Integrated pest management (IPM) seeks to minimize the environmental impact of pesticide application, and reduce risks to human and animal health. IPM is based on two important aspects – prevention and monitoring of diseases and insect pests – which today are being assisted by sensing and artificial-intelligence (AI) techniques. In this paper, we surveyed the detection and diagnosis, with AI, of diseases and insect pests, in cotton, which have been published between 2014 and 2021. This research is a systematic literature review. The results show that AI techniques were employed – mainly – in the context of (i) classification, (ii) image segmentation and (iii) feature extraction. The most used algorithms, in classification, were support vector machines, fuzzy inference, back-propagation neural-networks and recently, convolutional neural networks; in image segmentation, k-means was the most used; and, in feature extraction, histogram of oriented gradients, partial least-square regression, discrete wavelet transform and enhanced particle-swarm optimization were equally used. The most used sensing techniques were cameras, and field sensors such as temperature and humidity sensors. The most investigated insect pest was the whitefly, and the disease was root rot. Finally, this paper presents future works related to the use of AI and sensing techniques, to manage diseases and insect pests, in cotton; for instance, implement diagnostic, predictive and prescriptive models to know when and where the diseases and insect pests will attack and make strategies to control them.