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Emerging high-performance architectures are anticipated to contain unreliable components that may exhibit soft errors, which silently corrupt the results of computations. Full detection and masking of soft errors is challenging, expensive and, for some applications, unnecessary. For example, approximate computing applications (such as multimedia processing, machine learning and big data analytics) can often naturally tolerate soft errors. In this chapter, we demonstrate how a programming language, Rely, enables developers to reason about and verify the quantitative reliability of an application – namely, the probability that it produces the correct result when executed on unreliable hardware. Rely leverages a static quantitative reliability analysis that verifies quantitative requirements on the reliability of an application, enabling a developer to perform sound and verified reliability engineering.
Reliable and valid assessment of sports nutrition knowledge can inform athlete nutrition education to address knowledge gaps. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of an electronically administered sports nutrition knowledge tool – Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge of Sports Nutrition Questionnaire (PEAKS-NQ). A 94-item PEAKS-NQ was piloted to 149 developmental athletes (DA) in New Zealand, with a subset invited to complete the PEAKS-NQ again to assess reliability. Reliability was evaluated using sign test, intraclass correlation and Cronbach’s α. Accredited sports dietitians (ASD; n 255) completed the PEAKS-NQ to establish construct validity via known-groups methodology and provided relevance scores to determine the scale content validity index (S-CVI). Rasch analysis was conducted to identify potentially problematic items and test reliability. Score differences between DA and ASD were analysed using independent t or non-parametric tests. DA (n 88) were 17·8 (sd 1·4) years, 61·4 % female and mostly in high school (94·3 %). ASD (n 45) were 37·8 (sd 7·6) years, 82·2 % female, with >5 years of dietetic experience (59·1 %). ASD scored higher than DA in all sections and overall (91·5 (sd 3·4) v. 67·1 (sd 10·5) %) (P < 0·001). There were no differences between retests (n 18; P = 0·14). Cronbach’s α was 0·86. S-CVI indicated good content validity (0·88). Rasch analysis resulted in a fifty-item PEAKS-NQ with high item (0·91) and person (0·92) reliability. The PEAKS-NQ is reliable and valid for assessing sports nutrition knowledge which could assist practitioners effectively tailor and evaluate nutrition education.
The importance of supporting advance care planning (ACP) by healthcare professionals is recognized worldwide, and assessing the outcomes, such as people's understanding and readiness for ACP, using an appropriate instrument is essential. We, therefore, developed a Japanese version of the Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey (ACP Engagement Survey; 15 items, 9 items, and 4 items), an international scale for assessing the progress of the ACP, and examined its validity and reliability.
The ACP Engagement Survey was translated into Japanese, back-translated, and culturally adapted, and the final version was reviewed by the author of the original version. Data on basic demographic information and ACP-related experiences were simultaneously collected as external criteria in an online survey of older adults with chronic diseases. The Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess its internal consistency, and a retest was performed three days later to calculate the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs).
A total of 200 respondents (mean age 70; 9.5% female) were included in the analysis. None of the items showed a ceiling effect, but several items did exhibit a floor effect. The factor structure was the same 2-factor structure as the original version, and both factors exhibited a high cumulative contribution rate. The Cronbach's alphas were 0.94 (15-item version), 0.91 (9-item version), and 0.95 (4-item version), and ICCs were of 0.88 (15-item version), 0.9 (9-item version), and 0.84 (4-item version).
Significance of results
The Japanese version of the ACP Engagement Survey was confirmed to have very good reliability regarding both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Together with the result of the item analysis, we can conclude that the Japanese version of the ACP Engagement Survey is sufficiently reliable to be utilized in interventional studies, and it has acceptable content validity, construct validity, and criterion-related validity.
The face and construct validity of the Iranian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was evaluated, and the convergent validity and test–retest reliability of both Iranian and original versions of YFAS for obese women were assessed.
The internal consistency of the YFAS was analysed. Exploratory factor analysis for dichotomous data was performed by varimax rotation, polychoric correlation coefficients and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity was established by evaluating the correlation between the original and the Iranian versions of YFAS and the Binge Eating Scale (BES). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured between test–retest results.
A weight management clinic in Tehran.
450 obese women.
The single-factor structure indicated that the factor loadings for all the items were > 0·5, except for three items (explained proportion variance = 51 %). Based on CFA, the single factor had a better fit to the data after excluding three items. The Kuder–Richardson-20 coefficient was 0·86 for the total twenty-two items. The symptom count and diagnostic version of both the Iranian (ICC = 0·92 and 0·87, respectively) and original YFAS (ICC = 0·92 and 0·86, respectively) were stable over 2 weeks. Both the symptom count and the diagnostic version of these two scales had significant correlations with the measures of BES (P < 0·001).
