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Frequent use of screen-based devices could be a modifiable risk factor for adolescent depression, but findings have been inconsistent and mostly from cross-sectional studies. We examined prospective associations of video gaming, social media, and internet use with depressive symptoms in adolescents.
A total of 11 341 adolescents from the Millennium Cohort Study, a representative, UK population-based. The main outcome was depressive symptoms from a Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (age 14). Exposures were frequency of video game, social media, and internet use (age 11). Physical activity (effect modifier) was measured by self-report.
The fully adjusted models indicated that boys playing video games most days, at least once a week, and at least once a month at age 11 had lower depression scores at age 14 by 24.2% (IRR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.66–0.91), 25.1% (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.62–0.90), and 31.2% (IRR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.57–0.83), compared with playing less than once a month/never. In girls, compared with less than once a month/never, using social media most days at age 11 was associated with 13% higher depression scores at age 14 (IRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.22). We found some evidence of associations between using the internet most days and depressive symptoms compared with less than once a month/never in boys (IRR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–1.00). More frequent video game use was consistently associated with fewer depressive symptoms in boys with low physical activity, but not in those with high physical activity.
Different types of screen-time may have contrasting associations with depressive symptoms during adolescence. Initiatives to address adolescents’ screen-time may require targeted approaches.
To present an overview of how artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to regulate eating and dietary behaviours, exercise behaviours and weight loss.
A scoping review of global literature published from inception to 15 December 2020 was conducted according to Arksey and O’Malley’s five-step framework. Eight databases (CINAHL, Cochrane–Central, Embase, IEEE Xplore, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched. Included studies were independently screened for eligibility by two reviewers with good interrater reliability (k= 0.96).
66 out of 5573 potential studies were included, representing more than 2,031 participants. Three tenets of self-regulation were identified - self-monitoring (n=66, 100%), optimization of goal-setting (n=10, 15.2%) and self-control (n= 10, 15.2%). Articles were also categorised into three AI applications namely machine perception (n=50), predictive analytics only (n=6), and real-time analytics with personalised micro-interventions (n=10). Machine perception focused on recognizing food items, eating behaviours, physical activities and estimating energy balance. Predictive analytics focused on predicting weight loss, intervention adherence, dietary lapses and emotional eating. Studies on the last theme focused on evaluating AI-assisted weight management interventions that instantaneously collected behavioural data, optimised prediction models for behavioural lapse events and enhance behavioural self-control through adaptive and personalized nudges/prompts. Only six studies reported average weight losses (2.4% to 4.7%) of which two were statistically significant.
The use of AI for weight loss is still undeveloped. Based on this study findings, we proposed a framework on the applicability of AI for weight loss but cautioned its contingency upon engagement and contextualisation.
Poor growth is common in children with pulmonary hypertension; however, skeletal muscle deficits have not been described and the association between muscle deficits and functional status is unknown.
Patients aged 8–18 years with pulmonary hypertension (diagnostic Groups 1, 2, or 3) and World Health Organization functional class I or II underwent dual-energy absorptiometry to measure leg lean mass Z-score (a surrogate for skeletal muscle). Muscle strength was assessed using dynamometry. Physical activity questionnaires were administered. Clinical data, including 6-minute walk distance, were reviewed. Relationships between skeletal muscle, physical activity score, and 6-minute walk distance were assessed by correlations and linear regression.
Sixteen patients (12.1 ± 3.2 years, 50% female, 56% Group 1, 56% functional class II) were enrolled. Leg lean mass Z-score was significantly less than reference data (−1.40 ± 1.12 versus 0.0 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) and worse in those with functional class II versus I (−2.10 ± 0.83 versus −0.50 ± 0.73, p < 0.01). Leg lean mass Z-score was positively associated with right ventricular systolic function by tricuspid annular plane systolic Z-score (r = 0.54, p = 0.03) and negatively associated with indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (r = −0.78, p < 0.001). Leg lean mass Z-score and forearm strength were positively associated with physical activity score. When physical activity score was held constant, leg lean mass Z-score independently predicted 6-minute walk distance (R2 = 0.39, p = 0.03).
Youth with pulmonary hypertension demonstrate marked skeletal muscle deficits in association with exercise intolerance. Future studies should investigate whether low leg lean mass is a marker of disease severity or an independent target that can be improved.
