To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Performance validity (PVTs) and symptom validity tests (SVTs) are necessary components of neuropsychological testing to identify suboptimal performances and response bias that may impact diagnosis and treatment. The current study examined the clinical and functional characteristics of veterans who failed PVTs and the relationship between PVT and SVT failures.
Five hundred and sixteen post-9/11 veterans participated in clinical interviews, neuropsychological testing, and several validity measures.
Veterans who failed 2+ PVTs performed significantly worse than veterans who failed one PVT in verbal memory (Cohen’s d = .60–.69), processing speed (Cohen’s d = .68), working memory (Cohen’s d = .98), and visual memory (Cohen’s d = .88–1.10). Individuals with 2+ PVT failures had greater posttraumatic stress (PTS; β = 0.16; p = .0002), and worse self-reported depression (β = 0.17; p = .0001), anxiety (β = 0.15; p = .0007), sleep (β = 0.10; p = .0233), and functional outcomes (β = 0.15; p = .0009) compared to veterans who passed PVTs. 7.8% veterans failed the SVT (Validity-10; ≥19 cutoff); Multiple PVT failures were significantly associated with Validity-10 failure at the ≥19 and ≥23 cutoffs (p’s < .0012). The Validity-10 had moderate correspondence in predicting 2+ PVTs failures (AUC = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.76, 0.91).
PVT failures are associated with psychiatric factors, but not traumatic brain injury (TBI). PVT failures predict SVT failure and vice versa. Standard care should include SVTs and PVTs in all clinical assessments, not just neuropsychological assessments, particularly in clinically complex populations.
Cloninger’s temperament dimensions have been studied widely in relation to genetics. In this study, we examined Cloninger’s temperament dimensions grouped with cluster analyses and their association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study included 212 genotyped Finnish patients from the Ostrobothnia Depression Study.
The temperament clusters were analysed at baseline and at six weeks from the beginning of the depression intervention study. We selected depression-related catecholamine and serotonin genes based on a literature search, and 59 SNPs from ten different genes were analysed. The associations of single SNPs with temperament clusters were studied. Using the selected genes, genetic risk score (GRS) analyses were conducted considering appropriate confounding factors.
No single SNP had a significant association with the temperament clusters. Associations between GRSs and temperament clusters were observed in multivariate models that were significant after permutation analyses. Two SNPs from the DRD3 gene, two SNPs from the SLC6A2 gene, one SNP from the SLC6A4 gene, and one SNP from the HTR2A gene associated with the HHA/LRD/LP (high harm avoidance, low reward dependence, low persistence) cluster at baseline. Two SNPs from the HTR2A gene were associated with the HHA/LRD/LP cluster at six weeks. Two SNPs from the HTR2A gene and two SNPs from the COMT gene were associated with the HP (high persistence) cluster at six weeks.
GRSs seem to associate with an individual’s temperament profile, which can be observed in the clusters used. Further research needs to be conducted on these types of clusters and their clinical applicability.
The corpus callosum (CC) is a brain structure with a high heritability and potential role in psychiatric disorders. However, the genetic architecture of the CC and the genetic link with psychiatric disorders remain largely unclear. We investigated the genetic architectures of the volume of the CC and its subregions and the genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders.
We applied multivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) to genetic and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 40,894 individuals from the UK Biobank, aiming to boost genetic discovery and to assess the pleiotropic effects across volumes of the five subregions of the CC (posterior, mid-posterior, central, mid-anterior and anterior) obtained by FreeSurfer 7.1. Multivariate GWAS was run combining all subregions, co-varying for relevant variables. Gene-set enrichment analyses were performed using MAGMA. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) was used to determine Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of total CC volume and volumes of its subregions as well as their genetic correlations with relevant psychiatric traits.
We identified 70 independent loci with distributed effects across the five subregions of the CC (p < 5 × 10−8). Additionally, we identified 33 significant loci in the anterior subregion, 23 in the mid-anterior, 29 in the central, 7 in the mid-posterior and 56 in the posterior subregion. Gene-set analysis revealed 156 significant genes contributing to volume of the CC subregions (p < 2.6 × 10−6). LDSC estimated the heritability of CC to (h2SNP = 0.38, SE = 0.03) and subregions ranging from 0.22 (SE = 0.02) to 0.37 (SE = 0.03). We found significant genetic correlations of total CC volume with bipolar disorder (BD, rg = −0.09, SE = 0.03; p = 5.9 × 10−3) and drinks consumed per week (rg = −0.09, SE = 0.02; p = 4.8 × 10−4), and volume of the mid-anterior subregion with BD (rg = −0.12, SE = 0.02; p = 2.5 × 10−4), major depressive disorder (MDD) (rg = −0.12, SE = 0.04; p = 3.6 × 10−3), drinks consumed per week (rg = −0.13, SE = 0.04; p = 1.8 × 10−3) and cannabis use (rg = −0.09, SE = 0.03; p = 8.4 × 10−3).
