Large conglomerate lenses occur in a fine-grained siliciclastic succession of the Singhbhum craton, eastern India. They overlie an Archaean orthogneiss, from which they are separated by a palaeosol. Neither the conglomerates nor the directly overlying rocks have been dated, but the conglomerate unit is assumed to have also an Archaean age. The conglomerate lenses occur within a succession of pelitic and mafic schists, and the depositional environment of this conglomerate/schist unit had not been clarified thus far. On the basis of a combination of the vertical and horizontal distribution of the conglomerates, their stratigraphic position and analysis of their sedimentological characteristics and the sedimentological context, it is concluded that the succession must have developed in a fluvial lowland environment where volcanic input contributed significantly to the sediment accumulation.