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Chapter 2 introduces the need for wireless network performance analysis tools to drive optimal network deployments and set optimal parameter values and describes the main building blocks and models of any wireless network performance analysis tool. In more details, it focuses on i) the system-level simulation and ii) the theoretical performance analysis concepts used in this book, paying particular attention to stochastic geometry frameworks.
Teaching formats are constantly evolving over the years to adapt to newer methods of student learning. In the ancient times, the practice of ‘Gurukul System’ where students would go and live with a teacher and learn all that teacher would know and practice by listening and observing. Here the method adopted was more tacit-to-tacit knowledge transfer between the teacher and the students. The learning here used to be a function of student’s ability to absorb skill and knowledge, and the evaluation used to be a function of real demonstration of student’s ability. This method has changed in the last hundred years where a more formal schooling system has evolved to get both teachers and students in one place, and the knowledge is transferred explicitly in the form of a prescribed curriculum. The learning in a ‘classroom’ environment is more formatted and the evaluation is based on formal assessments. In the recent years, lot of interest has been developed to innovate the teaching formats so that a ‘student centric learning’ can be practiced in a classroom environment. As described by Kaplan (2021) in this book’s first chapter, changes triggered by the COVID 19 pandemic have impacted the Education Sector extensively giving birth to a digital mode of instruction as the new normal. The digital platform and the transformation it can bring into the practice has created new interest among the teaching community to explore better teaching formats.
The chapter introduces the Microwave Liquid Crystal Technology which features unique properties for reconfigurable systems for mm-wave communications. After an intrioduction of the material's properties, different implementations of components and systems are compared and discussed such as phase shifters, tunable filters and steerable antenna systems. These LC-based components are implemented for wide frequency range from about 10 GHz up to THz. Characterization, modelling and simulation are key for the design of such components,. Therefore, suited methodology is presented. Additionally, an literature review on available realizations and technologies is given.
In keeping with the pattern established in the first part of the book, the sixth chapter turns to a literary development of some key theoretical points, in this case examining how A Midsummer Night’s Dream guides empathic responses of audience members. More precisely, the processes of empathic understanding and emotion are highly complex in any real-world activity. That complexity involves repeated cycles of perception, recollection, inference, and simulation that are inseparable from one another, regularly providing the conditions for one another’s operation. (Simulation is a quasi-perceptual imagination of particular causal sequences that may be hypothetical and/or counterfactual, or they may simply serve to fill in unobserved aspects of an ongoing situation.) All these inferential and simulative processes are on display in our spontaneous and elective, automatic and effortful forms of empathic processing of literature. Through the analysis of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the chapter illustrates some aspects of this complexity as it bears on empathic response.
Memory function is at the core of the psychopathology of dissociative identity disorder (DID), but little is known about its psychobiological correlates.
This study aims to investigate whether memory function in DID differs between dissociative identity states
Behavioural data and neural activation patterns were assessed in 92 sessions during an n-back working memory task. Participants were people with genuine diagnosed DID (n = 14), DID-simulating controls (n = 16) and a paired control group (post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16), healthy controls (n = 16)). Both DID groups participated as authentic or simulated neutral and trauma-related identity states. Reaction times and errors of omission were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Working memory neural activation (main working memory and linear load) was investigated for effects of identity state, participant group and their interaction.
Identity state-dependent behavioural performance and neural activation was found. DID simulators made fewer errors of omission than those with genuine DID. Regarding the prefrontal parietal network, main working memory in the left frontal pole and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 44) was activated in all three simulated neutral states, and in trauma-related identity states of DID simulators, but not those with genuine DID or post-traumatic stress disorder; for linear load, trauma-related identity states of those with genuine DID did not engage the parietal regions.
Behavioural performance and neural activation patterns related to working memory in DID are dependent on the dissociative identities involved. The narrowed consciousness of trauma-related identity states, with a proneness to re-experiencing traumatising events, may relate to poorer working memory functioning.