The initial reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the YFAS among obese women are supported. Further studies should be conducted on men and normal/overweight samples.
Nepal has suffered from the worst electricity shortages in South Asia. This study is an attempt to measure the willingness to pay for an improved service using a model of revealed preference. Respondents are asked about the actions they are taking to reduce the impact on their household or business of scheduled and unscheduled outages and more stable voltage. We estimate the averting expenditures that were being incurred to compensate for the lack of reliability of the electricity service. The estimated cost of the averting actions as a percentage of the electricity bills is 53 % for households, 47 % for small businesses, 46 % for medium businesses, and 35 % for large businesses. Based on the estimations, we find that in 2017 the annual benefit from improving the reliability of the electricity service would be approximately US$ 188 million with a present value over 20 years of US$ 1.6 billion.
The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the FFQ to describe reliable and valid dietary pattern (DP) scores. In a total of 134 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study aged 35–67 years, the FFQ was applied twice (baseline and after 1 year) to assess its reliability. Between November 1995 and March 1997, twelve 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) as reference instrument were applied to assess the validity of the FFQ. Exploratory DP were derived by principal component analyses. Investigated predefined DP were the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and two Mediterranean diet indices. From dietary data of each FFQ, two exploratory DP were retained, but differed in highly loading food groups, resulting in moderate correlations (r 0·45–0·58). The predefined indices showed higher correlations between the FFQ (r(AHEI) 0·62, r(Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Index (MedPyr)) 0·62 and r(traditional Mediterranean Diet Score (tMDS)) 0·51). From 24HDR dietary data, one exploratory DP retained differed in composition to the first FFQ-based DP, but showed similarities to the second DP, reflected by a good correlation (r 0·70). The predefined DP correlated moderately (r 0·40–0·60). To conclude, long-term analyses on exploratory DP should be interpreted with caution, due to only moderate reliability. The validity differed extensively for the two exploratory DP. The investigated predefined DP showed a better reliability and a moderate validity, comparable to other studies. Within the two Mediterranean diet indices, the MedPyr performed better than the tMDs in this middle-aged, semi-urban German study population.
The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short form (GAI-SF) are self-reported scales used internationally to assess anxiety symptoms in older adults. In this study, we conducted the first critical comprehensive review of these scales’ psychometric properties. We rated the quality of 31 relevant studies with the COSMIN checklist. Both the GAI and GAI-SF showed adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity indices were highest with generalized anxiety measures; lowest with instruments relating to somatic symptoms. We detected substantial overlap with depression measures. While there was no consensus on the GAI’s factorial structure, we found the short version to be unidimensional. Although we found good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anxiety, cut-off scores varied. The GAI and GAI-SF are relevant instruments showing satisfactory psychometric properties; to broaden their use, however, some psychometric properties warrant closer examination. This review calls attention to weaknesses in the methodological quality of the studies.
In this paper the behaviour of the failure rate and reversed failure rate of an n-component coherent system is studied, where it is assumed that the lifetimes of the components are independent and have a common cumulative distribution function F. Sufficient conditions are provided under which the system failure rate is increasing and the corresponding reversed failure rate is decreasing. We also study the stochastic and ageing properties of doubly truncated random variables for coherent systems.
Assessing intercultural communicative competence can be challenging for a number of reasons. First, there is little consensus regarding the precise definitions of subcomponents of intercultural competence, making it difficult to identify specific constructs to assess. Second, intercultural competence is locally situated, so the “same behavior or skill may be perceived as competent in one context but not another or one perceiver but not another, and thus no particular skill or ability is likely to ever be universally ‘competent’” (Spitzberg & Changnon, 2009, p. 6). Third, in a related vein, some aspects of intercultural communicative competence might not be suitable for classroom assessment, an issue that is addressed at the end of this chapter. In spite of these challenges, for personal and institutional purposes, assessing learners’ progress in intercultural communicative competence remains an important educational objective. Thus, in this chapter, I review several relevant concepts in L2/Lx assessment, then explore how they relate to understanding intercultural communicative competence, illustrating the theory with three case studies.
The current study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the revised general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ-R) for adults.
