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This article presents a review on recent advances in the fatigue behavior of Ti alloys, especially the main commercial compositions for orthopedic applications. In the case of well-known Ti–6Al–4V alloy, the major concern is related to the effect of the surface modification necessary to improve the osseointegration. The introduction of surface discontinuities due to the growth of a porous oxide layer, or the roughness development, may severely affect the fatigue performance depending on the level of alteration. In the case of additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V, the fatigue response is also influenced by inherent defects of as-built parts. Regarding the recently developed metastable β alloys, information about the fatigue properties is still scarce and mainly related to the effect of second phase precipitates, which are introduced to optimize the mechanical properties. The fatigue behavior of the Ti alloys is complex, as is their microstructure, and should not be neglected when the alloys are being developed or improved to be applied in medical devices.
Fe–Al–O ODS alloy prepared via mechanical alloying was subjected to three different heat treatments. Material basic state exhibited a fine-grained (300–500 nm) microstructure with fine dispersion of aluminum oxide particles (60% up to 20 nm). Heat treatment at 1100 °C for 3 h resulted in local grain and particles coarsening. Prolongation of the heat treatment to 24 h resulted in further grain (50 % up to 5 μm) and particle (25 % with size 25–40 nm) coarsening. Annealing at 1200 °C for 24 h led to a bimodal microstructure (35 % of grains with size 100–250 μm and 45 % of particles with size 30–60 nm) and substantial oxide particle coarsening. Microstructural changes resulted in tensile strength decrease and ductility increase. Tensile tests at 800 °C revealed a 90% decrease of tensile strength while ductility increased 4–6 times when compared to the room temperature tests. The hardening ratio was below 10 % for all the alloys and both test temperatures.
Hot deformation and softening response for the titanium aluminide Ti–48Al–2V–0.2B has been investigated. The deformation response to softening mechanisms has been examined. Deformation experiments were carried out in the strain rate range 0.01–10 s−1 keeping the temperature constant at 1200 °C and in the temperature range 1000–1200 °C at the strain rate 1 s−1. With an increase in strain rate, the microstructural changes associated with the softening mechanism include breaking of the lamellae, spheroidization of the broken laths and dynamic recrystallization. For the strain rate 1 s−1, deformation in the (α2 +γ) phase field leads to fine recrystallized grains, remnant lamellae and cavitation along the grain boundaries (for temperatures 1000 and 1100 °C). Deformation in the (α +γ) phase field leads to dynamic recrystallization at the shear bands, within the lamellae, breaking and rotation of the α phase during the continuous increase in the deformation strain.
Soyarslan et al. [J. Mater. Res. 33(20), 3371 (2018)] proposed a beam-finite element model for the computation of effective elastic properties of nanoporous materials, where the ligament diameter along the skeleton is determined with the biggest sphere algorithm. Although this algorithm is often used in the literature, it is known that it systematically overestimates the diameter in network structures. Thus, the need for further stiffening of the junction zones as proposed by the authors is in contradiction to the literature. Furthermore, the factor 40 appears to be one order of magnitude too high. We show that the 3D microstructures generated from random Gaussian fields contain features that are violating the assumption of circular cross-sections and, therefore, cannot be captured by the biggest sphere algorithm. Consequently, the authors required an unphysically high value of 40 to compensate this hidden effect.
In modern lexicography, a core distinction has been made between diachronic and synchronic dictionaries, and English dictionaries are no exception. In fact, English dictionaries are at the centre of this debate, since the Oxford English Dictionary, a landmark scholarly undertaking of the nineteenth century, is arguably the most successful exposition of the diachronic approach to dictionary making. While many other historical language dictionaries have modelled themselves on the OED, the development of a more theoretical basis for synchronic dictionaries was largely led by English language learner dictionaries in the late twentieth century. This chapter seeks to explain the distinctions between diachronic, or historical, dictionaries and their synchronic counterparts; how the distinction arose in English lexicography; what it means for those using or writing dictionaries; and, perhaps, why it’s important. While there is some underlying theoretical basis, the story of dictionaries is overwhelmingly one of practice, the findings are based on illustrative examples from English dictionaries throughout. In conclusion, there is an assessment of how meaningful the distinction continues to be today, and what changes we might expect to see in the future.