Our results demonstrate that the CC has a polygenic architecture implicating multiple genes and show that CC subregion volumes are heritable. We found that distinct genetic factors are involved in the development of anterior and posterior subregions, consistent with their divergent functional specialisation. Significant genetic correlation between volumes of the CC and BD, drinks per week, MDD and cannabis consumption subregion volumes with psychiatric traits is noteworthy and deserving of further investigation.
Severe infections and psychiatric disorders have a large impact on both society and the individual. Studies investigating these conditions and the links between them are therefore important. Most past studies have focused on binary phenotypes of particular infections or overall infection, thereby losing some information regarding susceptibility to infection as reflected in the number of specific infection types, or sites, which we term infection load. In this study we found that infection load was associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia and overall psychiatric diagnosis. We obtained a modest but significant heritability for infection load (h2 = 0.0221), and a high degree of genetic correlation between it and overall psychiatric diagnosis (rg = 0.4298). We also found evidence supporting a genetic causality for overall infection on overall psychiatric diagnosis. Our genome-wide association study for infection load identified 138 suggestive associations. Our study provides further evidence for genetic links between susceptibility to infection and psychiatric disorders, and suggests that a higher infection load may have a cumulative association with psychiatric disorders, beyond what has been described for individual infections.
People with neuropsychiatric symptoms often experience delay in accurate diagnosis. Although cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light (CSF NfL) shows promise in distinguishing neurodegenerative disorders (ND) from psychiatric disorders (PSY), its accuracy in a diagnostically challenging cohort longitudinally is unknown.
We collected longitudinal diagnostic information (mean = 36 months) from patients assessed at a neuropsychiatry service, categorising diagnoses as ND/mild cognitive impairment/other neurological disorders (ND/MCI/other) and PSY. We pre-specified NfL > 582 pg/mL as indicative of ND/MCI/other.
Diagnostic category changed from initial to final diagnosis for 23% (49/212) of patients. NfL predicted the final diagnostic category for 92% (22/24) of these and predicted final diagnostic category overall (ND/MCI/other vs. PSY) in 88% (187/212), compared to 77% (163/212) with clinical assessment alone.
CSF NfL improved diagnostic accuracy, with potential to have led to earlier, accurate diagnosis in a real-world setting using a pre-specified cut-off, adding weight to translation of NfL into clinical practice.
Psychological and pharmacological therapies are the recommended first-line treatments for common mental disorders (CMDs) but may not be universally accessible or utilised.
To determine the extent to which primary care patients with CMDs receive treatment and the impact of sociodemographic, work-related and clinical factors on treatment receipt.
National registers were used to identify all Stockholm County residents aged 19–64 years who had received at least one CMD diagnosis (depression, anxiety, stress-related) in primary care between 2014 and 2018. Individuals were followed from the date of their first observed CMD diagnosis until the end of 2019 to determine treatment receipt. Associations between patient factors and treatment group were examined using multinomial logistic regression.
Among 223 271 individuals with CMDs, 30.6% received pharmacotherapy only, 16.5% received psychological therapy only, 43.1% received both and 9.8% had no treatment. The odds of receiving any treatment were lower among males (odds ratio (OR) range = 0.76 to 0.92, 95% CI[minimum, maximum] 0.74 to 0.95), individuals born outside of Sweden (OR range = 0.67 to 0.93, 95% CI[minimum, maximum] 0.65 to 0.99) and those with stress-related disorders only (OR range = 0.21 to 0.51, 95% CI[minimum, maximum] 0.20 to 0.53). Among the patient factors examined, CMD diagnostic group, prior treatment in secondary psychiatric care and age made the largest contributions to the model (R2 difference: 16.05%, 1.72% and 1.61%, respectively).
Although over 90% of primary care patients with CMDs received pharmacological and/or psychological therapy, specific patient groups were less likely to receive treatment.
