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The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate a Japanese version of brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and contribute to primary care which leads to prevention of a lifestyle-related disease or a psychiatric disorder.
A single-arm study in nine patients with chronic insomnia who were under the pharmacotherapy was executed. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and the European Quality of Life 5 Items (EQ-5D) were assessed at the beginning of intervention, at the end of intervention, and after 12 weeks.
There were no patient dropouts nor adverse events. The average change in ISI score was −7.33 (95% CI: −10.31 to −4.36) at post-treatment and −6.11 (95% CI: −8.20 to −4.03) at the 12-week follow-up point (Cohen’s d = 2.25). The AIS score improved as well, and the EQ-5D score improved after 12 weeks. The safety and efficacy of the brief CBT-I were suggested.
Sleep disorders are very prevalent in late life, though they are often unrecognized, underdiagnosed, and poorly treated. Epidemiological evidence suggests that over 50% of elderly people suffer from one of several different sleep disorders, with the most common sleep disorders being insomnia and sleep apnea. Both insomnia and sleep apnea carry many serious negative physical, mental, and social consequences. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment management for both insomnia and sleep apnea in older adults are reviewed. Diagnosis of insomnia in older adults is based on self-report, while sleep apnea diagnosis requires a sleep study. Treatment of insomnia in late life is guided by behavioral and cognitive principles, with the gold-standard treatment approach being cognitive-behavioral therapy or CBT. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the recommended treatment approach for sleep apnea. Contextual factors that complicate the diagnosis and management of insomnia and sleep apnea in late life are reviewed with the aim of providing practical information for the medical professional working with older patients.
To characterize 1) the relationship between laxative use and objective sleep metrics, and 2) the relationship between laxative use and self-reported insomnia symptoms in a convenience sample of middle-aged/elderly patients who completed in-laboratory polysomnography.
We cross-sectionally analyzed first-night diagnostic in-laboratory polysomnography data for 2946 patients over the age of 40 (mean age 60.5 years; 48.3% male). Laxative use and medical comorbidities were obtained through self-reported questionnaires. Patient insomnia symptoms were based on self-report. Associations between laxative use and objective sleep continuity were analyzed using multivariable linear regression models. Associations between laxative use and insomnia were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models.
After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, total recording time, and relevant comorbidities, laxative users had a 7.1% lower sleep efficiency (p < 0.001), 25.5-minute higher wake after sleep onset (p < 0.001), and a 29.4-minute lower total sleep time (p < 0.001) than patients not using laxatives. Laxative users were found to be at greater odds of reporting insomnia symptoms (OR = 1.7, p = 0.024) than patients not using laxatives.
Laxative use is associated with impairments in objective sleep continuity. Patients using laxatives were also at greater odds of reporting insomnia symptoms.
This chapter describes some of the commonly occurring sleep disturbances in PWS patients through a case study. OSA can have serious consequences ranging from hypersomnia, hypertension and heart failure to obesity-hypoventilation syndrome and death. Major risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in PWS include craniofacial dysmorphism with small nasal and oropharyngeal spaces, obesity, and hypotonia. An attended, in-laboratory, nocturnal polysomnogram is recommended for the diagnosis of OSA in children. This case also highlights the critical importance of weight management in obese children with OSA and the initiation of continuous positive airway pressure in those individuals with OSA who are not appropriate surgical candidates. Hypersomnia in PWS is complex; is not always due solely to OSA and may not resolve with treatment of OSA alone. This suggests a central nervous system- or brain-related origin to hypersomnia in PWS. Central hypersomnias should be considered in those with persistent hypersomnia despite the therapeutic resolution of OSA. Diagnosis and treatment options for narcolepsy due to a medical condition are discussed.
Sleep is essential for our overall health and wellbeing. Unfortunately, stroke often induces insomnia, which has been shown to impede rehabilitation and recovery of function. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the treatment of choice for insomnia in the general population and is efficacious both when delivered face-to-face or online. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of blended CBT-I (eCBT-I) in five poststroke participants with insomnia according to DSM-5 criteria.
