Between July 2000 and June 2001 we undertook a survey of François' langur Trachypithecus francoisi and its habitat in the Fusui Nature Reserve in south-west Guangxi, China, where 86 individual langurs were recorded in 1995. In our first survey period we located 45 individuals in 10 groups, but c. 12 months later, despite expending more effort, we were only able to locate three of the 10 groups, totalling 23 individuals. In all, in three separate surveys, we recorded densities that were 26–52% of the 1995 figures. Within the Reserve almost all of the valley bottoms and most flat areas in the hills have been cultivated and there is steady encroachment into the hills and forests. The majority of local families depend on the forest for firewood. It appears that habitat loss and illegal hunting are responsible for the decline of François' langur. We recommend that alternative income generating activities and energy sources should be explored to reduce human pressure on these langurs and their habitat. More funding should also be made available to the Reserve to enable staff to adequately tackle issues of hunting and habitat destruction.