This chapter reviews research on how video games have been used in schools and other learning environments and how they impact learning outcomes. This chapter reviews four functions of video games in learning. Games as content teach specific disciplinary knowledge, for example in history, math, second language learning, physics, and medicine. Games as bait leverage the engaging aspects of video games to attract students to the game even when it is not obviously about learning. Games as assessment use the “leveling up” feature of games, where players advance to the next level as their skills increase, as a way to assess the player’s developing knowledge. Games as architectures for engagement are studied by examining how and why people play games and how they can be designed to best foster learning by fostering involvement, immersion, and investment – often using narrative structures. There is evidence that when games are designed on learning sciences principles, they contribute to deeper learning.
We report the development, implementation, and results of a sustainable region-wide mass-casualty management prehospital training program implemented by the Regione Lombardia emergency medical services (EMS) agency AREU in Italy.
The educational program learning objectives are: (1) command and control, communications, and resource management; (2) mass casualty triage and the START triage protocol; (3) on-scene management; (4) Regione Lombardia and AREU Mass Casualty standard operating procedures; and (5) inter-agency communications and relations. For each course edition data on participants’ summative assessment, participants’ feedback and costs were collected.
Between June 26, 2013, and December 31, 2020, a total of 84 editions of the provider training event were delivered, training an overall 1329 prehospital providers; 1239 (93%) passed the summative assessment and were qualified as being operationally “ready.” Regarding participant feedback, the overall program was rated 4.4 ± 0.7 out of 5. The overall cost of running the provider program during the study period was €321 510 (circa US $382 000). The average cost per edition was €3828 and €242 per participant.
We have described a simple yet interactive simulation and blended-learning approach, which has yielded good pass rates, good participant satisfaction, and contained costs to systematically train emergency medical service personnel.
The authors designed and delivered simulation training to improve the confidence and competence of junior doctors beginning work in psychiatry. Junior doctors completed various simulated psychiatry scenarios while receiving personalised feedback and teaching from their peers in online or socially distanced settings. Learners rated their confidence in psychiatry skills pre- and post-session, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were conducted to detect statistically significant differences. Qualitative feedback was analysed thematically.
Twenty-one junior doctors attended the training. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvements in trainee confidence across all psychiatry skills tested. The most enjoyable aspects of the session included its ‘interactivity’, relevance to clinical practice, and ‘realistic’ and ‘interesting’ simulated scenarios.
Near-peer simulation teaching, delivered both in person and online, is effective at improving junior doctors’ confidence in psychiatry. Delivering this training during placement induction could help to ensure adequate preparation of, and support for, new doctors.
Genetic studies of complex traits often show disparities in estimated heritability depending on the method used, whether by genomic associations or twin and family studies. We present a simulation of individual genomes with dynamic environmental conditions to consider how linear and nonlinear effects, gene-by-environment interactions, and gene-by-environment correlations may work together to govern the long-term development of complex traits and affect estimates of heritability from common methods. Our simulation studies demonstrate that the genetic effects estimated by genome wide association studies in unrelated individuals are inadequate to characterize gene-by-environment interaction, while including related individuals in genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) allows gene-by-environment interactions to be recovered in the heritability. These theoretical findings provide an explanation for the “missing heritability” problem and bridge the conceptual gap between the most common findings of GCTA and twin studies. Future studies may use the simulation model to test hypotheses about phenotypic complexity either in an exploratory way or by replicating well-established observations of specific phenotypes.
The use of the present tense to refer to the past in scenic narrative, that is, narrative passages where discourse time comes close to story time, depends on the pretense that the past events are being currently re-enacted. This pretense is facilitated by a mimetic style of narrating: the narrative is construed in such a way that the activity of processing the narrative is similar to the processing of actual experience. This is achieved in three ways. First, by narrating events that are concrete and appeal to our sensorimotor faculties. Second, by depicting the narrative events through gesture, direct speech representation, sound symbolism, and other means. Third, by using simple grammar to mimic the immediacy of actual experience. Moreover, the present tense is more likely to be used when the narrated events are high in communicative dynamism, which means that they are particularly newsworthy or important for the development of the discourse.