A deeper understanding of creativity and design is essential for the development of tools to improve designers’ creative processes and drive future innovation. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of physical activity versus movement in a virtual environment on the creative output of industrial design students. This study contributes a novel assessment of whether the use of virtual reality can produce the same creative output within designers as physical activity has been shown to produce in prior studies. Eighteen industrial design students at the Georgia Institute of Technology completed nine design tasks across three conditions in a within-subjects experimental design. In each condition, participants independently experienced one of three interventions. Solutions were scored for novelty and feasibility, and self-reported mood data was correlated with performance. No significant differences were found in novelty or feasibility of solutions across the conditions. However, there are statistically significant correlations between mood, interventions, and peak performance to be discussed. The results show that participants who experienced movement in virtual reality prior to problem solving performed at an equal or higher level than physical walking for all design tasks and all designer moods. This serves as motivation for continuing to study how VR can provide an impact on a designer's creative output. Hypothesized creative performance with each mode is discussed using trends from four categories of mood, based on the combined mood characteristics of pleasantness (positive/negative) and activation (active/passive).
To evaluate the effectiveness of a behaviourally focused nutrition education (NE) intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) related to eating habits and activity levels in 10–12-year-old adolescents in Mumbai, India.
School-based cluster randomised controlled trial. The experimental group (EG) received weekly NE and three parent sessions over 12 weeks; no sessions were conducted for the control group (CG). The theoretical framework of HBM and focus group discussion results guided the development of behaviour change communication strategies and NE aids. KAP were measured using a validated survey instrument, administered at baseline and endline in EG and CG. Paired and independent t tests determined within-group and between-group changes in pre–post scores.
Two aided and two private schools that were randomly allocated to either an EG or CG.
Adolescent boys and girls (n 498; EG n 292 and CG n 206).
EG reported improvements in mean knowledge (39·3%), attitude (7·3 %), diet (9·6 %) and activity practice (9·4%) scores from pre to post intervention. No significant changes were observed in CG. Significant improvements in scores associated with perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy, breakfast and vegetable consumption, and moderate-to-vigorous activities were observed in EG.
Integrating NE into the academic curriculum and adopting evidence-based lessons that entail targeted information delivery and participatory activities can improve knowledge, foster right attitudes and facilitate better eating and activity-related practices in Indian adolescents.
Increased physical activity is widely promoted as beneficial for older people, but previous research indicates this may be difficult to implement in care homes, especially for people with dementia who form an increasing proportion of residents. Care home cultures can mitigate against physical activity for residents, but there is also scope for them to embed personalised physical activity. They are under-researched, but significant in terms of outcomes and quality of life for residents. This paper builds understanding of care home cultures of physical activity through qualitative, empirical research in five care homes. Key findings are that culturally framed views about physical activity, sometimes reflecting stereotypical views of dependency, can be seen in care homes. Managers, staff and residents may be invested in or resistant to physical activity and dominant managerial or societal views may be reflected or contested. The relatively closed boundaries of care homes reinforce sedentariness, and resident involvement in either chosen or enforced physical activity is varied. Interactions demonstrate potential to negotiate physical activity more or less effectively in any given care home. Rigid routines, external regulations and pressure on staffing can be negative, but management commitment has positive potential. In conclusion, the paper identifies that to increase physical activity in a sustainable manner, any intervention needs to address issues of culture change and individual needs and preferences.
This study aimed to assess whether the long-term effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) at 2 and 3·5 years post-intervention varied according to maternal education and age.
Two and 3·5 years post-intervention follow-up of the INFANT cluster-randomised controlled trial. Outcomes at both follow-ups included children’s BMI z-scores, physical activity (ActiGraph), television viewing (parental report) and dietary intake (3 × 24-h dietary recalls). Dichotomous moderator variables included maternal education (university v. no university) and age (< 32 v. ≥ 32 years).
Families completing the 15-month programme (n 492) were invited to participate in the follow-ups when their child was 3·6 and 5 years old.