The CoCrNiMox (x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2 in molar ratio) medium entropy alloys (MEAs) were fabricated by vacuum arc melting, followed by cold rolling and annealing treatments. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the microstructures. It has been shown that the CoCrNi MEA has a single FCC phase and the Mo-containing MEAs contain (Cr, Mo)-rich σ precipitates. In addition, the Mo addition caused significant grain refinement, due to the fact that the presence of σ phase exerts a strong pinning effect on the grain boundary migration. The hardness testing results indicate an increment in Vickers hardness from 187.5 ± 4.5 Hv of CoCrNi alloy to 309.5 ± 10.3 Hv of CoCrNiMo0.2 alloy. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength also increase from 339 ± 2 to 644 ± 5 MPa and from 810 ± 5 to 1071 ± 17 MPa, respectively, but the elongation drops from 88.4 ± 4.0% to 29.5 ± 7.6%. The grain refinement and the precipitation of σ phase make synergistic contribution to the reinforcement of Mo-containing CoCrNi-based MEAs. The details and explanations in this study may guide the future design and research of the CoCrNi-based quaternary alloys with enhanced properties.
Piezoelectric Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 (BCZT) has been found to be a competitive lead-free piezoceramic candidate and was prepared by a sol–gel technique due to its small particle size and homogeneous particle size distribution, but the sintering temperature is still quite high in the previous reports. In the present paper, lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was used as a sintering aid and dopant for the sol–gel-derived piezoceramic powder, to facilitate the sintering process and adjust the densification, the microstructures and functional properties. With the addition of 0.5 wt% Li2CO3 sintered at 1300 °C, a high relative density 96% with piezoelectric coefficient d33 ~447 pC/N, planar coupling coefficient kp ~0.51, and Curie point TC ~98.7 °C was obtained. The way to properly define the critical changing points on temperature-dependent dielectric curves were further discussed. By altering sintering temperature and the amount of dopant, the mutual influence between the microstructures and the functional properties was explained, to further guide shaping BCZT in more complexed connectivities.
Meteorites have one of the most unique and beautiful microstructures, the Widmanstätten structure. This consists of large, elongated bands which form an intricate octahedral lace of crystalline metal. This structure makes meteorites an ideal case to demonstrate the capabilities of mechanical phase mapping using high-speed nanoindentation. In this work, the mechanical properties and composition of the Taza meteorite were mapped using ~100,000 indentations to statistically determine the properties of the individual phases. Five microstructural phases were characterized in this meteorite: Kamacite, Plessite, Tetrataenite, Cloudy Zone, and Schreibersite. Mechanical phase identification was confirmed using EDX measurements, and the first direct, point-to-point correlation of EDX and large-scale indentation maps was achieved. Mechanical phase maps showed superior phase contrast to EDX in two phases. An indentation property map or a mechanical phase map using a 2D histogram was used to visualize and statistically characterize the phases and identify trends in their relationships.
In this paper, CuCr–Zr alloys prepared by vacuum melting with adding La and Ni elementswere heat-treated and aged, followed by plastic deformation using low-energy cyclic impact tests, to simultaneously improve their mechanical and electrical properties. Results showed that the grain size of the casted Cu–Cr–Zr alloys was significantly reduced after the solid-solution aging and plastic deformation process. There were a lot of dispersed Cr and Cu5Zr precipitates formed in the alloys, and the numbers of dislocations were significantly increased. Accordingly, the hardness was increased from 78 to 232 HV, and the tensile strength was increased from 225 to 691 MPa. Electrical conductivity has not been significantly affected after these processes. The enhancement of overall performance is mainly attributed to the combined effects of solid-solution hardening, fine grain hardening, and precipitation/dislocation strengthening.
Military operations occurring in particle-laden environments have resulted in aircraft incidents and loss of life due to sand ingestion into the engine. Sand melts in the hot combustion environment and deposits as glassy calcia–magnesia–alumino–silicates (CMAS) which leads to rapid performance degradation due to clogged air pathways in the engine. A novel, composite thermal barrier coating (TBC) consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) blended with gadolinia is proposed that combines the excellent thermo-mechanical properties of YSZ together with the CMAS resistance of rare-earth oxides. YSZ was blended with 2, 8, 17, and 32 vol% gadolinia and tested under simulated engine-relevant conditions. The presence of gadolinia in the composite coating reduced the adhesion of the CMAS, and at 32 vol% gadolinia addition, the CMAS was completely delaminated. A possible CMAS adhesion mitigating mechanism is discussed. This work demonstrated the capability of a new composite TBC to significantly reduce CMAS adhesion.