The eighty-eight-item English GNKQ-R was adapted into an eighty-six-item Arabic version. Four validation studies were conducted for internal (n 805) and external (n 106) reliability, construct validity between participants with (n 84) and without (n 88) nutrition background, convergent validity for associations between nutrition knowledge and demographic characteristics (n 750) and responsiveness to online nutrition information (n 55).
United Arab Emirates University in United Arab Emirates and Hashemite University in Jordan.
Undergraduate students aged 18 years and above, enrolled in any programme at the two universities, were recruited.
Overall, internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0·91) and external reliability (P = 0·350; intra-class correlation coefficient = 0·84) were high. Significantly higher GNKQ-R scores of students with (66·0 (10·6)) v. without (38·0 (10·7), P < 0·001; d = 2·6) nutrition background indicated high construct validity. Significantly higher GNKQ-R scores among females v. males, older and senior students v. younger and junior students and students in health discipline v. non-health discipline reflected good convergent validity. Significant differences in GNKQ-R scores with nutrition information (time 1 = 37·8 (10·5) and time 2 = 47·7 (9·1), P < 0·001; d = 1·0) indicated high responsiveness to nutrition intervention.
The Arabic GNKQ-R showed high reliability and validity in the young adult Arab population. Besides the reliability of the overall questionnaire, each section demonstrated adequate reliability. Further studies are warranted to establish the generalisability and applicability of the Arabic GNKQ-R in older adults and in different middle-eastern Arab countries.
This study introduces a new real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning method which is suitable for baselines of different lengths. The method merges carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free observation combinations (LWLC) instead of using pseudo-range, and carrier-phase ionosphere-free combination (PCLC), or single-frequency pseudo-range and phase combination (P1L1). In a first step, the double-differenced wide-lane ambiguities were calculated and fixed using the pseudo-range and carrier-phase wide-lane combination observations. Once the double-differenced wide-lane integer ambiguities were known, the wide-lane combined observations were regarded as accurate pseudo-range observations. Subsequently, the carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free combined observations were used to fix the double-differenced carrier-phase integer ambiguities, achieving the final RTK positioning. The RTK positioning analysis was performed for short, medium, and long baselines, using the P1L1, PCLC, and LWLC methods, respectively. For a short baseline, the LWLC method demonstrated positioning accuracy similar to the P1L1 method, and performed better than the PCLC method. For medium and long baselines, the positioning accuracy of the LWLC method was slightly higher than those of the PCLC and P1L1 methods. In conclusion, the LWLC method provided high-precision RTK positioning results for baselines with different lengths, as it used high-precision carrier-phase observations with fixed ambiguities instead of low-precision pseudo-range observations.
Efficient and organized assessment of addiction is essential for research, treatment planning, and referral to specialized services. The goal of this chapter is to provide basic concepts and examples of formalized assessment for substance and nonsubstance (behavioral) addictions including: alcohol and other drug use, food/eating, gambling, exercise, sex/love, and internet use. Measures of reliability and validity are discussed for each measure presented and include examples of self-report measures, interviews, screening instruments and diagnostic tools. The chapter also relates assessment measures to the criteria for diagnosis using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where appropriate. Current gaps in research on the conceptualization and operationalization of addiction are discussed in relation to the development, testing and effectiveness of assessment tools for substance and behavioral addictions.
Chapter 9 discusses how to assess vocabulary knowledge and learning. It provides a four-step process to creating useful vocabulary tests. It explores both tests of vocabulary size and vocabulary depth of knowledge. It then exemplifies a number of currently used vocabulary test formats and critiques their strengths and limitations.
This report describes the evaluation of the psychometric and clinimetric properties of nine self-report measures completed by informal care partners of individuals with mild cognitive impairment or dementia in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. One hundred thirty-six care partners completed measures on relationship satisfaction, burden, stress, mood, resilience, health, quality of life, and feelings related to care provision. Psychometric properties, such as internal consistency, convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, completion rate and data missingness, as well as clinimetric properties, such as time to administer, ease of scoring, readability and availability of the scales, were examined. Additionally, the design of the measure development studies was assessed with the 2018 COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) Risk of Bias checklist. Participants were mostly married women (>85%) with a mean age of 69.4 years. The methodological quality of the design of all measure development studies was “inadequate.” Five widely applied measures (Zarit Burden Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short Form 12 Health Survey, Relatives’ Stress Scale, and EuroQoL-5D) and two less researched instruments (Brief Resilience Scale and Relationship Satisfaction Scale) had high internal consistency and completion rates, moderate to strong convergent validity, low missingness and floor effects, and excellent clinical utility ratings. Two scales (Dyadic Relationship Scale and Family Caregiving Role) received poor psychometric ratings, and their usage among informal care partners is not recommended. In conclusion, well-validated and widely used measures received strong psychometric and clinimetric ratings. Future studies are required to determine the most reliable, valid and robust caregiver-reported measures.
