To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Why do some rebel groups undertake costly, burdensome governing projects that undermine their legitimacy, and even trigger resistance and violence that could put their own combatants at risk, while other rebel groups do not? The introductory chapter uses the contemporary cases of three rebel groups’ control of the city Raqqa in Syria to illustrate the empirical puzzle that motivates the book. The chapter then outlines existing works related to rebel governance and details why these approaches cannot explain rebel governance in Raqqa. Specifically, research generally assumes that rebel governance is popular and desirable in ways that confer material and organizational benefits to rebel groups. This chapter then puts forth an alternative conceptualization of rebel governance as varied in terms of its costs and benefits such that rebel leaders make decisions about whether to introduce more or less burdensome governance institutions during war. The chapter then outlines the central argument of the text: that rebel groups’ goals determine their governance strategy. It then describes how the book empirically tests this argument before concluding with a discussion of the importance of the topic.
This chapter begins by outlining the mixed-methods approach used to test the argument. To assess causal mechanisms, it relies on process-tracing techniques drawing on archival and primary data, in addition to secondary sources, within a paired case comparison framework. To assess generalizability, the chapter tests an observable implication of the theory using a large-n quantitative analyses with an original dataset. Next, it delineates the observable implications of theoretical contentions, then it discusses three rival explanations that are simultaneously evaluated in each chapter. The chapter explains the case selection strategy and presents an overview of the results. It concludes with a discussion of data and measures for the key variables.
Prevailing views suggest rebels govern to enhance their organizational capacity, but this book demonstrates that some rebels undertake costly governance projects that can imperil their cadres during war. The origins for this choice began with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Chinese Civil War. The CCP knowingly introduced challenging governance projects, but nevertheless propagated its strategy globally, creating a behavioural model readily available to later rebels. The likelihood of whether later rebels' will imitate this model is determined by the compatibility between their goals and the CCP's objectives; only rebels that share the CCP's revolutionary goals decide to mimic the CCP's governance fully. Over time, ideational and material pressures further encouraged (and occasionally rewarded) revolutionary rebels' conformity to the CCP's template. Using archival data from six countries, primary rebel sources, fieldwork and quantitative analysis, Governing for Revolution underscores the mimicry of and ultimate convergence in revolutionary rebels' governance, that persists even today, despite vast differences in ideology.
Alcohol-related presentations to acute hospitals in the UK are increasing, but little is known of the clinical characteristics or natural history of this patient group.
To describe the clinical characteristics, drinking profile and trajectory of a cohort of patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) attending hospital, and explore participant perspectives of the impact of hospital attendance on their relationship with alcohol.
We conducted a mixed method, prospective, observational cohort study of patients with AUD seen in an acute hospital. Participants were interviewed with a range of questionnaires at baseline and followed up on at 6 months. A subsample also completed in-depth qualitative interviews.
We recruited 141 patients; 132 (93.6%) were followed up at 6 months and 26 completed qualitative interviews. Of the 141 patients, 60 (42.6%) stated the index hospital episode included the first discussion of their alcohol use in a secondary care setting. Most rated discussion of their alcohol use in hospital as ‘very positive’ or ‘positive’ (102/141, 72.3%), but lack of coordinated care with community services undermined efforts to sustain change. At 6 months, 11 (7.8%) patients had died, but in those who survived and completed assessment (n = 121), significant and clinically meaningful improvements were seen across a range of outcomes, with 55 patients (45.5%) showing a favourable drinking outcome at 6 months.
Patients with AUD have high levels of morbidity and mortality, yet many made substantial changes following intervention in hospital for their alcohol use. Prospective trials need to identify the effect of alcohol care teams in optimising this ‘teachable moment’ for patients.
In northern Cambodia, threatened wildlife, livestock and people are being poisoned by pesticides deposited in seasonal waterholes. Addressing this critical conservation threat requires understanding the drivers of poisoning behaviours and the social contexts in which they occur. This study across 10 communities in two protected areas aimed to provide a first assessment of this phenomenon. We used the theory of planned behaviour to measure socio-psychological determinants of behaviour and deepened this understanding using informant interviews and focus group discussions. Informants reported that so-called termite poisons, including powerful carbamates, are deliberately deposited at waterholes to catch wildlife for consumption. This method is perceived to be low effort and high efficacy, and perceptions of the health risks vary. Predominant users are young men and children, but it is unclear whether the practice is related to food insecurity. Threatened wildlife species reported as affected include the giant ibis Pseudibis gigantea and vulture species. Overall, social norms are strongly negative towards poisoning; 75% of survey respondents perceived negative norms because of impacts on human and livestock health, environmental quality, and risks of legal sanctions. This has led to interventions by local authorities in half of the studied villages. We suggest that future interventions should raise the salience of negative norms by providing a non-conflictual mechanism for community members to participate in monitoring and sanctioning, such as a reporting hotline. Regulatory interventions are also required to control the supply of restricted pesticides.