The current study evaluated risk factors in adolescence on problem drinking and emotional distress in late adolescence and emerging adulthood, and meeting criteria for diagnosed disorders in adulthood. The study included 501 parents and their adolescent who participated from middle adolescence to adulthood. Risk factors in middle adolescence (age 18) included parent alcohol use, adolescent alcohol use, and parent and adolescent emotional distress. In late adolescence (age 18), binge drinking and emotional distress were assessed, and in emerging adulthood (age 25), alcohol problems and emotional distress were examined. Meeting criteria for substance use, behavioral, affective, or anxiety disorders were examined between the ages of 26 and 31. Results showed parent alcohol use predicted substance use disorder through late adolescent binge drinking and emerging adulthood alcohol problems. Behavioral disorders were indirectly predicted by adolescent and emerging adult emotional distress. Affective disorders were indirectly predicted by parent emotional distress through adolescent emotional distress. Finally, anxiety disorders were predicted by parent alcohol use via adolescent drinking; parent emotional distress via adolescent emotional distress, and through adolescent alcohol use and emotional distress. Results provided support for the intergenerational transmission of problem drinking and emotional distress on meeting criteria for diagnosed psychiatric disorders in adulthood.
The generation of three-dimensional cerebral organoids from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) has facilitated the investigation of mechanisms underlying several neuropsychiatric disorders, including stress-related disorders, namely major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Generating hPSC-derived neurons, cerebral organoids, and even assembloids (or multi-organoid complexes) can facilitate research into biomarkers for stress susceptibility or resilience and may even bring about advances in personalized medicine and biomarker research for stress-related psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, cerebral organoid research does not come without its own set of ethical considerations. With increased complexity and resemblance to in vivo conditions, discussions of increased moral status for these models are ongoing, including questions about sentience, consciousness, moral status, donor protection, and chimeras. There are, however, unique ethical considerations that arise and are worth looking into in the context of research into stress and stress-related disorders using cerebral organoids. This paper provides stress research-specific ethical considerations in the context of cerebral organoid generation and use for research purposes. The use of stress research as a case study here can help inform other practices of in vitro studies using brain models with high ethical considerations.
Although COVID-19 has been associated with psychiatric symptoms in patients, no study to date has examined the risk of hospitalization for psychiatric disorders after hospitalization for this disease.
We aimed to compare the proportions of hospitalizations for psychiatric disorders in the 12 months following either hospitalization for COVID-19 or hospitalization for another reason in the adult general population in France during the first wave of the current pandemic.
We conducted a retrospective longitudinal nationwide study based on the national French administrative healthcare database.
Among the 2,894,088 adults hospitalized, 96,313 (3.32%) were admitted for COVID-19. The proportion of patients subsequently hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder was higher for COVID-19 patients (11.09 vs. 9.24%, OR = 1.20 95%CI 1.18–1.23). Multivariable analyses provided similar results for a psychiatric disorder of any type and for psychotic and anxiety disorders (respectively, aOR = 1.06 95%CI 1.04–1.09, aOR = 1.09 95%CI 1.02–1.17, and aOR = 1.11 95%CI 1.08–1.14). Initial hospitalization for COVID-19 in intensive care units and psychiatric history were associated with a greater risk of subsequent hospitalization for any psychiatric disorder than initial hospitalization for another reason.
Compared with hospitalizations for other reasons, hospitalizations for COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in France were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization for a psychiatric disorder during the 12 months following initial discharge. This finding should encourage clinicians to increase the monitoring and assessment of psychiatric symptoms after hospital discharge for COVID-19, and to propose post-hospital care, especially for those treated in intensive care.
Lung cancer (LC) patients have shown a predisposition for developing emotional and physical symptoms, with detrimental effects on the quality of life (QoL). This study evaluates the bidirectional relationship between main psychological disorders and clinical/sociodemographic factors with the QoL.
In this observational cross-sectional study, patients with a confirmed LC diagnosis from February 2015 to March 2018 were eligible for this study. Each participant completed screening instruments of anxiety, depression, distress, and QoL assessment. Other relevant clinical data were extracted from electronic health records. Then comparisons, correlations, and logistic regression analyses were performed.