At the 2-year follow-up, the intervention effects on vegetable (positive) and sweet snack (negative) intake were greater in children with higher educated mothers, whereas water consumption (positive) was greater in children with lower educated mothers. At the 2-year follow-up, the intervention was more effective in increasing water consumption in children with younger mothers and decreasing sweet snack intake in children with older mothers (opposite result observed at the 3·5-year follow-up). At the 3·5-year follow-up, children with younger and older mothers increased and decreased their consumption of savoury snacks, respectively.
Moderation by maternal education and age were observed for some outcomes; however, clear patterns were not evident at both follow-ups, with little consistency across outcomes. This indicates that INFANT was more-or-less equally effective in children irrespective of their mother’s education level or age, which is important in community-based interventions.
Cardiac rehabilitation programmes for paediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have been shown to promote emotional and physical health without any associated adverse events. While prior studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these types of interventions, there has been limited research into how the inclusion of psychological interventions as part of the programme impacts parent-reported and patient-reported quality of life.
Materials and methods:
Patients between the ages of 7 and 24 years with CHD completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme that followed a flexible structure of four in person-visits with various multidisciplinary team members, including paediatric psychologists. Changes in scores from the earliest to the latest session were assessed regarding exercise capacity, patient functioning (social, emotional, school, psychosocial), patient general and cardiac-related quality of life, patient self-concept, and patient behavioural/emotional problems.
From their baseline to final session, patients exhibited significant improvement in exercise capacity (p = 0.00009). Parents reported improvement in the patient’s emotional functioning, social functioning, school functioning, psychosocial functioning, cognitive functioning, communication, and overall quality of life. While patients did not report improvement in these above areas, they did report perceived improvement in certain aspects of cardiac-related quality of life and self-concept.
This paediatric cardiac rehabilitation programme, which included regular consultations with paediatric psychologists, was associated with divergent perceptions by parents and patients on improvement related to quality of life and other aspects of functioning despite improvement in exercise capacity. Further investigation is recommended to identify underlying factors associated with the differing perceptions of parents and patients.
This study examined the associations between accelerometer-derived sedentary time (ST), lower intensity physical activity (LPA), higher intensity physical activity (HPA) and the incidence of depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up.
We included 2082 participants from The Maastricht Study (mean ± s.d. age 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 51.2% men) without depressive symptoms at baseline. ST, LPA and HPA were measured with the ActivPAL3 activity monitor. Depressive symptoms were measured annually over 4 years of follow-up with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between ST, LPA, HPA and incident depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10). Analyses were adjusted for total waking time per day, age, sex, education level, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking status and alcohol use.
During 7812.81 person-years of follow-up, 203 (9.8%) participants developed incident depressive symptoms. No significant associations [Hazard Ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found between sex-specific tertiles of ST (lowest v. highest tertile) [1.13 (0.76–1.66], or HPA (highest v. lowest tertile) [1.14 (0.78–1.69)] and incident depressive symptoms. LPA (highest v. lowest tertile) was statistically significantly associated with incident depressive symptoms in women [1.98 (1.19–3.29)], but not in men (p-interaction <0.01).
We did not observe an association between ST or HPA and incident depressive symptoms. Lower levels of daily LPA were associated with an increased risk of incident depressive symptoms in women. Future research is needed to investigate accelerometer-derived measured physical activity and ST with incident depressive symptoms, preferably stratified by sex.
Sedentary behaviour is potentially a modifiable risk factor for anxiety disorders, a major source of global disability that typically starts during adolescence. This is the first prospective study of associations between repeated, device-based measures of sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.
A UK cohort with 4257 adolescents aged 12 at baseline (56% female). Main exposures were sedentary behaviour and physical activity measured using accelerometers for 7-days at ages 12, 14, and 16. Primary outcome was anxiety symptom scores at age 18 from a Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. We used adjusted negative binomial regression and iso-temporal substitution methods to analyse the data.
We found a positive association between sedentary behaviour at ages 12, 14, and 16, with anxiety symptoms at age 18, independent of total physical activity volume. Theoretically replacing an hour of daily sedentary behaviour for light activity at ages 12, 14, and 16, was associated with lower anxiety symptoms by age 18 by 15.9% (95% CI 8.7–22.4), 12.1% (95% CI 3.4–20.1), and 14.7% (95% CI 4–24.2), respectively. Whereas, theoretically replacing an hour of sedentary behaviour with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was not associated with differences in anxiety symptoms. These results were robust to a series of sensitivity analyses.
