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This study aimed to assess the impact of caloric intake and weight-for-age-Z-score after the Norwood procedure on the outcome of bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt.
A total of 153 neonates who underwent the Norwood procedure between 2012 and 2020 were surveyed. Postoperative daily caloric intake and weight-for-age-Z-score up to five months were calculated, and their impact on outcome after bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt was analysed.
Median age and weight at the Norwood procedure were 9 days and 3.2 kg, respectively. Modified Blalock-Taussig shunt was used in 95 patients and right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit in 58. Postoperatively, total caloric intake gradually increased, whereas weight-for-age-Z-score constantly decreased. Early and inter-stage mortality before stage II correlated with low caloric intake. Older age (p = 0.023) at Norwood, lower weight (p < 0.001) at Norwood, and longer intubation (p = 0.004) were correlated with low weight-for-age-Z-score (< –3.0) at 2 months of age. Patients with weight-for-age-Z-score < –3.0 at 2 months of age had lower survival after stage II compared to those with weight-for-age-Z-score of –3.0 or more (85.3 versus 92.9% at 3 years after stage II, p = 0.017). There was no difference between inter-stage weight gain and survival after bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt between the shunt types.
Weight-for-age-Z-score decreased continuously throughout the first 5 months after the Norwood procedure. Age and weight at Norwood and intubation time were associated with weight gain. Inter-stage low weight gain (Z-score < –3) was a risk for survival after stage II.
This meta-analysis aimed to consolidate existing data from randomised controlled trials on hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome specific randomised controlled trials published between January 2005 and September 2021 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were included. Regardless of clinical outcomes, we included all randomised controlled trials about hypoplastic left heart syndrome and categorised them according to their results. Two reviewers independently assessed for eligibility, relevance, and data extraction. The primary outcome was mortality after Norwood surgery. Study quality and heterogeneity were assessed. A random-effects model was used for analysis.
Of the 33 included randomised controlled trials, 21 compared right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt and modified Blalock–Taussig-Thomas shunt during the Norwood procedure, and 12 regarded medication, surgical strategy, cardiopulmonary bypass tactics, and ICU management. Survival rates up to 1 year were superior in the right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt group; this difference began to disappear at 3 years and remained unchanged until 6 years. The right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt group had a significantly higher reintervention rate from the interstage to the 6-year follow-up period. Right ventricular function was better in the modified Blalock–Taussig-Thomas shunt group 1–3 years after the Norwood procedure, but its superiority diminished in the 6-year follow-up. Randomised controlled trials regarding medical treatment, surgical strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass, and ICU management yielded insignificant results.
Although right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt appeared to be superior in the early period, the two shunts applied during the Norwood procedure demonstrated comparable long-term prognosis despite high reintervention rates in right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt due to pulmonary artery stenosis. For medical/perioperative management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, further randomised controlled trials are needed to deliver specific evidence-based recommendations.
Publicly available health information is increasingly important for patients and their families. While the average US citizen reads at an 8th-grade level, electronic educational materials for patients and families are often advanced. We assessed the quality and readability of publicly available resources regarding hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).
We queried four search engines for “hypoplastic left heart syndrome”, “HLHS”, and “hypoplastic left ventricle”. The top 30 websites from searches on Google, Yahoo!, Bing, and Dogpile were combined into a single list. Duplicates, commercial websites, physician-oriented resources, disability websites, and broken links were removed. Websites were graded for accountability, content, interactivity, and structure using a two-reviewer system. Nonparametric analysis of variance was performed.
Fifty-two websites were analysed. Inter-rater agreement was high (Kappa = 0.874). Website types included 35 hospital/healthcare organisation (67.3%), 12 open access (23.1%), 4 governmental agency (7.7%), and 1 professional medical society (1.9%). Median total score was 19 of 39 (interquartile range = 15.8–25.3): accountability 5.5 of 17 (interquartile range = 2.0–9.3), content 8 of 12 (interquartile range = 6.4–10.0), interactivity 2 of 6 (interquartile range = 2.0–3.0), and structure 3 of 4 (interquartile range = 2.8–4.0). Accountability was low with 32.7% (n = 17) of sites disclosing authorship and 26.9% (n = 14) citing sources. Forty-two percent (n = 22) of websites were available in Spanish. Total score varied by website type (p = 0.03), with open access sites scoring highest (median = 26.5; interquartile range = 20.5–28.6) and hospital/healthcare organisation websites scoring lowest (median = 17.5; interquartile range = 13.5–21.5). Score differences were driven by differences in accountability (p = 0.001) – content scores were similar between groups (p = 0.25). Overall readability was low, with median Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level of 11th grade (interquartile range = 10th–12th grade).