First-year cardiology fellows must quickly learn basic competency in echocardiography during fellowship orientation. This educational process was disrupted in 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic, as our hands-on echocardiography teaching transitioned from practice on paediatric volunteers to simulation-based training. We previously described an improvement in echocardiographic completeness after implementation of a standardised imaging protocol for the performance of acute assessments of ventricular function. Herein, we assessed whether this improvement could be sustained over the two subsequent years, including the fellowship year affected by the pandemic. Echocardiograms performed by first-year paediatric cardiology fellows to assess ventricular function were reviewed for completeness. The frequency with which each requested component was included was measured. A total demographic score (out of 7) and total imaging score (out of 23) were calculated. The pre-protocol years (2015–2017) were compared to the post-protocol years (2018–2020), and the pre-COVID years (2018–2019) were compared to the year affected by COVID (2020). There was a sustained improvement in completeness after protocol implementation with improvement in the demographic score (median increasing from 6 to 7, p < 0.001) and imaging score (median increasing from 13 to 16, p < 0.001). More individual components showed a statistically significant increase in frequency compared to our prior publication. The COVID pandemic resulted in very few differences in completeness. Demographic reporting improved modestly (p = 0.04); the imaging score was unchanged (p = 0.59). The only view obtained less frequently was the apical two-chamber view. A standardised imaging protocol allowed sustained improvements in echocardiographic completeness despite the disruption of fellowship orientation by COVID-19.
Serious gaming is an emerging approach to conflict resolution. Serious games provide a structured environment in which learning, research, and joint fact finding occur. Several serious games focus on water and groundwater. The Unitization Simulation Game, included here, provides a tool for mediators to show how collective governance of an aquifer can create win-win scenarios for players. This game includes resource management decisions, transresource effects, divergent interests, and collaboration components. These aspects of the game are intended to simulate how groundwater issues develop and how aquifer unitization could provide a solution.
This paper describes a reconstruction method for atom probe tomography based on a bottom-up approach accounting for (i) the final tip morphology (which is frequently induced by inhomogeneous evaporation probabilities across the tip surface due to laser absorption, heat diffusion effects, and inhomogeneous material properties), (ii) the limited (and changing) field of view, and (iii) the detector efficiency. The reconstruction starts from the final tip morphology and reverses the evaporation sequence through the pseudo-deposition of defined small reconstruction volumes, which are then stacked together to create the full three-dimensional (3D) tip. The subdivision in small reconstruction volumes allows the scheme to account for the changing tip shape and field of view as evaporation proceeds. Atoms within the same small reconstruction volume are reconstructed at once by placing atoms back onto their possible lattice sites through a trajectory-matching process involving simulated and experimental hit maps. As the ejected ion trajectories are simulated using detailed electrostatic modeling inside the chamber, no simplifications have been imposed on the shape of the trajectories, projection laws, or tip surface. We demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over the conventional reconstruction method (Bas) for an asymmetrical tip shape.
The rotorcraft is a complex dynamical system that demands specialist modelling skills, and a high level of understanding of the aeromechanics arising from the main rotor wake and aerodynamic couplings. One such example is the difficulty predicting off-axis responses, particularly in hover and low-speed flight, associated with induced velocity variation through the rotor disk resulting from the rotor wake distortions. Various approaches have been developed to deal with this phenomenon but usually demand prerequisites of high levels of expertise and profound aerodynamic knowledge. This paper presents a new and practical approach to capturing this wake distortion through an augmented rotor inflow model. The proposed model is coupled with a nonlinear simulation using the FLIGHTLAB environment, and comparisons are made between the simulation results and flight test data from the National Research Council of Canada’s Advanced System Research Aircraft in hover and low speed. Results show good predictability of the proposed nonlinear model structure, demonstrated by its capability to closely match the time responses to multi-step control inputs from flight test. The results reported are part of ongoing research at Liverpool and Cranfield University into rotorcraft simulation fidelity.
Frames and framing make one dimension of a decision problem particularly salient. In the simplest case, frames prime responses (as in, e.g., the Asian Disease paradigm, where the gain frame primes risk-aversion and the loss frame primes risk-seeking). But in more complicated situations frames can function reflectively, by making salient particular reason-giving aspects of a thing, outcome, or action. For Shakespeare's Macbeth, for example, his feudal commitments are salient in one frame, while downplayed in another in favor of his personal ambition.