Sedentary behaviour is a possible risk factor for increasing anxiety symptoms during adolescence, independent of total physical activity volume. Instead of focusing on moderate-to-vigorous activity, replacing daily sedentary behaviour with light activity during adolescence could be a more suitable method of reducing future anxiety symptoms.
Loneliness and physical activity are important targets for research into the impact of COVID-19 because they have established links with mental health, could be exacerbated by social distancing policies and are potentially modifiable. In this study we aimed to identify whether loneliness and physical activity were associated with worse mental health during a period of mandatory social distancing in the UK.
Population-based observation cohort study.
Mental health data collected online during COVID-19 from an existing sample of adults aged 50 and over taking part in a longitudinal study of ageing. All had comparable annual data collected between 2015 and 2019.
3,281 participants aged 50 and over.
Trajectories of depression (measured by PHQ-9) and anxiety (measured by GAD-7) between 2015 and 2020 were analyzed with respect to loneliness, physical activity levels and a number of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using zero-inflated negative binomial regression.
In 2020, PHQ-9 score for loneliness, adjusted for covariates, was 3.23 (95% CI: 3.01-3.44), an increase of around one point on all previous years in this group and 2 points higher than people not rated lonely, whose score did not change in 2020 (1.22, 95% CI: 1.12-1.32). PHQ-9 was 2.60, 95% CI: 2.43-2.78 in people with decreased physical activity, an increase of 0.5 on previous years. In contrast, PHQ-9 in 2020 for people whose physical activity had not decreased was 1.66, 95% CI: 1.56-1.75, similar to previous years. A similar relationship was observed for GAD-7 though the absolute burden of symptoms lower.
After accounting for pre-COVID-19 trends, we show that experiencing loneliness and decreased physical activity are risk factors for worsening mental health during the pandemic. Our findings highlight the need to examine policies which target these potentially modifiable risk factors.
Lutein is considered as a major biologically active carotenoid, with potential benefits for obesity and cardiometabolic health. This double-blind, randomised controlled trial aimed to assess whether the consumption of lutein along with a low-calorie diet (LCD) can influence anthropometric indices, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese middle-aged individuals. After a 2-week run-in period with an LCD, forty-eight participants aged 45–65 years were randomly assigned to consume 20 mg/d lutein or placebo along with the LCD for 10 weeks. Dietary intake, anthropometric indices, body composition, lipid profile, glucose homoeostasis parameters, NEFA and appetite sensations were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. After 10 weeks, body weight and waist circumference significantly decreased in both groups, although between-group differences were not significant. There was more of a decrease in the percentage of body fat in the lutein group v. the placebo group. Moreover, the placebo group experienced a significant reduction in fat-free mass (FFM), whereas the lutein group preserved FFM during calorie restriction, although the between-group difference did not reach statistical significance. Visceral fat and serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased only in the lutein group, with a statistically significant difference between the two arms only for TC. No significant changes were observed in the TAG, HDL-cholesterol, glucose homoeostasis parameters, NEFA and appetite sensations. Lutein supplementation in combination with an LCD could improve body composition and lipid profile in obese middle-aged individuals.
RCTs provide evidence that stroke risk is reduced by several risk factor control strategies reviewed in this chapter: adhering to a Mediterranean Diet , avoiding long-term estrogen hormone replacement, and treating severe obesity with gastric balloons or bariatric surgery. In addition, observational evidence suggests stroke risk is reduced by quitting smoking, controlling blood glucose, losing weight in moderately obese individuals, exercising regularly, abandoning heavy alcohol consumption, and improving diet (less salt and more unsaturated fats) via other approaches. Optimal goals for risk factor control are delineated in the American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7 ideal targets. The beneficial effects of these measures are likely largely mediated by amelioration of well-established risk factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and coagulation status. To achieve these lifestyle changes, both the individual and the community must contribute. Governments have a responsibility to: improve public education; increase access to healthy foods and built environments with pedestrian, bicycle, and exercise infrastructure; and use regulation, legislation, and taxation to discourage hazardous lifestyle behaviours (e.g. smoking, alcohol, and perhaps salt or sugar in foods). Continued cultural change is also required among individuals and communities to promote regular physical activity, a healthy diet, and minimal exposure to smoking in everyday life.