Our evaluation of popular websites about HLHS identifies multiple opportunities for improvement, including increasing accountability by disclosing authorship and citing sources, enhancing readability by providing material that is understandable to readers with the full spectrum of educational background, and providing information in languages besides English, all of which would enhance health equity.
The National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative (NPC-QIC) lacks a rigorous enrollment audit process, unlike other collaborative networks. Most centers require individual families to consent to participate. It is unknown whether there is variation across centers or biases in enrollment.
We used the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) registry to assess enrollment rates in NPC-QIC for those centers participating in both registries using indirect identifiers (date of birth, date of admission, gender, and center) to match patient records. All infants born 1/1/2018–12/31/2020 and admitted 30 days of life were eligible. In PC4, all infants with a fundamental diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart or variant or who underwent a surgical or hybrid Norwood or variant were eligible. Standard descriptive statistics were used to describe the cohort and center match rates were plotted on a funnel chart.
Of 898 eligible NPC-QIC patients, 841 were linked to 1,114 eligible PC4 patients (match rate 75.5%) in 32 centers. Match rates were lower in patients of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity (66.1%, p = 0.005), and those with any specified chromosomal abnormality (57.4%, p = 0.002), noncardiac abnormality (67.8%, p = 0.005), or any specified syndrome (66.5%, p = 0.001). Match rates were lower for patients who transferred to another hospital or died prior to discharge. Match rates varied from 0 to 100% across centers.
It is feasible to match patients between the NPC-QIC and PC4 registries. Variation in match rates suggests opportunities for improvement in NPC-QIC patient enrollment.
Enteral feeding prior to cardiac surgery has benefits in pre-operative and post-operative patient statuses. In 2020, to increase pre-operative feeding for single-ventricle patients prior to stage 1 palliation, an enteral feeding algorithm was created. The aim of this study is to monitor the impact of our practice change with the primary outcome of necrotising enterocolitis incidence from birth to 2 weeks following surgical intervention.
This is a single-site, retrospective cohort study including patients from 1 March, 2018 to 1 July, 2022. Variables assessed include demographics, age at cardiac surgery, primary cardiac diagnosis, necrotising enterocolitis pre-operative and 2 weeks post-operative cardiac surgery, feeding route, feeding type, volume of trophic enteral feeds, and near-infrared spectroscopy.
Following implementation of a pre-operative enteral feeding algorithm, the rate of neonates fed prior to surgery increased (39.5–75%, p = .001). The feedings included a mean volume of 28.24 ± 11.16 ml/kg/day, 83% fed breastmilk only, 44.4% tube fed, and 55.5% of infants had all oral feedings. Comparing enterally fed neonates and those not enterally fed, the necrotising enterocolitis incidence from birth to 2 weeks post-op was not significantly increased (p = 0.926).
As a result of implementing our feeding algorithm, the frequency of infants fed prior to stage I Norwood or Hybrid surgeries increased to 75%, and there was no significant change in the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis. This study confirmed that pre-operative enteral feeds are safe and are not associated with increased incidence of necrotising enterocolitis.
In single-ventricle patients undergoing staged-bidirectional Glenn, 36–59% have aorto-pulmonary collateral flow, but risk factors and clinical outcomes are unknown. We hypothesise that shunt type and catheter haemodynamics may predict pre-bidirectional Glenn aorto-pulmonary collateral burden, which may predict death/transplantation, pulmonary artery or aorto-pulmonary collateral intervention.
Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing a Norwood procedure for single-ventricle anatomy. Covariates included clinical and haemodynamic characteristics up to/including pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation and aorto-pulmonary collateral burden at pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation. Multivariable models used to evaluate relationships between risk factors and outcomes.
From January 2011 to March 2016, 104 patients underwent Norwood intervention. Male sex (odds ratio 3.36, 95% confidence interval 1.17–11.4), age at pre-bidirectional Glenn assessment (2.12, 1.33–3.39 per month), and pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (1.23, 1.08–1.41 per 0.1 unit) were associated with aorto-pulmonary collateral burden. Aorto-pulmonary collateral burden was not associated with death/transplantation (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.37–3.85), pulmonary artery (sub-hazard ratio 1.38, 0.32–2.61), or aorto-pulmonary collateral interventions (sub-hazard ratio 1.11, 0.21–5.76). Longer post-Norwood length of stay was associated with greater risk of death/transplantation (hazard ratio 1.22 per week, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.38), but lower risk of aorto-pulmonary collateral intervention (sub-hazard ratio 0.86 per week, 95% confidence interval 0.75–0.98). Time to pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation was associated with lower risk of pulmonary artery (sub-hazard ratio 0.80 per month, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.98) and aorto-pulmonary collateral intervention (sub-hazard ratio 0.79, 0.63–0.99). Probability of moderate/severe aorto-pulmonary collateral burden increased with left-to-right shunt (22.5% at <1.0, 57.6% at >1.4) and the age at pre-bidirectional Glenn catheterisation (10.6% at <2 months, 56.9% at >5 months).
Aorto-pulmonary collateral burden is common after Norwood procedure and increases as age at bidirectional Glenn increases. As expected, higher pulmonary to systemic flow ratio is a marker for greater aorto-pulmonary collateral burden pre-bi-directional Glenn; aorto-pulmonary collateral burden does not confer risk of death/transplantation or pulmonary artery intervention.
To investigate the opinion and personal experience of parents of children born with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and what advice they would give to other parents who have to decide between treatment options.
We conducted a qualitative, descriptive and retrospective study by means of a survey directed to parents of children born with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in a tertiary hospital in Buenos Aires (Argentina). Their answers and data regarding medical procedures were analysed.
Parents of thirteen out of sixteen patients with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome were surveyed. Norwood surgery had been performed in all the patients, many had received other procedures, and five had died. In relation to the decision-making process, sixty-one percent of parents would recommend other parents to remain at peace after having done everything possible and 54% would suggest to not feel guilt despite the final result. None of the parents would recommend rejecting surgical treatment and choosing comfort care.
The majority of parents of children with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome would recommend continuing with the therapeutic effort in order to feel at peace and reduce feelings of guilt.
With advances in care, an increasing number of individuals with single-ventricle CHD are surviving into adulthood. Partners of individuals with chronic illness have unique experiences and challenges. The goal of this pilot qualitative research study was to explore the lived experiences of partners of individuals with single-ventricle CHD.
Partners of patients ≥18 years with single-ventricle CHD were recruited and participated in Experience Group sessions and 1:1 interviews. Experience Group sessions are lightly moderated groups that bring together individuals with similar circumstances to discuss their lived experiences, centreing them as the experts. Formal inductive qualitative coding was performed to identify salient themes.
Six partners of patients participated. Of these, four were males and four were married; all were partners of someone of the opposite sex. Themes identified included uncertainty about their partners’ future health and mortality, becoming a lay CHD specialist, balancing multiple roles, and providing positivity and optimism. Over time, they took on a role as advocates for their partners and as repositories of medical history to help navigate the health system. Despite the uncertainties, participants described championing positivity and optimism for the future.
In this first-of-its-kind pilot study, partners of individuals with single-ventricle CHD expressed unique challenges and experiences in their lives. There is a tacit need to design strategies to help partners cope with those challenges. Further larger-scale research is required to better understand the experiences of this unique population.
The present study focuses on assessing the physical activity level of children with Fontan circulation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and identifying potential barriers and facilitators toward their participation in physical activity.