A randomized multiple baseline design was used to evaluate improvements in total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, nocturnal awakenings and sleep quality. The intervention included six weeks of eCBT-I combined with two face-to-face sessions.
All participants completed the intervention. One participant stopped using the diary, while the other four completed it fully. All five sleep diary measures improved, significantly so for nocturnal awakenings. Moreover, after completion of the treatment, four out of five participants no longer fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder
This is the first study to show that blended CBT-I is potentially effective in participants with post-stroke insomnia. The findings justify extension to a randomized controlled trial.
Perfectionism, low self-esteem and external locus of control are psychological constructs linked to insomnia, anxiety and depression. Examining how these constructs impact mental health and serve as risk factors for the development of clinically significant symptoms may help direct psychological support resources and preventative measures for university students.
To longitudinally examine associations between the aforementioned psychological constructs and symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and depression in a large representative sample of first-year university students.
Electronic surveys including validated measures of the predictors and outcomes were emailed to all first-year undergraduate students at entry to a major Canadian university, and followed up on at conclusion of the academic year.
Compared with healthy sleepers, students screening positive for insomnia had lower self-esteem, higher self-evaluative perfectionism and increased external locus of control (all P < 0.001). Self-evaluative perfectionism (standardised β = 0.13, P < 0.01), self-esteem (β = −0.30, P < 0.001) and external locus of control (β = 0.07, P = 0.02) measured at entry were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms at follow-up. Insomnia symptoms at entry were strong predictors of symptoms of depression (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) and anxiety (β = 0.16, P < 0.001) at follow-up, even after controlling for baseline symptoms of those disorders.
Perfectionism, low self-esteem and external locus of control may predispose the development of insomnia symptoms in university students. In turn, insomnia symptoms appear to be robust predictors for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Sleep may be an important prevention target in university students.
We investigated the effects of transcranial alternating stimulation (tACS) in patients with insomnia. Nine patients with chronic insomnia underwent two in-laboratory polysomnography, 2 weeks apart, and were randomized to receive tACS either during the first or second study. The stimulation was applied simultaneously and bilaterally at F3/M1 and F4/M2 electrodes (0.75 mA, 0.75 Hz, 5-minute). Sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset dropped on the stimulation night but they did not reach statistical significance; however, there were significant improvements in spontaneous and total arousals, sleep quality, quality of life, recall memory, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and daytime sleepiness.
While the negative consequences of insomnia are well-documented, a strengths-based understanding of how sleep can increase health promotion is still emerging and much-needed. Correlational evidence has connected sleep and insomnia to resilience; however, this relationship has not yet been experimentally tested. This study examined resilience as a mediator of treatment outcomes in a randomized clinical trial with insomnia patients.
Participants were randomized to either digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (dCBT-I; n = 358) or sleep education control (n = 300), and assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 1-year follow-up. A structural equation modeling framework was utilized to test resilience as a mediator of insomnia and depression. Risk for insomnia and depression was also tested in the model, operationalized as a latent factor with sleep reactivity, stress, and rumination as indicators (aligned with the 3-P model). Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of change in resilience on the insomnia relapse and incident depression at 1-year follow-up.
dCBT-I resulted in greater improvements in resilience compared to the sleep education control. Furthermore, improved resilience following dCBT-I lowered latent risk, which was further associated with reduced insomnia and depression at 1-year follow-up. Sensitivity analyses indicated that each point improvement in resilience following treatment reduced the odds of insomnia relapse and incident depression 1 year later by 76% and 65%, respectively.
Improved resilience is likely a contributing mechanism to treatment gains following insomnia therapy, which may then reduce longer-term risk for insomnia relapse and depression.
Sleep disturbances are important symptoms to monitor in people with bipolar disorder (BD) but the precise longitudinal relationships between sleep and mood remain unclear. We aimed to examine associations between stable and dynamic aspects of sleep and mood in people with BD, and assess individual differences in the strength of these associations.