This chapter provides practical and theoretical insights into corpus-assisted discourse studies (CADS), an increasingly popular framework for studying language-in-use. By drawing upon both discourse analysis and corpus linguistics, CADS combines methods of text analysis commonly perceived as qualitative and quantitative, respectively. Despite challenges, the main appeal lies in CADS’ ability to reconcile close linguistic analyses with the more broad-ranging analyses made possible by using corpus linguistic methods to analyse language. In addition to providing theoretical insights into CADS, this chapter examines what CADS involves from a practical point of view, e.g. by discussing specific corpus outputs, examples of ways in which qualitative and quantitative approaches to discourse analysis are synergized and triangulated, and the extent to which CADS differs from other kinds of discourse analysis relying on one or more non-corpus-informed approaches in discourse analysis. Interdisciplinary applications in CADS are also considered.
This chapter describes the sample selection, interview methods, characteristics of the sample, and mixed methods of analysis. It begins with a description of violence and migration patterns over time within Syria. This leads to discussion of unique features of Syrian civilians who had become refugees in Jordan and Turkey at the time of fieldwork. After providing additional detail on characteristics of Syrian refugees within Turkey, it describes the interview methods. Then, it discusses who the sampling missed and descriptive statistics of the sample. It ends with discussion of the mixed methods of analysis.
To understand how consumers use ‘dessert-only’ retail food outlets which represent one of the UK’s top ten growing retail business categories and a high-street source of energy-dense, low nutrient foods.
Responses to open-ended questions about dessert-only restaurant usage and closed-ended questions about demographic information including frequency of use and BMI were collected.
Online questionnaire launched from the UK.
Totally, 203 participants (female = 153; mean age = 33·5 years (sd = 14·2); mean BMI = 25·05 kg/m2 (sd = 5·29)) assisted with the study.
Quantitative results showed that participants used dessert-only restaurants infrequently, and qualitative results showed that they regarded a visit as a treat. Many participants also described ways that they modified their eating pattern to accommodate a visit. Thematic analysis also showed that consumer visits were influenced by properties of the foods on offer, opportunities for socialisation (especially with children) as well as convenience, price and a perceived relaxation of meal-time ‘rules’.
Despite some media opinion, this type of food retail outlet is being used somewhat judiciously by consumers. A fruitful public health focus may be on the management of treats within the broader context of the diet as opposed to targeting the treat itself, this may be especially helpful for parents/caregivers taking their children out for a treat to a dessert-only restaurant.
This chapter offers a critical consideration of behavior change scholarship. It introduces the complexity of behavior change and provides a brief overview of major concerns that have been raised regarding behavior change theories and models. It then discusses how critical and qualitative approaches can provide a response to some of these concerns and how qualitative approaches have value for extending practice in this field. The chapter provides arguments for using qualitative research in behavior change research, gives examples of where qualitative approaches have been employed, and outlines social practice theory as a means to address many of the concerns about dominant approaches to behavior change. The chapter also discusses critical perspectives and their value to the field of behavior change research and implementation. In the final sections, the chapter outlines the benefits of researchers and practitioners working interdisciplinarily, advocates the importance of understanding and incorporating qualitative approaches into behavior change research, and highlights the value of taking a broader, more critical perspective on research and practice in this field.
This chapter describes key methods to promote intervention engagement in order to maximize uptake, prevent early dropout, and support sustained behavior change. The importance of reviewing or conducting qualitative and mixed methods research on target users’ attitudes, capabilities, and lifestyle is highlighted so that interventions can be designed to meet users’ needs. Tailoring interventions is useful to provide appropriate advice and support for the needs of the target population – especially among those who find it difficult to engage due to personal circumstances or lack of resources. Interventions should then be optimized by collecting data on how people engage with them and iteratively modifying them to improve engagement. Qualitative studies are needed to explore target users’ views of intervention elements. Quantitative usage and outcome data are valuable to analyze usage patterns and identify predictors of dropout or effective behavior change. To maintain longer-term engagement with behavior change, it can be useful to harness social support and establish environment-prompted habits that require less deliberative effort to sustain. The chapter provides examples and tools that can be used to design and optimize interventions, drawing on the “person-based approach” that has been used to develop many interventions that have proved engaging and effective.
