingsoc’s slogans against Animal Farm to argue that Orwell identifies political slogans with mind control. The chapter argues that the novel is Winston Smith’s thwarted bildungsroman, analysing how its form is designed to interrogate Ingsoc’s slogans. It examines the scenes of Winston’s self-education as he reads Goldstein’s Book and the children’s history textbook and suggests how the novel’s torture scene is aligned with the pedagogic, as the pupil/teacher relationship is redefined by Orwell as a relationship based upon intellectual manipulation. The tension between the pedagogic form of the novel, which explores political slogans and creates curiosity in the reader, and its criticism of the catechistic model of teaching, renders the novel paradoxically an anti-pedagogic pedagogic text.
In this chapter, we explore the use of text and instant messaging among refugee teachers to understand how the use of mobile phones and social networks supports more gender-sensitive and equitable teaching and learning environments both in and outside of the classroom. Our data include surveys and group interviews with refugee teachers, as well as semi-structured interviews with instructors of teacher training programmes with origins in Kenyan and Canadian iNGOs and universities. The use of technology, and in particular mobile platforms like SMS and WhatsApp chat groups, has become a common complement to these teacher training programmes. We have documented this practice as being part of both formal and informal training, as pedagogical tools used by instructors to support the delivery of courses and by student-teachers during and following their training. Group chats and SMS have translated gender-equity training beyond the temporal and physical space of the classroom, as teachers-in-training continued to discuss pedagogical tools and learning strategies during and after their training. We also share how mobile phones and social networks have extended these ideas to the surrounding communities, including parents and community leaders, to support education for girls and women.
Although mentoring has been widely accepted as a support mechanism for newly appointed consultants, there are many other applications of coaching and mentoring that are less widely appreciated, such as in the development of leadership skills or in having coaching conversations with trainees to facilitate learning. This article summarises some of the basic principles and practices of coaching and mentoring, with a focus on useful knowledge for psychiatric trainers. It describes some of the qualities and skills needed in a coach or mentor; the use of questioning techniques and models; and how the coach or mentor needs an awareness of the importance of the contract in the coaching and mentoring relationship, of the role of coaching or mentoring supervision, and of the ability to evaluate coaching or mentoring. It also discusses some of the organisational context, challenges and opportunities of embedding coaching and mentoring more deeply into the work culture. It is argued that coaching and mentoring as supportive interventions have not been prioritised in the National Health Service in the same way that they have been in the private business sector, where performance and financial success are measurably increased by these techniques.
Case Learning for Teachers: Strategic Knowledge for Professional Experience is a unique resource for Australian pre-service educators that draws on the author's experiences as an education researcher, lecturer and classroom teacher. This textbook uses a case stories approach to support pre-service teachers in developing the skills of observation and reflective practice necessary for professional experience placements and the transition to the classroom. Part 1 introduces the case learning approach and outlines strategies for reading and writing case stories. Part 2 is structured by the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. The text includes case stories addressing topics like knowing your students, knowing content, planning for teaching, managing behaviour, diverse learners, assessment, and developing professional relationships in the school setting. Integrating threshold concepts and the case-learning model, the innovative approach taken by Case Learning for Teachers makes it an invaluable tool for pre-service teachers.
Knowing the content of a learning area as a teacher is a different kind of knowledge to knowing the content as a learner. This chapter’s fertile question asks you to consider not only what kinds and how much content you need to know in order to teach it, but how you need to know it.
ENT presentations are prevalent in clinical practice but feature little in undergraduate curricula. Consequently, most medical graduates are not confident managing common ENT conditions. In 2014, the first evidence-based ENT undergraduate curriculum was published to guide medical schools.
To assess the extent that current UK medical school learning outcomes correlate with the syllabus of the ENT undergraduate curriculum.
Two students from each participating medical school independently reviewed all ENT-related curriculum documents to determine whether learning outcomes from the suggested curriculum were met.
Sixteen of 34 curricula were reviewed. Only a minority of medical schools delivered teaching on laryngectomy or tracheostomy, nasal packing or cautery, and ENT medications or surgical procedures.
There is wide variability in ENT undergraduate education in UK medical schools. Careful consideration of which topics are prioritised, and the teaching modalities utilised, is essential. In addition, ENT learning opportunities for undergraduates outside of the medical school curriculum should be augmented.
This chapter explores some of the main concepts connected to mindfulness by covering key terms and ways of being mindful. Readers are introduced to Western research into mindfulness, such as self-compassion, and are invited to explore formal and informal mindfulness practices.
In this chapter, you will gain an understanding of resilience in teachers and teaching, coping strategies for sustaining a teaching career, being mindful as a teacher, your wellbeing and ability to flourish and the meaning of a growth mindset.
Chapter 9 focuses on an inference about Neanderthal language drawn from data about the experimental teaching of stone-tool making to modern humans. Comprising three inferential steps, the knapping-pedagogy inference looks as follows in outline: Experimentally gathered data about the transmission of Oldowan technology to modern humans → Verbal language enhances the transmission of Oldowan technology to modern humans → Verbal language originated hundreds of thousands years ago as a prerequisite for Acheulean technology → Some Neanderthals had verbal language. There are various reasons for doubting the soundness of this inference. First, its empirical grounding is contentious: some experimental studies have found verbal interaction to be unnecessary for teaching knapping skills, even causing underperformance by modern learners. Second, Chapter 9 finds the inferential steps to lack the required logical force. For instance, it cannot be inferred that verbal language was a prerequisite for teaching knapping technology to modern humans from data that it only enhances the teaching of such technology to modern humans. This logical flaw leaves the final inferential step ungrounded.
We discuss a two-week summer course on “Network Science” and “Complex Systems” that we taught for 15 German high-school pupils of ages 16–18. In this course, we covered topics in graph theory, applied network science, programming, and dynamic systems alike. We find that “Network Science” is a well-suited course for introducing students to university-level mathematics. We reflect on difficulties regarding programming exercises and the discussion of more advanced topics in dynamic systems. We make the course material available and encourage fellow network scientists to organize similar outreach events.