Two hundred and four cases were eligible; of them, the median age was 61 (24–84) years, most had clinical stage IV (95%), and most were under first-line therapy (53%). Concerning psychological status, 46% had symptoms of emotional distress, 35% anxiety, and 31% depression. Patients with psychological disorders experienced a worse global QoL than those without psychological impairment (p < 0.001). Increased financial issues and physical symptoms, combined with lower functioning, were also significantly associated with anxiety, depression, and distress. In the multivariate analysis, female sex and emotional distress were positively associated with an increased risk of depression; likewise, female sex, low social functioning, insomnia, and emotional distress were associated with anxiety.
Emotional symptoms and QoL had a significant bidirectional effect on this study; this underscores the necessity to identify and treat anxiety, depression, and distress to improve psychological well-being and the QoL in LC patients.
Gender dysphoria is characterized by a mismatch between the biological sex and gender identity of a person, frequently associated to distress or discomfort. Many transgender people will seek professional help to obtain a congruence between the gender identity and the body.
Brief review of the literature in the field of mental health and gender dysphoria.
Review of the literature, through research in the PubMed database, using the following keywords: “gender dysphoria”, “mental health”, “psychiatric disorders”.
Although the true prevalence of gender dysphoria (GD) is unknown, several studies indicated that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in this population is elevated. In comparison with the general population, persons with GD have higher rates of depressive symptoms (64.5%), suicidality (42.9%), substance use disorders (40.2%), general distress (33.8%), anxiety (25.9%), discrimination, and stigma, that contribute to mental health problems. Even though, we cannot reach firm conclusions due to the lack of controlled studies exploring psychiatric disorders on GD people versus controls. An interdisciplinary approach to the health and well-being of this population is highly recommended. Social support, community connectedness, and effective coping strategies appear beneficial.
Individuals with GD have higher rates of psychiatric disorders and social stressors. Healthcare professionals should have a basic understanding on GD. Management should be individualized and may involve a multidisciplinary team. It would be important to have access to more controlled studies in order to achieve a better characterization of the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population.
Non-pharmacological treatment like psychotherapy is associated with less side effects than pharmacological treatment and is often considered first-line treatment towards psychiatric disorders. The extent and variation of psychotherapy treatment offered in Danish psychiatric clinics over time has not previously been studied.
To examine the nationwide use of psychotherapy treatment during 2001-2020 in individuals assigned with a psychiatric disorder diagnosis at Danish psychiatric clinics.
All Danish individuals aged ≥ 3 years, who were registered with 1) a psychiatric disorder diagnosis (F10-F99) or 2) had a first psychotherapy treatment during the study period 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2020, were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry.
A total of 120,916 (27 %) study participants received psychotherapy treatment during the study period, most commonly individual psychotherapy (65 %) followed by group therapy (25 %). Adults (≥18 years) were more likely to receive therapy (34 %) than children and adolescents aged 3-17 years (15 %). The proportion of treated patients was highest among women (67 %) compared with men (33 %). The median age at first psychotherapy was 25 years (ranging from 19 to 33). 59 % of patients receiving psychotherapy had filled a psychotropic prescription within one year prior to therapy onset, particularly antidepressants (44 %) and antipsychotics (22 %).
The use of psychotherapy for treatment of psychiatric disorders is limited among Danish patients, although national clinical guidelines recommend it as first-line treatment of common conditions such as depressive, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Personality disorders are frequently encountered by all healthcare professionals and can often pose a diagnostic dilemma due to the crossover of different traits amongst the various subtypes. The ICD 10 classification comprised of succinct parameters of the 10 subtypes of personality disorders but lacked a global approach to address the complexity of the disease. The ICD 11 classification provides a more structural approach to aid in clinical diagnosis.
A literature review of the diagnostic applicability of ICD 11 classification of personality disorders is presented in comparison with the ICD 10 classification.
A retrospective analysis of the literature outlining the ICD 10 and 11 classifications of personality disorders, exploring the differences in evidence-based applications of both.
The ICD 11 classification of personality disorders supersedes the ICD 10 classification in describing the severity of the personality dysfunction in conjunction with a wide range of trait domain qualifiers, thus enabling the clinician to portray the disease dynamically. The current evidence available on the utility of the ICD 11 classification gives a promising outlook for its application in clinical settings.
The ICD 11 has transformed the classification of personality disorders by projecting a dimensional description of personality functioning, aiming to overcome the diagnostic deficiencies in the ICD 10 classification. The versatility offered by the application of the ICD 11 classification can be pivotal in reshaping the focus and intensity of clinical management of the disease.