TiAl alloys are potential structural high-temperature structural materials at a service temperature of ~900 °C, while poor ductility at room temperature and high creep rate at the elevated temperature limits the applications. To improve the room-temperature and high-temperature mechanical properties of Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr, Mo and B were introduced into this system and Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–xMo–yB alloys were proposed. And then, we, respectively, studied the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–xMo–0B and Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–1Mo–yB to elucidate the role for the addition of Mo and B. It is found that Mo can increase the fraction of B2 phase in the alloys and the microstructures of the alloys are greatly refined by the addition of B. The compression test results indicate that Mo has a positive influence on the high-temperature compressive properties of TiAl-based alloys, whereas B addition can improve their room-temperature compressive properties of Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–1Mo–yB alloys; the morphology of borides in each sample should be the structural origin for these phenomena.
In this investigation, the superalloy IN718 has been prepared by additive manufacturing (AM) following a selective laser melting technique, and the post-AM heat treatments have been optimized. The microstructure of additively manufactured (AM) IN718 is characterized by the presence of dendritic and cellular features with large spatial heterogeneity along and across the build plane. Along the build direction, the 〈100〉 fiber texture dominates. Heat treatment involving two-step solution treatment, and subsequently, two-step aging treatment was specifically designed to facilitate the precipitation of δ phase at the grain boundaries to make the material resistant to grain boundary sliding (GBS). The AM IN718 showed dynamic strain aging (DSA) at three different temperatures, while the critical strain for the onset of serration was extended to a higher value after the heat treatment.
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) provides a platform for microstructure optimization via process control, but establishing a quantitative processing-microstructure linkage necessitates an efficient scheme for microstructure representation and regeneration. Here, we present a deep learning framework to quantitatively analyze the microstructural variations of metals fabricated by AM under different processing conditions. The principal microstructural descriptors are extracted directly from the electron backscatter diffraction patterns, enabling a quantitative measure of the microstructure differences in a reduced representation domain. We also demonstrate the capability of predicting new microstructures within the representation domain using a regeneration neural network, from which we are able to explore the physical insights into the implicitly expressed microstructure descriptors by mapping the regenerated microstructures as a function of principal component values. We validate the effectiveness of the framework using samples fabricated by a solid-state AM technology, additive friction stir deposition, which typically results in equiaxed microstructures.
The microstructure evolution, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and precipitation of the ZM61 alloy sheets prepared with different rolling conditions were studied. The DRX grain sizes (dDRX) at four high strain rate rolling (HSRR) temperatures (275–350 °C) are 1.9, 2.3, 2.6 and 3.1 μm, respectively, while the DRX volume fractions (fVDRX) are 69, 73, 76 and 82%, respectively. 300 °C is selected as the optimal HSRR temperature. The dDRX and fVDRX of the alloys prepared by pre-rolling (PR) at 300 °C + HSRR are 1.0 μm and 91%, respectively. The PR treatment does not change the types of the precipitates but promotes the precipitation. The tensile strength (UTS) of 369 MPa and yield strength (YS) of 261 MPa can be achieved by HSRR at 300 °C, while a further increase in both UTS and YS can be obtained by PR treatment.
In the present study, the effect of Al addition on microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and wear performances of a newly developed Ni–Si-containing complex brass was studied. The results showed that with increasing Al content from 0 to 3 wt%, the corresponding strengthening phase evolves from δ-Ni2Si to [Ni(Al)]2Si phases. Simultaneously, it is of great interest that the increasing Al addition also brings about a remarkable change in morphology of the secondary strengthening phase from dendrite and thin rod to regular block. Additionally, the hardness, yield strength and tensile strength of complex brass effectively increase with increasing Al content, and the fracture mechanism transforms from cleavage failure and microvoids accumulation fracture to cleavage failure. It was also found that the brass with adding 3 wt% Al exhibits the solidification microstructure with the uniform distribution of the block-shaped strengthening phase and has the best wear resistance. This present study provides a potential strategy for further improving the comprehensive performance of existing complex brass.