Participants (N = 649) with BD-I (N = 400) and BD-II (N = 249) provided weekly self-reports of insomnia, depression and (hypo)mania symptoms using the True Colours online monitoring tool for 21 months. Dynamic structural equation models were used to examine the interplay between weekly reports of insomnia and mood. The effects of clinical and demographic characteristics on associations were also assessed.
Increased variability in insomnia symptoms was associated with increased mood variability. In the sample as a whole, we found strong evidence of bidirectional relationships between insomnia and depressive symptoms but only weak support for bidirectional relationships between insomnia and (hypo)manic symptoms. We found substantial variability between participants in the strength of prospective associations between insomnia and mood, which depended on age, gender, bipolar subtype, and a history of rapid cycling.
Our results highlight the importance of monitoring sleep in people with BD. However, researchers and clinicians investigating the association between sleep and mood should consider subgroup differences in this relationship. Advances in digital technology mean that intensive longitudinal data on sleep and mood are becoming increasingly available. Novel methods to analyse these data present an exciting opportunity for furthering our understanding of BD.
Sleep is vital for our physical and mental health. Studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of sleep disorders and sleep difficulties amongst adults with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, sleep is often overlooked or its disorders are considered to be difficult to treat in adults with intellectual disabilities. There is a significant amount of research and guidance on management of sleep disorders in the general population. However, the evidence base for sleep disorders in adults with intellectual disabilities is limited. In this review paper, we look at the current evidence base for sleep disorders in adults with an intellectual disability, discuss collaborative working between intellectual disabilities psychiatrists and sleep medicine specialists to manage sleep disorders, and provide recommendations for future directions.
Many male traits are well explained by sexual selection theory as adaptations to mating competition and mate choice, whereas no unifying theory explains traits expressed more in females. Anne Campbell's “staying alive” theory proposed that human females produce stronger self-protective reactions than males to aggressive threats because self-protection tends to have higher fitness value for females than males. We examined whether Campbell's theory has more general applicability by considering whether human females respond with greater self-protectiveness than males to other threats beyond aggression. We searched the literature for physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to major physical and social threats, and found consistent support for females' responding with greater self-protectiveness than males. Females mount stronger immune responses to many pathogens; experience a lower threshold to detect, and lesser tolerance of, pain; awaken more frequently at night; express greater concern about physically dangerous stimuli; exert more effort to avoid social conflicts; exhibit a personality style more focused on life's dangers; react to threats with greater fear, disgust, and sadness; and develop more threat-based clinical conditions than males. Our findings suggest that in relation to threat, human females have relatively heightened protective reactions compared to males. The pervasiveness of this result across multiple domains suggests that general mechanisms might exist underlying females' unique adaptations. An understanding of such processes would enhance knowledge of female health and well-being.
To examine the feasibility and possible effect of an 8-week exercise program on sleep quality, insomnia and psychological distress in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS).
Twenty-four individuals with MS were recruited into a controlled pre-post feasibility study and divided into 2 groups: exercise (n = 13; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 1.0–7.5) and a related control group with no exercise (n = 11; EDSS: 1.0–7.0). The exercise group performed combined upper limb, lower limb and breathing exercises in a controlled group (2d/week, 60 min/session) for 8 weeks. Participants were administered measures to evaluate sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index, ISI), psychological distress (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure, CORE-OM) and additionally impact of fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, MFIS) after 8-weeks.