Family care-givers are the backbone of the long-term support system for care receivers at home. Care for stroke survivors after rehabilitation primarily rests on the shoulders of family members, often of older age themselves. We report the outcomes of a new complex support programme, the Care-givers’ Guide, on both individual and system levels. Psycho-social support and personalised information were the main ingredients of this intervention. A two-level multi-methodological approach was needed, with two concurrent interconnected studies. Family care-givers reflected on outcomes at an individual level in a quant-QUAL study with a pre–post quantitative questionnaire and a post-intervention qualitative semi-structured interview. Practitioners participated in a QUAL-QUAL study ex post interview, reflecting on the outcomes on the care-givers and on their own stroke care system. Individual family care-givers showed an increase in health literacy and level of psycho-social health. Qualitative analysis revealed improvement in knowledge, capability to act and individual empowerment; and stabilisation of sense of certainty, life balance and emotional wellbeing. Practitioners observed an optimisation of the stroke support system by improving professionals’ daily routine, augmenting the institutional support offer, securing the quality of patient care and increasing inter-institutional co-operation attempts. Positive outcomes of the support programme were observed on both evaluation levels: family care-givers showed improved health literacy and psycho-social health, whereas the professionals noticed an optimisation of the support system.
Every country, every subnational government, and every district has a designated population, and this has a bearing on politics in ways most citizens and policymakers are barely aware of. Population and Politics provides a comprehensive evaluation of the political implications stemming from the size of a political unit – on social cohesion, the number of representatives, overall representativeness, particularism ('pork'), citizen engagement and participation, political trust, electoral contestation, leadership succession, professionalism in government, power concentration in the central apparatus of the state, government intervention, civil conflict, and overall political power. A multimethod approach combines field research in small states and islands with cross-country and within-country data analysis. Population and Politics will be of interest to academics, policymakers, and anyone concerned with decentralization and multilevel governance.
Innovation Concept: Emergency physicians (EP) rarely receive timely, iterative feedback on clinical performance that aids their reflective practice. The Calgary zone ED recently implemented a novel email-based alert system wherein an EP is notified when a patient whose ED care they were involved in is admitted to hospital within 72-hours of discharge from an index ED visit. Our study sought to evaluate the general acceptability of this form of audit and feedback and determine whether it encourages practice reflection. Methods: This mixed methods realist evaluation consisted of two sequential phases. An initial quantitative phase used data from our electronic health record and a survey to examine the general features and acceptability of 72-hour readmission alerts sent from May 2017-2018. A subsequent qualitative phase involved semi-structured interviews exploring the alert's role in greater depth. Quantitative data were summarized using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic and template analysis techniques. Results of both phases were used to guide construction of context-mechanism-outcome statements to refine our program theory. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: 4024 alerts were sent over a 1-year period, with each physician receiving approximately 17 alerts per year (Q1: 7, Q3: 25, IQR: 18). The top five CEDIS complaints on index presentations were abdominal pain, flank pain, shortness of breath, vomiting and/or nausea, and chest pain (cardiac features). The majority of re-admissions (78.6%) occurred within 48 hours after discharge. Immediate alert survey feedback provided by EP's noted that 52.65% (N = 471) of alerts were helpful. Thematic analysis of 17 semi-structured interviews suggests that the alert was generally acceptable to physicians, However, certain EPs were concerned that the alert impacted hire/fire decisions even when leadership didn't endorse this sentiment. Physicians who didn't believe alerts were involved in hire/fire decisions, described greater engagement in the reflective process. Conversely, physicians, who believed alerts were involved in hire/fire decisions, were more likely to defensively change their practice. Conclusion: Most EPs noted that timely notification of 72-hour readmissions made them more mindful of documenting discharge instructions. Our implementation of a 72- hour readmission alert was an acceptable format for audit and feedback and appeared to facilitate physician reflection under certain conditions.
How does political polarization occur under repressive conditions? Drawing on psychological theories of social identity, the author posits that the nature of repression drives polarization. Repression alters group identities, changing the perceived distance between groups and ultimately shaping the level of affective and preference polarization between them through differentiation processes. The author tests the proposed causal relationship using mixed-method data and analysis.The results of a laboratory experiment reveal that exposure to a targeted repression prime results in greater in-group identification and polarization between groups, whereas exposure to a widespread prime results in decreased levels of these same measurements. The effect of the primes appears to be mediated through group identification. Case-study evidence of polarization between political opposition groups that were differently repressed in Egypt and Tunisia reinforces these results. The findings have implications for understanding how polarization, as conditioned by repression, may alter the likelihood of the cooperative behavior among opposition actors necessary for the success of democratic politics.
When collecting egocentric network data, visual representations of networks can function as a cognitive aid for depicting relationships, helping to maintain an overview of the relationships, and keeping the attention of the interviewees. Additionally, network maps can serve as a narration generator in qualitative and in mixed-methods studies. While varying visual instruments are used for collecting egocentric network data, little is known about differences among visual tools concerning the influence on the resulting network data, the usability for interviewees, and data validity. The article provides an overview of existing visually oriented tools that are used to collect egocentric networks and discusses their functions, advantages, and limitations. Then, we present results of an experimental study where we compare four different visual tools with regard to networks elicited, manageability, and the impact of follow-up questions. In order to assess the manageability of the four tools, we used the thinking aloud method. The results provide evidence that the decision in favor of a specific visual tool (structured vs. unstructured) can affect the size and composition of the elicited networks. Follow-up questions greatly affect the elicited networks and follow-up cues can level out differences among tools. Respondents tend to prefer the concentric circles tool, with some differences in preferences and manageability of tools between participants with low and those with high socioeconomic status. Finally, assets and drawbacks of the four instruments are discussed with regard to data quality and crucial aspects of the data collection process when using visual tools.