Interpersonally coordinated behaviors are crucial for social interactions.The “Theory of Mind,” or mentalization capacity, of an individual is essential for the establishment of behavioral synchronization. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is used to assess mentalization, social cognition and empathy. Previous RMET studies, investigated people in isolation, not in social situations. It is unclear how the RMET predicts functioning during real-life social interactions.
To investigate the relationship between the performance measured on the RMET test and the synchronous behavior of two individuals interacting with each other during tasks requiring social collaboration.
Sample included healthy controls (HC,n=48) and patients with ADHD (n=26) or schizophrenia (SCH,n=36) from an ongoing EEG-hyperscanning study, employing a social coordination condition.We applied a Go/NoGo reaction time(RT) task performed by pairs of participants. Synchronous behavior was characterized by the correlation of participants’ RTs.We used the percent (%) correct responses from the RMET to characterize social cognition.
In HC, with better social cognitive performance, the correlation of behavioral responses was significantly (p<0.05) higher. In ADHD, better performance on the RMET was also accompanied by better behavioral synchronization, but the association did not reach significance due to the smaller sample size. In SCH, no relationship was detected.
In HC and ADHD, the mentalization ability as measured by RMET is associated with the behavioral synchronization between individuals in social interaction.The lack of association in the schizophrenia group may be due to psychopathological symptoms, which should be elucidated in future research. Funding: Supported by the Hungarian Brain Research program#2017-1.2.1-NKP-2017-0002
Poverty in adolescence is associated with later drug use. Few studies have evaluated the role of adolescent psychiatric disorders in this association.
This study aimed to investigate mediation and interaction simultaneously, enabling the disentanglement of the role of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the association between poverty in adolescent and later drug use disorders.
A national cohort study of 634 223 individuals born in 1985–1990, residing in Sweden between the ages of 13 and 18 years, was followed from age 19 years until the first in-patient or out-patient care visit with a diagnosis of drug use disorder. A four-way decomposition method was used to determine the total effect of the association with poverty and possible mediation by and/or interaction with diagnosis of adolescent psychiatric disorders.
The hazard ratios for drug use disorders among those experiencing poverty compared with those ‘never in poverty’ were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.32–1.63) in females and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.37–1.49) in males, after adjusting for domicile, origin and parental psychiatric disorders. Twenty-four per cent of this association in females, and 13% in males, was explained by interaction with and/or mediation by adolescent psychiatric disorders.
Part of the association between poverty in adolescence and later drug use disorders was due to mediation by and/or interaction with psychiatric disorders. Narrowing socioeconomic inequalities in adolescence might help to reduce the risks of later drug use disorders. Interventions aimed at adolescents with psychiatric disorders might be especially important.
Long COVID refers to the lingering symptoms which persist or appear after the acute illness. The dominant long COVID symptoms in the two years since the pandemic began (2020–2021) have been depression, anxiety, fatigue, concentration and cognitive impairments with few reports of psychosis. Whether other symptoms will appear later on is not yet known. For example, dopamine-dependent movement disorders generally take many years before first symptoms are seen. Post-stroke depression and anxiety may explain many of the early long COVID cases. Hemorrhagic, hypoxic and inflammatory damages of the central nervous system, unresolved systematic inflammation, metabolic impairment, cerebral vascular accidents such as stroke, hypoxia from pulmonary damages and fibrotic changes are among the major causes of long COVID. Glucose metabolic and hypoxic brain issues likely predispose subjects with pre-existing diabetes, cardiovascular or lung problems to long COVID as well. Preliminary data suggest that psychotropic medications may not be a danger but could instead be beneficial in combating COVID-19 infection. The same is true for diabetes medications such as metformin. Thus, a focus on sigma-1 receptor ligands and glucose metabolism is expected to be useful for new drug development as well as the repurposing of current drugs. The reported protective effects of psychotropics and antihistamines against COVID-19, the earlier reports of reduced number of sigma-1 receptors in post-mortem schizophrenic brains, with many antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs being antihistamines with significant affinity for the sigma-1 receptor, support the role of sigma and histamine receptors in neuroinflammation and viral infections. Literature and data in all these areas are accumulating at a fast rate. We reviewed and discussed the relevant and important literature.
The largest excess mortality risk has been reported for combinations of psychiatric disorders that included substance use disorders.