Insomnia severity measured with ISI (F(1;22)=5.95, p = 0.023, ηp2 = 0.213, 90% CI = 0.02–0.42) and psychological distress measured with the CORE-OM (F(1;22)=4.82, p = 0.039, ηp2 = 0.179, 90% CI = 0.01–0.40) showed statistically significant group-by-time interaction. Sleep quality measured with the PSQI showed statistically significant group-by-time interaction only in an aspect of daytime sleep dysfunction (F(1;22)=5.33, p = 0.031, ηp2 = 0.195, 90% CI = 0.01–0.40). The fatigue impact measured with the MFIS showed statistically significant group-by-time interaction in physical (F(1;22)=6.80, p = 0.016, ηp2 = 0.236, 90% CI = 0.02–0.44) and cognitive aspects (F(1;22)=9.12, p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.293, 90% CI = 0.05–0.49), and total score (F(1;22)=11.29, p = 0.003, ηp2 = 0.339, 90% CI = 0.08–0.52).
Our 8-week program reduced insomnia severity, psychological distress and some aspects of fatigue (physical; cognitive; total), and improved sleep quality in an aspect of daytime sleep dysfunction in a small group of individuals with MS. Good feasibility and significant positive changes from baseline warrant further exploratory work.
Despite its efficacy in treating comorbid insomnia and depression, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is limited in its accessibility and, in many countries, cultural compatibility. Smartphone-based treatment is a low-cost, convenient alternative modality. This study evaluated a self-help smartphone-based CBT-I in alleviating major depression and insomnia.
A parallel-group randomized, waitlist-controlled trial was conducted with 320 adults with major depression and insomnia. Participants were randomized to receive either a 6-week CBT-I via a smartphone application, proACT-S, or waitlist condition. The primary outcomes included depression severity, insomnia severity, and sleep quality. The secondary outcomes included anxiety severity, subjective health, and acceptability of treatment. Assessments were administered at baseline, post-intervention (week 6) follow-up, and week 12 follow-up. The waitlist group received treatment after the week 6 follow-up.
Intention to treat analysis was conducted with multilevel modeling. In all but one model, the interaction between treatment condition and time at week 6 follow-up was significant. Compared with the waitlist group, the treatment group had lower levels of depression [Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D): Cohen's d = 0.86, 95% CI (−10.11 to −5.37)], insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index (ISI): Cohen's d = 1.00, 95% CI (−5.93 to −3.53)], and anxiety [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety subscale (HADS-A): Cohen's d = 0.83, 95% CI (−3.75 to −1.96)]. They also had better sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): Cohen's d = 0.91, 95% CI (−3.34 to −1.83)]. No differences across any measures were found at week 12, after the waitlist control group received the treatment.
proACT-S is an efficacious sleep-focused self-help treatment for major depression and insomnia.
Benzodiazepines (BZD) are psychotropic drugs prescribed in psychiatry for their anxiolytic, hypnotic and sedative properties. Several guidelines aimed to limit the chronic use of BZDs. However, BZDs prescribing that does not comply with international recommendations remains widespread, estimated in France at 20% for hypnotic BZDs.
The aims of our study were to evaluate BZDs prescribing practices in the treatment of insomnia and to assess their compliance with international recommendations.
This is a cross-sectional study conducted through a Google-forms self-administered questionnaire,intended for psychiatrists and psychiatric residents, over a period of two months, from April 1 to May 31, 2019.
One hundred physicians practicing in psychiatry answered our questionnaire. The response rate was 28%. Four BZDs are recommended for the treatment of insomnia, none of which is available in Tunisia. Almost the third of the participants did not systematically look for signs of sleep apnea syndrome before treating an insomnia (30.5%). For treating insomnia, the majority of the participants began by indicating hygieno-dietetic rules (64%), 4% prescribed directly a BZD. Cognitive behavioral therapy was not indicated at all by the particiants. The maximum duration of prescribing BZDs in insomnia was 4 weeks in 20% of cases, and more than 4 weeks in 38% of cases. Among the participants, 41% prescribed BZDs for the treatment of chronic insomnia.
Insomnia appear to be badly managed and early drug prescribing is frequent. These practices do not comply with the recommendations of good practice and increase the risk of dependance and other side effects.
Sleep disturbance specifically insomnia, non-restorative sleep, and hypersomnia are common symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). As it alleviates major depressive disorder, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may improve associated sleep disturbances, and may also have inherent sedating or activating properties.