− Over the last decade, ESG-Agency scholars have increased their use of social and system dynamic theories, participatory and actorness approaches in agency theories, and justice approaches within critical theories.− Qualitative and multiple qualitative methods are the most widely used approaches in research on agency in earth system governance, with very slowly growing methodological pluralism. − In the future, scholars in this field may benefit from the integration of cross-disciplinary and increasingly complex methods in an effort to foster linking of environmental sciences more broadly into environmental governance research.
This paper investigates the role of gender in shaping attitudes towards the European Union (EU) among young people living in Polish cities – the so-called ‘winners of European integration’. Previously, little attention has been given to gender as an influence on views on the EU. Most studies apply the gender-based perspective on Western Europe, while Central and Eastern European countries remain understudied. Based on theories on public opinion, I employ a mixed-methods approach, conducting a survey among 815 MA students living in Polish cities, followed by 27 semi-structured interviews. This analysis of gender-related attitudes towards the EU offers nuanced insights into transitions within post-communist societies. My findings posit that the sampled well-educated women are more likely to support EU integration than men. Education, gender-based individual cost-benefit analyses, and the perceptions of national politics are possible explanations for the positive attitudes towards the EU among the sampled women.
It is well documented that intergenerational ties play important roles in adults’ well-being. However, most studies focus on the impact of individuals’ own perceptions of their ties without considering whether family members’ assessments of these ties affect well-being. We address this question using data from 296 adult children nested within 95 later-life families in which all offspring were interviewed. Applying a mixed-method within-family approach, we explored whether the effect of perceived maternal favoritism on depressive symptoms was increased when siblings shared ego’s perceptions. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that ego’s own perceptions predicted depressive symptoms, but only among daughters. Siblings’ perceptions that egos were most close to mothers did not affect the well-being of daughters or sons. Qualitative analyses suggested that differential effects of perceived favoritism by gender reflected differences in the meaning sons and daughters associated with being favored children. Favored daughters were more likely than favored sons to report that they were emotional caregivers to their mothers; this pattern was especially strong when siblings reinforced egos’ perceptions of being “best suited” for this role. These findings emphasize the salience of egos’ own perceptions, relative to those of family network members, in shaping role embracement and psychological well-being, especially among women.
The coherence and systemic strength of the collaborative process among thematic route stakeholders are key factors to economic success for individual businesses and regional economic development. The objective of this article is to identify the economic action set to rejuvenate the Cider Route and the Wine Route of the Montérégie region (Quebec, Canada). Group concept mapping is used to estimate the conceptualization and perceptions of stakeholders (cideries, wineries, tourism professionals, visitors) regarding the articulation of the action set. The contribution is threefold. Methodologically, the approach taken supports both the estimation of the concept map and associated perception measures. Empirically, eight action clusters are identified to articulate stakeholders’ “organizational” and “selling” dimensions of the routes. Practically, action priorities identified and feasibility constraints are helpful to target the capability development support needed by route stakeholders to collaborate. (JEL Classifications: D02, L23, L26, L66, Q18)
Arkansas was a demographic frontier after the U.S. Civil War. Despite marked agricultural land deforestation and development after the 1870s, it remained agrarian well into the twentieth century. We fuse life course and racial state frameworks to examine Black and White women’s settlement in Arkansas over the post-Civil War period (1880-1910). A racial state empowers residents and enacts policies based on race rather than equal citizenship rights. We highlight three institutional domains shaped by racial state policies: productive economies (subsistence, mixed commercialism, and plantation production); stratification on an agricultural ladder (from sharecropping to forms of tenancy to farm ownership); and rules of raced (and gendered) social control. We examine women’s settlement patterns and related outcomes in an institutional context at different life course stages using mixed methods: women’s oral histories and Census data analysis. We find that by 1880 White women and families, less attracted by forces of marketization, had largely migrated to subsistence and mixed commercial subregions. Black women and families, generally desiring to rise on the agricultural ladder to farm ownership, largely migrated to the rich lands found in plantation production counties. Black women in Arkansas could rise but, by 1910, new racial state (Jim Crow) policies more severely limited travel, material resources, and education for tenant farm families, predominantly Black, in the plantation subregion. Commensurate with this, Black women in the plantation subregion had experienced less status mobility on the agricultural ladder, with reduced living standards, by later life.