Patients and methods:
Seven children aged 5–16 years (mean (SD) 8.8 (3.7) years) with a Fontan procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome, their parents (n = 7), and siblings (n = 1) were recruited. Data were collected using a mixed-methods approach: (i) children wore an activity monitor for 7 days to record physical activity, with sedentary time and level of activity calculated from accelerometer data; (ii) children completed a bespoke questionnaire recording limitations in physical activity; (iii) parents completed a semi-structured interview discussing perceptions about their child’s physical activity participation. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Activity monitors data recorded highly active children with a mean (SD) of 153(36) minutes/day spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Time spent in sedentary behaviour was also high (57.5% of total accelerometer wearing-time). Four key themes relating to parental perceptions of physical activity were identified: (i) A new lease of life –post-Fontan; (ii) Setting limits – managing limitations; (iii) The wider world – how others set limits; and (iv) “I fear the future” – parental concerns.
Following completion of the Fontan circulation, children engaged in higher levels of physical activity in comparison to the national average. However, more than half their time was spent in sedentary behaviour. Fears and anxiety from parents and teachers may act as a barrier toward physical activity participation.
In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, the size and function of the left ventricle vary and are dependent on the patency of the aortic valve. A patent native aortic valve, permitting left ventricular ejection, can augment cardiac output. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and a stenotic aortic valve who underwent native aortic valvuloplasty at the time of Norwood and found that none of the eight patients identified had clinically significant aortic insufficiency. This case series suggests that surgical aortic valvuloplasty at Norwood is associated with aortic valve patency/augmented systemic cardiac output without the development of clinically significant aortic regurgitation at intermediate follow-up in a limited cohort.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome accounts for a significant proportion of CHD morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in care and improved survival. This study evaluates number of, reasons for, and trends in discharges of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome over 11 years in Texas.
The Texas Inpatient Discharge Dataset Public Use File captures almost all discharges in Texas and was reviewed from 2009 to 2019. Discharges of patients ≥5 years of age and diagnosis codes for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome were included. The admitting and principle diagnoses were categorised and all discharges were evaluated for procedures performed. Descriptive and univariate statistical analyses were performed.
A total of 1024 discharges were identified with a 16.9% annual increase over the study period. Median length of stay was 4 [IQR: 2–8] and there were 17 (1.7%) in-hospital mortalities with no differences across age groups. Seven (17.1%) discharges of patients 25+ years were uninsured, higher than other age groups (p < 0.001). The most common admitting diagnosis was CHD and 224 (21.9%) of discharges included a procedure, including 23 heart transplants. Discharges occurred from 67 different hospitals with 4 (6.0%) representing 71.4% of all discharges.
Discharges of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome have increased rapidly, particularly in the older age groups and were spread over a large number of hospitals. Further work is needed to understand the interplay between Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and other conditions and care experiences that occur within the general population, which will become more common as this population ages and grows.
There is a paucity of information reported regarding the use of milrinone in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome prior to the Norwood procedure. At our institution, milrinone is initiated in the pre-operative setting when over-circulation and elevated serum lactate levels develop. We aimed to review the responses associated with the administration of milrinone in the pre-operative hypoplastic left heart syndrome patient. Second, we compared patients who received high- versus low-dose milrinone prior to Norwood procedure.
Single-centre retrospective study of patients diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome between January 2000 and December 2019 who underwent Norwood procedure. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared.
During the study period, 375 patients were identified; 79 (21%) received milrinone prior to the Norwood procedure with median lactate 2.55 mmol/l, and SpO2 93%. Patients who received milrinone were older at the time of Norwood procedure (6 vs. 5 days) and were more likely to be intubated and sedated. In a subset analysis stratifying patients to low- versus high-dose milrinone, median lactate decreased from time of initiation (2.39 vs 2.75 to 1.6 vs 1.8 mmol/l) at 12 hours post-initiation, respectively. Repeated measures analysis showed a significant decrease in lactate levels by 4 hours following initiation of milrinone, that persisted over time, with no significant difference in mean arterial pressure.
The use of milrinone in the pre-operative over-circulated hypoplastic left heart syndrome patient is well tolerated, is associated with decreased lactate levels, and was not associated with significant hypotension or worsening of excess pulmonary blood flow.