To evaluate emotional (depression) and behavioural (nutritional behaviours, physical activity status and sleep patterns) of Turkish adult individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
Cross-sectional online survey. The participants filled out a questionnaire (developed by using Google Forms) that contained descriptive characteristics, nutritional behaviours, sleep patterns, physical activity status, anthropometric measurements, COVID-19-related level of knowledge and the questions of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale through e-mail or social media (WhatsApp).
Totally, 1120 adult individuals who completed an online survey between April and May 2020.
It was determined that 29·1 % of the individuals showed mild, 34·2 % moderate and 23·4 % severe depression symptoms during the pandemic period. A significant relationship was found between gender, age and educational status, marital status and depression levels of the individuals, respectively (χ2 = 35·292, χ2 = 103·46, χ2 = 24·524 and χ2 = 86·208, P < 0·05). The top three foods consumed most during the pandemic period are tea and coffee (66·6 %), pastry (e.g. cake and cookie) (56·4 %) and desserts (49·6 %). During the pandemic period, 42·5 % of the individuals stated that they slept more and 40·2 % stated that there was no change in their sleep patterns. Daily physical activity durations were determined as 8·25 ± 1·77 h for sleep, 4·21 ± 2·68 h for lying down, 5·42 ± 2·64 h for sitting and 6·16 ± 4·82 h for standing activities.
It was determined that the individuals showed different levels of depression symptoms during the pandemic period. Especially, carbohydrate food consumption increased, and physical activity status and sleep patterns changed due to the increased time spent sitting and lying.
The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour and physical fitness levels has been analysed in several studies; however, there is mixed evidence among youth. Thus, this study aimed to meta-analyse the associations between adherence to the MD, PA, sedentary behaviour and physical fitness among children and adolescents. Three databases were systematically searched, including cross-sectional and prospective designs with a sample of healthy youth aged 3–18 years. Random effects inverse-variance model with the Hartung–Knapp–Sidik–Jonkman adjustment was used to estimate the pooled effect size (correlation coefficient (r)). Thirty-nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 565 421 youth (mean age, 12·4 years). Overall, the MD had a weak-to-moderate positive relationship with PA (r 0·14; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·17), cardiorespiratory fitness (r 0·22; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·31) and muscular fitness (r 0·11; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·18), and a small-to-moderate negative relationship with sedentary behaviour (r –0·15; 95 % CI –0·20, –0·10) and speed–agility (r –0·06; 95 % CI –0·12, –0·01). There was a high level of heterogeneity in all of the models (I2 ≥ 75 %). Overall, results did not remain significant after controlling for sex and age (children or adolescents) except for PA. Improving dietary habits towards those of the MD could be associated with higher physical fitness and PA in youth, lower sedentary behaviours and better health in general.
There is a growing recognition that social support can potentially exert consistent or opposing effects in influencing health behaviours. The present paper presents a cross-sectional study, including 2,064 adults from Italy, Spain and Greece, who were participants in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (C4H study), aiming to examine whether social support is correlated with adherence to a healthy Mediterranean diet and physical activity. Social support data were available for 1,572 participants. The majority of the sample reported emotional support availability (84·5 %), financial support availability (72·6 %) and having one or more close friends (78·2 %). Mediterranean diet adherence was significantly associated with emotional support (P = 0·009) and social network support (P = 0·021). No statistically significant associations were found between participant physical activity and the social support aspects studied. In conclusion, emotional and social network support may be associated with increased adherence to the Mediterranean diet. However, further research is needed to evaluate the role of social support in adherence to healthy Mediterranean diet.
Explore the interrelationship between teachers’ personal and professional socio-ecological structures while examining Head Start (HS) teachers’ experiences with (1) trying to eat healthy and engage in physical activity (PA) and (2) promote healthy eating and PA in their classrooms.
In-depth semi-structured interviews were collected from March through June 2017. Researchers designed the data collection and analysis methods using a phenomenological approach. All interviews were recorded using digital audio and transcribed verbatim.
Seven HS centres in two rural eastern North Carolina counties.
Teachers (n 15) who had recently participated in a healthy eating and physical activity intervention. Participants were 100 % female, an average age of 43 years (sd 9·6) and primarily Black/African American (93·3 %).