Transportation industries are the centrepoint for some remarkable transformations driven by technology development and innovation. However, we have seen limited advances on methods to address reliability and resilience challenges emerging with increasingly complex systems and environments. This paper presents the outcomes of an European Reliability Research Roadmapping workshop, collating the views of automotive, aerospace and defence industries to identify current reliability challenges and research gaps and to define directions for future research and skills development.
This study was conducted to evaluate the validity and reliability of the “Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale” in Turkish nurses.
This study was a psychometric design. A convenience sample of 249 nurses working at the Malatya Training Research Hospital completed a structured questionnaire including demographic characteristics and the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale (NSCTS) between August and October 2018. Principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and Cronbach's α were used to measure the psychometric properties of the items of the scale.
In the evaluation of construct validity, identified one factor with eigenvalues greater than 1 explained 50.83% of the total variance. The Cronbach's α value of the scale is 0.86.
Significance of results
The present study provides evidence of NSCTS's validity, reliability, and acceptability. The scale can be used by Turkish nurses. This scale should be further evaluated with a larger sample in different regions in Turkey and various populations. The scale has potential applications for use both in research and as a screening tool in clinical settings.
The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) to DSM-5 provided the opportunity to shift the paradigm for diagnosing personality disorders (PDs) from a polythetic, categorical approach to a dimensional methodology. Although initial and in-progress descriptions of the plans to revise the diagnostic criteria for PDs suggested that there would be an extensive revision, the changes to DSM ultimately reflected a conservative approach. The categorical approach was retained without substantial revision other than to remove the PDs from a separate diagnostic axis. In effect, this decision set the agenda for research and clinical practice for PDs for years to come, with a continued reliance on polythetic categories to define PDs. This chapter provides a broad overview of existing methods for assessment of categorical PDs including the use of self-report scales and structured or semi-structured interviews. The point-of-view presented in this chapter is not that Present/Absent categories are the gold standard for diagnosis, but that they represent current practice in clinical care and (some) research. The major focus will be to evaluate validity and reliability characteristics of these methods. A summary statement that includes recommendations for future research is presented.
In this chapter, we have introduced existing solutions in the literature aiming to improve the performance of ambient backscatter communication systems (ABCSs). We have first provided the reviews on several multiple access schemes that allows multiple transmitters backscatter data to the receiver. Then, solutions focusing on improving the communication range, bitrate, reliability, and robustness are presented in details. Finally, we have discussed challenges and future research directions to further improve the performance of ABCSs.
“In Chapter 9, the authors discuss the ability of good language teachers to employ a range of formative and summative assessment practices to assess the individual learner’s needs and to address these needs in their instructional practice. The authors draw on the analysis of responses given by language practitioners in the higher education setting to suggest that learning-oriented assessment can enhance language teaching by helping learners engage with assessment feedback and benefit from it.”
This study aimed to evaluate the discriminative validity of MINI-SPIN (MS) as a screening tool for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a group of Brazilian university students.
SPIN was collectively applied to 2320 university students. Among them, 656 individuals who fulfilled the criteria for positive MS (N = 473) and negative MS (N = 183) were selected and divided into two groups. The selected subjects were interviewed by telephone using the SAD module of the SCID-IV, used as the gold standard. In order to check interrater reliability, a group of university students (N = 57) was reinterviewed by telephone by a second rater, and another group (N = 100) participated in a face-to-face interview.
The Kappa coefficient among the telephone interviews was 0.80, and a coefficient of 0.84 (P < 0.001) was obtained between the telephone interview and the face-to-face one. For a cut-off score of 6, suggested in the original English version of the instrument, sensitivity was 0.94, specificity 0.46, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.58, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.92. For a cut-off score of 7, we observed an increase in the specificity and in the PPV (0.68 and 0.65) while the sensitivity and NPV (0.78 and 0.80) remained high.
MS showed quite satisfactory psychometric qualities. The cut-off score of 6 seemed to be the most suitable to attest the tracking value of the tool. However, the cut-off score of 7 was the most suitable as a minimum parameter for the studied group, with psychometric values more similar to those of the original study.