To examine the impact of TMS on sleep disturbances in adults with treatment resistant depression in a clinical setting, we retrospectively reviewed de-identified data from naturalistically-treated MDD patients undergoing an initial acute course of TMS therapy at St.Louis Park MinCEP Clinic.
Adults with treatment-resistant depression received daily TMS treatments. 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) total scores were used to calculate % change at endpoint (relative to pretreatment baseline); response on both measures was defined as 50% reduction in scores, with remission defined as a final total score 4 on the PHQ-9. Insomnia was measured with a 3-item subscale of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR). Hypersomnia was measured with a single IDS-SR item. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Student’s T-test. Categorical variables were compared using Fisher’s Exact test. Continuous outcome measures were tested with an analysis of covariance, using baseline PHQ-9 score as a fixed effect covariate.
TMS appears to have differential modulatory effects on insomnia and hypersomnia in adults with treatment resistant depression.
These results may provide the basis for further investigation into therapeutic applications of TMS in addressing sleep disturbances in treatment-resistant depression. Measures that separate hypersomnia and insomnia should be implemented in future work addressing effects of TMS in treatment-resistant depression.
Abnormalities of sleep patterns are common in people with psychiatric disorders and often represent a source of distress, worsening the outcome. However, little is knwon about the relationship between psychotic-like symptoms and sleep disorders in the general population.
1. Whether there is a relationship between sleep disorders and psychotic-like experiences in a sample of individuals belonging to the general population. 2. Which sleep disorders are more commonly associated with psychotic-like experiences.
A web survey was spread thorugh social networks. We administered the SLEEP-50 to investigate the presence of sleep disorders and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE) for psychotic-like symptoms. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics of participants were collected.
The web-survey was completed by 824 participants. Six people refused to give consent and 95 were excluded because they declared to suffer from psychiatric disorder sor other medical conditions potentially infleuncing on sleep. Therefore, 729 subjects were included in the analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients showed strong correlations between the scale regarding SLEEP-50 “All sleep disorders” scale and CAPE Total and Depressive scales (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). A moderate correlation was found between “All sleep disorders” and CAPE Negative (r = 0.49) and Positive (r = 0.32) scales. Correlations with specific SLEEP-50 subscales were also found.
There seems to be a strong relationship between psychotic-like symptoms and sleep problems in the general population. Our findings might indicate that some sleep abnormalities may represent earlier symptoms of a psychiatric condition and need to be always monitored even in the non-psychiatric population.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in depression and sleep disorders. It influences the inflammatory process and may affect the interactions between psychological state and gastrointestinal symptoms.
The study aimed to compare BDNF concentrations in the group of Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and healthy control (HC), as well as to correlate it with the severity of depression and insomnia.
The study included 94 inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD, 57 CD, and 37 UC) and 26 HC. Each participant completed the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Athens insomnia scale (AIS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). BDNF protein concertation measurements were performed using ELISA. Funding: National Science Centre, Poland-2018/31/N/NZ5/03715.
CD patients had a higher serum level of BDNF (22.5 ng/mL, IQR:17.5-28.5) than UC patients (19.1 ng/mL, IQR:12.3-24.6; p=0.045). CD group had higher BDNF concentrations than HC (17.5 ng/mL, IQR:13.2-23.8; p=0.010), but no such differences were found between UC and HC groups (p=0.544). A positive correlation was found between AIS and BDNF among IBD (r=0.22, p=0.035). Additionally, patients, who obtained high BDI scores (>7 points) had lower BDNF concentrations than others (p=0.004). The patients with long sleep latency (>10 min) achieved a higher BDNF level than others (p=0.038). However. BDNF level did not correlate with PSQI results.
BDNF serum level is increased in CD, but not in UC patients. Overall, the severity of insomnia symptoms correlates positively with BDNF levels. Future research should focus on the further explanation of those observations.