Eighteen primary themes were identified providing unique insight into individual, social and environmental determinants that may influence teachers’ personal health behaviours and professional health promotion practices. Findings indicated that teachers want to improve health behaviours personally (individual/family health) and professionally (children/families served); however, barriers exist at all levels impacting their ability to improve their own health and facilitate positive behaviours among the children/families they serve. Many teachers observed connections between their personal and professional experiences, but not beyond the individual level.
Study findings highlight the importance of considering and emphasising the potential relationship between personal and professional determinants of health when working with early childhood teachers. Findings from this study may be useful for informing the development, implementation and evaluation of future health promotion interventions using teachers as implementers.
The interdependence among eating behaviour (EB), physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) suggests simultaneously identifying homogeneous profiles and describing their changes. This study aimed to (1) identify cross-sectional lifestyle behaviour profiles and their 2-year changes among French school-age adolescents and (2) identify factors associated with these profiles and changes. Longitudinal data from adolescents who participated in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique trial were used. PA and ST were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and EB with a FFQ. Profiles at baseline and their changes were identified by latent transition analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with profiles and their changes. Among 2390 adolescents included (14–18 years), five baseline profiles that differed mainly in EB were identified: ‘healthy diet and high PA (7·9 %)’, ‘big eater and moderate to high PA (23·8 %)’, ‘healthy diet and low PA (31·2 %)’, ‘restrictive diet and moderate PA (20·6 %)’ and ‘sugar products, nibbling and moderate PA (16·5 %)’. Young adolescents, those who were overweight or obese and socially advantaged, were more in the ‘healthy diet and low PA’ than others. Boys, older and socially less advantaged adolescents exhibited more ‘unfavourable’ than ‘mixed’ changes, while adolescents with overweight or obesity had less ‘unfavourable’ than ‘mixed’ changes. In conclusion, adolescents were twice the number in the least than the most favourable profile. Findings highlighted the importance of EB among adolescents and suggest taking adolescents’ sociodemographic and weight characteristics into account in interventions aimed at acting on adolescents’ behaviours.
Adolescent diet, physical activity and nutritional status are generally known to be sub-optimal. This is an introduction to a special issue of papers devoted to exploring factors affecting diet and physical activity in adolescents, including food insecure and vulnerable groups.
Eight settings including urban, peri-urban and rural across sites from five different low- and middle-income countries.
Focus groups with adolescents and caregivers carried out by trained researchers.
Our results show that adolescents, even in poor settings, know about healthy diet and lifestyles. They want to have energy, feel happy, look good and live longer, but their desire for autonomy, a need to ‘belong’ in their peer group, plus vulnerability to marketing exploiting their aspirations, leads them to make unhealthy choices. They describe significant gender, culture and context-specific barriers. For example, urban adolescents had easy access to energy dense, unhealthy foods bought outside the home, whereas junk foods were only beginning to permeate rural sites. Among adolescents in Indian sites, pressure to excel in exams meant that academic studies were squeezing out physical activity time.
Interventions to improve adolescents’ diets and physical activity levels must therefore address structural and environmental issues and influences in their homes and schools, since it is clear that their food and activity choices are the product of an interacting complex of factors. In the next phase of work, the Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition consortium will employ groups of adolescents, caregivers and local stakeholders in each site to develop interventions to improve adolescent nutritional status.
The aim of this study is to present the engagement of adult Poles in physical activity (PA) before and during the coronavirus pandemic, taking into consideration: frequency, duration, and types of the activity, depending on the gender and age of the participants.
The study was conducted using an online survey questionnaire. A total of 688 residents of Poland aged 18 to 58 (28.61 ± 9.5) y participated in the study.
A statistically significant decrease in the frequency of PA was noted in the group of men (P = 0.0001) and in the age group of 39 to 58 y old. The analysis of the duration of a single PA before and during the pandemic has shown a statistically significant reduction in the workout time among both men and women and across all age groups (P = 0.05). There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of women undertaking flexibility exercises, eg, yoga (P = 0.000), as well as a decrease in marching and walks (P = 0.003). Men significantly less frequently did strength exercises (P = 0.002).
During the pandemic, there was a statistically significant decrease in the frequency and duration of PA. The preferences of the participants as to the type of PA undertaken changed as well.