Distinguished by a marked combination of high strength and high fracture toughness, 18Ni-300 maraging steel (MS) is widely used for intricate tool and die applications. MS is also amenable to the powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process, providing unique opportunities to make small features and incorporate cooling channels in molds. In this study, tensile test samples were fabricated using selective laser melting to investigate the effects of built height and orientations on the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples. The microstructure of the as-fabricated samples consists of the primary α-martensite phase and fine cellular microstructure (~0.66–0.83 μm) with the retained austenite γ-phase aggregated at the boundaries of the cells, resulting in an enhanced mechanical performance compared with traditional counterparts under the same condition (without post-heat treatments). Random grain orientations with weak textures are revealed in all samples. The XY-built samples display better tensile performance when compared to the Z-built samples due to the fine grain sizes and the retained γ phase. The bottom of the Z-built sample exhibits a higher hardness than other parts of the sample, which could be attributed to its finer cellular structure.
In this study, the Ni/rGO hollow microspheres were synthesized and combined with epoxy foam to prepare structural absorbing materials. The diameter of obtained rGO hollow microspheres loaded with Ni nanoparticles was around 10 μm and the thickness of the spherical wall was about 70 nm. The Ni/rGO/EP composite foam exhibited better microwave absorption properties than that of rGO/EP and Ni/EP composite foam. The minimum reflection loss value (RLmin) could reach −58.23 dB at 8.4 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm, and the effective bandwidth with RLmin lower than −10 dB is 2.21 GHz ranging from 7.46 to 9.67 GHz. The porous structure of Ni/rGO hollow microspheres and their filled epoxy foam can refract and absorb the electromagnetic waves repeatedly, which equals to extend the propagation path of microwave, thus, electromagnetic loss capacity was improved obviously.
The addition amount and dispersion of inorganic particles into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) still remain a great difficulty, and in the present study, epoxidized soybean oil was used to improve the compatibility between hydroxyapatite (HA) and PLA via the melt blending method. Scanning electron microscopy shows that HA particles can be well dispersed in the PLA matrix when the addition amount is less than 20% in mass, whereas the agglomeration of HA particles and a discrete phase of PLA could be observed when the amount increases to 30%. Therefore, the maximum amount of HA particles can be achieved for the composite with 20% HA which can be also maintaining the bending strength of 71.6 MPa. The osteoblast cells were used to characterize the biocompatibility of the HA/PLA composite, and the results indicate that the number of cells in per unit volume cultured on the HA/PLA composite is 10% higher than that of the PLA. Based on the improved cell biocompatibility and mechanical strength compared to PLA, the composite of HA/PLA prepared in the present study can be served as a potential candidate for the bone fracture repair.
The influence of excess Al2O3 on 3:2 mullite produced from α-Al2O3 and pyrophyllite powder was examined. A mixture consisting of 28 wt.% dehydroxylated pyrophyllite and 72 wt.% α-Al2O3 was milled in an attrition mill. The milled powders were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1600°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. Subsequently, the samples were heated at 1350°C for 2 h to determine the influence of the excess Al2O3 on the microstructure. No glassy phase was detected in the sample containing 72 wt.% Al2O3 and sintered at 1600°C for 20 min. The sample with 72 wt.% Al2O3 had greater hardness and fracture toughness compared to 3:2 mullite. The greatest hardness and fracture toughness of 12.43 GPa and 2.71 MPa m–0.5, respectively, were obtained in the sample containing 72 wt.% Al2O3 sintered at 1600°C for 20 min.
The oxidation behavior of the selective laser melting (SLM)–fabricated Inconel 718 was investigated through isothermal oxidation testing at 650 °C for 500 h and compared with that of the as-cast and as-forged specimens at the same testing conditions. The effect of microstructure and surface roughness on the oxidation behavior of the SLM-fabricated, as-cast, and as-forged Inconel 718 specimens was examined. The result shows that Inconel 718 fabricated by SLM with the unique layer structure exhibited a better resistance to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C compared with as-cast and as-forged 718 with coarse dendritic structure and uniform equiaxed grain microstructure, respectively. The influence of the surface roughness on the long-time oxidation resistance of SLM specimens is not pronounced compared with that of as-cast and as-forged specimens. The tiny dendrites instead of grain boundaries are a major influencing factor for the oxidation process of SLM specimens. The surface roughness has more evident influence on the oxidation resistance of as-forged specimens than that of the as-cast ones subjected to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C.