Worse sleep quality and increased inflammatory markers in women with schizophrenia (Sch) have been reported (Lee et al. 2019). However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the interplay between sleep and the inflammatory pathways are not yet well understood (Fang et al. 2016).
Analyze the relationship between Neutrophil/Lymphocyte (NLR), Monocyte/Lymphocyte (MLR) and Platelet/Lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, and insomnia in Sch stratified by sex.
Final sample included 176 Sch patients (ICD-10 criteria) [mean age: 38.9±13.39; males: 111(63.1%)]. Assessment: PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS), and Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire (OSQ) to identify a comorbid diagnosis of insomnia based on ICD-10. Fasting counting blood cell were performed to calculate ratios. Statistics: U Mann-Whitney, logistic regression.
Insomnia as comorbid diagnosis was present in 22 Sch (12.5%) with no differences between sex [14 males (12.6%), 8 females (12.3%)], neither in their age. Female patients with insomnia showed increased NLR [2.44±0.69 vs. 1.88±0.80, U=122.00 (p=0.034)]. However, no differences in PLR and MLR were found, neither in any ratio in males. Regression models using insomnia as dependent variable and covariates (age, PANSS-positive, PANSS-negative, CDSS) were estimated. Females: presence of insomnia was associated with NLR [OR=3.564 (p=0.032)], PANSS-positive [OR=1.263 (p=0.013)] and CDSS [OR=1.198 (p=0.092)]. Males: only PANSS-positive [OR=1.123 (p=0.027)] and CDSS scores [OR=1.220 (p=0.005)] were associated with insomnia.
NLR represent an inflammatory marker of insomnia in Sch but only in female patients. Improving sleep quality in these patients could help to decrease their inflammatory response.
Insomnia has been related to a more severe substance use disorder presentation (1). There are few longitudinal studies in outpatients center for SUD treatment that evaluate how insomnia impacts on relapses.
To analyze how insomnia impacts on the time of the first substance relapse in SUD outpatients after the onset of addiction treatment.
This is a one-year follow-up study performed on 116 patients (73.3% males; mean age 43.4±14.3) for whom we had information from baseline insomnia and the time for the first relapse. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. This is part of a greater research on Alexithymia in SUD in a longitudinal study.
The initial sample consisted of 116 patients, information on relapses was available for 113 patients. The main substances used at baseline were alcohol (62.1%), cocaine (56.0%), cannabis (42.2%), and opiates (30.2%).
It is important to evaluate insomnia at the onset of addiction treatment because insomnia may be related to earlier relapses. Furthermore, it should be analyzed further on how insomnia treatment impact on substance relapses. REFERENCES 1. Miller MB, Donahue ML, Carey KB, Scott-Sheldon LAJ. Insomnia treatment in the context of alcohol use disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;181:200-207. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.09.029
Sleep disturbances can occur as a result of major stressful events. Additionally, research evidence suggests that COVID-19 pandemic may have negatively impacted the quality of sleep among various populations. However, individuals respond differently to the stress, uncertainty and social isolation related with COVID-19 pandemic.
This study aimed to explore the changes in sleep quality and pattern among voluntary psychiatric patients visiting our clinic in Romania during COVID-19 pandemic.
We implemented a cross-sectional study over a period of 3 months, utilizing a Romanian-translated version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) which was administered through Google Forms web application. Participants lacking digital skills were provided with guidance for completing the questionnaire. Informed consent was obtained prior to participating in this study and data anonymity and confidentiality were ensured.
Among a total of 98 responders, 63% reported a global PSQI score greater than 5, indicating poor sleep. Approximately 25% of participants subjectively marked their sleep as either fairly bad or very bad. When analysing the 7 components of PSQI, our participants struggled most with long sleep latency. About a third of participants reported using sleep medication (both prescription and over-the-counter) three or more times a week within the past month.
Considering the fact that the current situation is likely to evolve for an unknown period of time, there is a dire need to assess the effect of prolonged adjustments in daily routine and their impact on the sleep and the quality of life of our patients.