To study the associations of different non-substance-related in-patient psychiatric diagnoses with all-cause mortality and suicide up to 28 years of age after entering substance use treatment.
National register data on psychiatric hospital admissions and death were combined with the treatment records of over 10 000 individuals in substance use treatment between 1990 and 2009. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for all-cause and suicide-specific mortality from the time of entering substance use treatment.
Nearly one-third (31.4%; n = 3330) of the study population had died during follow-up or by their 65th birthday, with more than one in ten (n = 385) from suicide. Over half of the study population (53.2%) had undergone psychiatric in-patient care and 14.1% involuntary psychiatric care during the study period. Bipolar disorder and unipolar depression were associated with a 57% (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.18–2.10) and 132% (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.21–4.46) increase in risk of suicide, respectively. Involuntary psychiatric care was associated with a 40% increase in risk of suicide (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.05–1.94).
Severe psychiatric morbidity is common among individuals seeking treatment for alcohol and/or substance use and specifically mood disorders appear to increase the risk of suicide. Treatment service planning needs to focus on integrated care for concomitant substance use and psychiatric disorders to address this risk.
Meditation, a component of ashtanga yoga, is an act of inward contemplation in which the mind fluctuates between a state of attention to a stimulus and complete absorption in it. Some forms of meditation have been found to be useful for people with psychiatric conditions such as anxiety, depression and substance use disorder. Evidence for usefulness of meditation for people with psychotic disorders is mixed, with reported improvements in negative symptoms but the emergence/precipitation of psychotic symptoms. This article narrates the benefits of meditation in psychiatric disorders, understanding meditation from the yoga perspective, biological aspects of meditation and practical tips for the practice of meditation. We also explain possible ways of modifying meditative practices to make them safe and useful for the patient population and useful overall as a society-level intervention.
Compared to specialized care, primary care is considered to be more accessible, less stigmatizing, and more comprehensive since it manages physical ailments along with mental disorders (MD). Thus, MD are mainly treated by general practitioners (GP), even though their ability to diagnose and treat these diseases is often considered unsatisfactory.
This study aimed to analyze perceptions of GP capacity to manage MD, and to assess the difficulties encountered during this management.
A cross-sectional web-based survey design was adopted between August 22 and September 23, 2020, so that 47 responses of GP were included.
The mean age of respondents was 37.3 years. Among them, only 17% attended a post-university psychiatric training. On average, 6.3% of GP visits were MD-related. Anxious disorders and depression were perceived as very frequent respectively in 82.9% and 40.4% of cases. Among GP, 17% considered bipolar disorder as a difficult pathology to diagnose, followed by schizophrenia (12.7%), while the pathologies perceived to be most difficult to treat were dementia (17%), acute agitations (14.9%) and schizophrenia (10.6%). Anxiolytics and antidepressants use was very frequent (40.4% and 27.7% respectively), and 34% needed training in antipsychotics prescription. Difficulties encountered during MD management were related to lack of psychiatric continuing education (19.4%) and lack of collaboration with mental health professionals (12.5%). Among participants, 93.6% requested a psychiatric training: theoretical 29.3%, practice exchange 24.7%.
Our study confirmed that MD related visits are common in primary care and highlighted several obstacles in their management. Further continuous education, training,and collaboration between practitioners is required.
People followed at the department of psychiatry have a high prevalence of somatic pathologies that are generally not taken optimal care of in time, which implies excess mortality rate among these patients.
To study somatic comorbidities in patients followed at the department of psychiatry of the regional hospital of Gabes (Tunisia).
We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study carried out on a clinical population who consult for the first time at the psychiatry department at the Gabes regional hospital during the period from January 1st, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic data of the patients were assessed. Data were analysed using the software SPSS (20th edition).
The number of patients consulting for the first time at the psychiatry department during the study’s period was 1601 patients, with a mean age of 34 years and a sex ratio (M / F) of 0.96. Among these patients, 399 (24.9%) had somatic comorbidity. The most common somatic comorbidity was arterial hypertension (8.1% of patients, n=129 patients). Diabetes mellitus was ranked second with 99 patients (6.2%). The analytical study showed that depressive disorders were significantly more frequent in patients with hypertension (p<0.001), diabetes mellitus (p<0.001) and asthma (p=0.026).
Somatic comorbidities were frequent in patients followed by the department of psychiatry. Paying attention to somatic comorbidities must be part of the evaluation of these patients in order to coordinate effectively with the somatic doctors.