We present the short-term results of an alternative method in stage 1 surgery for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Data of 16 consecutive patients who were treated with the novel method in our clinic between February 2019 and March 2021 were analysed retrospectively. Preoperative data and postoperative follow-up were recorded.
Of the 16 operated patients, 12 were diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, while four were diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome variants. Seven patients died during early postoperative period. One patient died at home waiting stage 2 surgery. Three patient underwent stage 2 surgery. Pulmonary artery reconstruction was performed in one patient due to left pulmonary artery distortion.
We believe that our method can be an effective alternative in the surgery of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants. It is hoped that with increasing number of studies and more experience better outcome will be achieved.
Noonan syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by alterations in the RAS-MAPK pathway. There have been several identified genotype–phenotype associations made with respect to congenital cardiac lesions and Noonan syndrome variants, but limited data exist regarding single ventricle disease in this population. Here, we report two patients with PTPN11-related Noonan syndrome and hypoplastic left heart syndrome variants.
The association of truncus arteriosus communis with interrupted aortic arch and mitral atresia is an exceptionally rare congenital defect. We describe the initial decision-making and management of this lesion, which eventually achieved a Fontan palliation.
We report a neonate who presented with spontaneous thrombus formation in the native aortic root after Norwood palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Thrombus formation led to myocardial ischaemia due to decreased coronary blood flow with electrocardiographic signs of ischaemia and elevated cardiac enzymes. Aggressive thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy were major contributors to successful outcome.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and single ventricle variants with aortic hypoplasia are commonly classified as severe forms of CHD. We hypothesised patients with these severe defects and reported genetic abnormalities have increased morbidity and mortality during the interstage period.
Methods and Results:
This was a retrospective review of the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative Phase I registry. Three patient groups were identified: major syndromes, other genetic abnormalities, and no reported genetic abnormality. Tukey post hoc test was applied for pairwise group comparisons of length of stay, death, and combined outcome of death, not a candidate for stage 2 palliation, and heart transplant. Participating centres received a survey to establish genetic testing and reporting practices. Of the 2182 patients, 110 (5%) had major genetic syndromes, 126 (6%) had other genetic abnormalities, and 1946 (89%) had no genetic abnormality. Those with major genetic syndromes weighed less at birth and stage 1 palliation. Patients with no reported genetic abnormalities reached full oral feeds sooner and discharged earlier. The combined outcome of death, not a candidate for stage 2 palliation, and heart transplant was more common in those with major syndromes. Survey response was low (n = 23, 38%) with only 14 (61%) routinely performing and reporting genetic testing.
Patients with genetic abnormalities experienced greater morbidity and mortality during the interstage period than those with no reported genetic abnormalities. Genetic testing and reporting practices vary significantly between participating centres.
Pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta are rarely seen in paediatric patients. They may occur following complex cardiovascular surgery and are associated with a high risk of mortality due to their nature of spontaneous rupture. In this case report, we discuss a 1-year-old paediatric patient with an ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm following Norwood Stage 1 surgery with Sano modification for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and the patient’s successful recovery following aneurysmectomy with Norwood Stage 2 operation.
Fetal cardiac intervention provides fetuses with certain cardiac anomalies, a greater likelihood of biventricular circulation and/or treatment options after delivery. Anesthesia care for mothers undergoing fetal cardiac intervention has evolved over the years and more recently involves the use of neuraxial anesthesia with sedation. The maternal fetal anesthesiologist caring for the patient undergoing fetal cardiac intervention should be conversant with the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and planned intervention. This is important for appropriate anticipation and treatment of hemodynamic changes that may occur in the fetus immediately following intervention.
This chapter details the perioperative management of an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome post stage II palliation who presents for hypospadias repair. The anatomy, physiology, and significance of manipulating pulmonary vascular resistance and systemic vascular resistance on systemic oxygen delivery are highlighted. In addition, intraoperative airway management, anesthetic and analgesic plans, as well as pharmacological agents are detailed. Considerations for suitability for outpatient surgery are mentioned. Finally, a summary of intraoperative goals pertinent to this congenital heart defect are listed.