The role of frames in reasoning can give rise to rational framing effects. Macbeth can prefer fulfilling his feudal duty to murdering the king, while also preferring bravely taking the throne to fulfilling his feudal duty, knowing full well that bravely taking the throne just is murdering the king. Such patterns of quasi-cyclical preferences can be correct and appropriate from the normative perspective of how one ought to reason.
The paper explores three less dramatic types of rational framing effects: (1) Consciously framing and reframing long-term goals and short-term temptations can be important tools for self-control; (2) In the prototypical social interactions modeled by game theory, allowing for rational framing effects solves longstanding problems, such as the equilibrium selection problem and explaining the appeal of non-equilibrium solutions (e.g., the cooperative solution in the Prisoner's Dilemma). (3) Processes for resolving interpersonal conflicts and breaking discursive deadlock, because they involve internalizing multiple and incompatible ways of framing actions and outcomes, in effect create rational framing effects.
We investigate properties of random mappings whose core is composed of derangements as opposed to permutations. Such mappings arise as the natural framework for studying the Screaming Toes game described, for example, by Peter Cameron. This mapping differs from the classical case primarily in the behaviour of the small components, and a number of explicit results are provided to illustrate these differences.
This paper is concerned with developing low variance simulation estimators of probabilities related to the sum of Bernoulli random variables. It shows how to utilize an identity used in the Chen-Stein approach to bounding Poisson approximations to obtain low variance estimators. Applications and numerical examples in such areas as pattern occurrences, generalized coupon collecting, system reliability, and multivariate normals are presented. We also consider the problem of estimating the probability that a positive linear combination of Bernoulli random variables is greater than some specified value, and present a simulation estimator that is always less than the Markov inequality bound on that probability.
Chapter 2 delves into George Orwell’s use of the second-person pronoun in Down and Out in Paris and London published in 1933. It has been rarely noted in Orwell’s autobiographical essay and yet, alternating between the ‘I’ pronoun and the indefinite ‘one’, it uniquely brings the reader to more directly experience what other sentient beings living in deprivation are going through. A detailed quantitative as well as qualitative analysis is offered, classifying the different ‘you’ that pervade the text based on linguistic clues and contextual parameters, exposing all the plasticity of the pronoun. The results show that ‘you’ oscillates between specificity and genericity in a way subtly exploited by Orwell in his attempt at implicating the reader in re-living his experience as a tramp through writing about it.
To accurately predict propagation dynamics for single or multiple change propagations across different product development stages in a sequential or concurrent way is critical for decision-making of implementing change requests. In this paper, a change propagation dynamic model is built based on the compartmentalization of engineering entities into susceptible engineering entities and affected engineering entities (SA), the ordinary differential equations for describing the rate of affected entities with respect to the total ones and the duration for resolving all the changes for every moment are presented by combining the calculations of change impacts with different split and joint junctions. Considering the difficulty of finding analytical solutions to the differential equations, algorithms for sequential and concurrent simulations of change propagations across different development stages, and random and GA (Genetic Algorithm)-based optimal selections of feasible propagation paths are developed to obtain numerical solutions for single and multiple change requests. Simulation results show that change ripples and blossoms can be observed in both sequential and concurrent change propagations, and these propagation patterns are not sensitive to the initial change effect and the threshold value for propagations, while critical change propagation paths and the number of initiated changes have important effects on both concurrent and sequential change propagation process. It is also demonstrated that concurrent propagation strategy is advantageous for processing single or few of initiated changes since it can shorten product redevelopment time, sequential propagation strategy has an advantage of robustness for handling multiple initiated change requests.
The development of routine dynamics entails both a theoretical shift and changes in methodology. Agent-based modelling (ABM) offers an approach to enriching our understandings of routine dynamics from the ‘bottom-up’. This chapter provides an overview of ABM methodology in routine dynamics research. It includes a comparison of the eleven contemporary agent-based models (ABMs) selected from literature, a summary of research challenges and reflections on future work. As this chapter shows, we can differentiate ABMs in routine dynamics based on levels of analysis and concrete research questions. Further, developing empirically grounded ABMs will be a challenging but worthwhile effort.