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Modernity in Black and White provides a groundbreaking account of modern art and modernism in Brazil. Departing from previous accounts, mostly restricted to the elite arenas of literature, fine art and architecture, the book situates cultural debates within the wider currents of Brazilian life. From the rise of the first favelas, in the 1890s and 1900s, to the creation of samba and modern carnival, over the 1910s and 1920s, and tracking the expansion of mass media and graphic design, into the 1930s and 1940s, it foregrounds aspects of urban popular culture that have been systematically overlooked. Against this backdrop, Cardoso provides a radical re-reading of Antropofagia and other modernist currents, locating them within a broader field of cultural modernization. Combining extensive research with close readings of a range of visual cultural production, the volume brings to light a vast archive of art and images, all but unknown outside Brazil.
Robots of next-generation physically interact with the world rather than be caged in a controlled area, and they need to make contact with the open-ended environment to perform their task. Compliant robot links offer intrinsic mechanical compliance for addressing the safety issue for physical human–robot interactions (pHRI). However, many important research questions are yet to be answered. For instance, how do system parameters, for example, mechanical compliance, motor torque, impact velocities, and so on, affect the impact force? how to formulate system impact dynamics of compliant robots, and how to size their geometric dimensions to maximize impact force reduction. In this paper, we present a parametric study of compliant link (CL) design for safe pHRI. We first present a theoretical model of the pHRI system that is comprised of robot dynamics, an impact contact model, and dummy head dynamics. After experimentally validating the theoretical model, we then systematically study the effects of CL parameters on the impact force in more detail. Specifically, we explore how the design and actuation parameters affect the impact force of pHRI system. Based on the parametric studies of the CL design, we propose a step-by-step process and a list of concrete guidelines for designing CL with safety constraints in pHRI. We further conduct a simulation case study to validate this design process and design guidelines.
This chapter focuses on shelters and their significance for providing protection for living things from environmental factors such as seasonal weather changes, natural disasters, extreme weather events and climate change. An ecosystem is the name given to a group of interacting organisms in a particular environment – which could be a city street, a creek in dense bushland or a coral reef. The world contains a huge variety of ecosystems where living things interact and often compete for available resources such as water, air, light, food, space and the resources required to provide shelters. This chapter examines the notion of community and the physical shelters that organisms require for long-term survival. It presents common examples of shelters created by humans and other animals, and describes three integrated STEM projects designed for Australian primary school classrooms.
The Innovation Pyramid is an inverted triangular pyramid. The methodology for creating impactful solutions to real problems separates the innovation's design from its execution. It further bifurcates design into identifying the real problem before crafting a solution to it. Execution is similarly bifurcated into execution planning and implementation. The four stacked levels of The Innovation Pyramid, from top to bottom, represent Problem Identification, Solution Formulation, Planning and Implementation; two design stages followed by two execution stages. The Pyramid has three faces. These three pyramid sections address three different aspects of designing and executing impactful solutions:
What: What is the desired outcome at that level?
How: How will this be accomplished or enabled?
Who: Who will lead the activities and/or is impacted by the outcome of this level?
This structure streamlines innovation creation as well as providing a structural means for diagnosing the cause of the variance between the actual and forecasted impact of the innovation. This diagnostic aspect is especially important when we may be traversing The Innovation Pyramid structure multiple times, once for say, prototype development, and a second time for the final product launch.
The Innovation Pyramid segments the innovation's design from its execution. Focusing on the design first forces us to think about what we are creating before immersing ourselves into the details of how we are creating it. The design portion is further segmented into Problem Identification and Solution Formulation. The first level of The Innovation Pyramid, which is the first stage of the innovation's design, describes a procedure for identifying root causes of general situations. Like The Innovation Pyramid itself, this five-step procedure for Problem Identification is non-linear and iterative process of discovery. Steps may be skipped or repeated depending on where we start or how the process of discovery unfolds. The five-step procedure is therefore more of a guideline than a rigorous process. The guideline requires multiple changes in perspective (broadening or narrowing one's purview) and points-of-view (through who's eyes the situation is observed). Empathy is a key component necessary to remaining in the problem space long enough to uncover the situation's root cause. Given problems are associated with people, identifying the root problem also means identifying the group of people most directly impacted by the root problem.
Hackathons are short-term events at which participants work in small groups to ideate, develop and present a solution to a problem. Despite their popularity, and significant relevance to design research, they have only recently come into research focus. This study presents a review of the existing literature on the characteristics of designing at hackathons. Hackathon participants are found to follow typical divergence–convergence patterns in their design process throughout the hackathon. Unique features include the initial effort to form teams and the significant emphasis on preparing and delivering a solution demo at the final pitch. Therefore, hackathons present themselves as a unique setting in which design is conducted and learned, and by extension, can be studied. Overall, the review provides a foundation to inform future research on design at hackathons. Methodological limitations of current studies on hackathons are discussed and the feasibility of more systematic studies of design in these types of settings is assessed. Further, we explore how the unique nature of the hackathon format and the diverse profiles of hackathon participants with regards to subject matter knowledge, design expertise and prior hackathon experience may affect design cognition and behaviour at each stage of the design process in distinctive ways.
This chapter explores Zeffirelli’s three Shakespearean films, The Taming of the Shrew (1967), Romeo and Juliet (1968) and Hamlet (1990), well known for the visual banquets they constitute, the memorable soundscapes they feature and their stimulating casting choices. The purpose of this chapter is to suggest that, as designer and director, Zeffirelli has managed to combine movement and fixity, so that these films can be regarded as living monuments. Far from being mere visual decoration, the designs that are at the heart of Zeffirelli’s films are infused with life and reinvigorate the vision of the plays. Analysing ‘household stuff’ coming to life in The Taming of the Shrew, the battle of energies in Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet’s labyrinth of fury, the chapter shows how the architecture and design of the films make them monuments. There is a lot of art in this matter. There is a lot of life in these monuments.
This article reconsiders the development of Fascist architecture throughout the late interwar period. It pays especial attention to the structures erected for the most significant international expositions held, or planned to be held, between 1933 and 1942, in order to identify significant trends in Party-sponsored design. It argues that the ‘dynamism’ of Fascist design was a consequence of the regime's preference for an increasingly imperial tone which developed in direct proportion to its increasingly imperial identity. It points to Piacentini and Pagano's Italian Pavilion built for the 1937 Paris Exposition, the first national pavilion constructed following the May 1936 proclamation of empire, as a significant flashpoint in the tension between Fascist interpretations of modern and classical design. This article concludes that the often-overlooked world's fair buildings can be viewed as crystalline distillations of the stylistic experimentation which defined the broader Fascist building programme both in Italy and abroad.
Sarah Frankcom worked at the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester between 2000 and 2019, and was the venue’s first sole Artistic Director from 2014. In this interview conducted in summer 2019, she discusses her time at the theatre and what she has learned from leading a major cultural organization and working with it. She reflects on a number of her own productions at this institution, including Hamlet, The Skriker, Our Town, and Death of a Salesman, and discusses the way the theatre world has changed since the beginning of her career as she looks forward to being the director of LAMDA. Rachel Clements lectures on theatre at the University of Manchester. She has published on playwrights Caryl Churchill and Martin Crimp, among others, and has edited Methuen student editions of Lucy Prebble’s Enron and Joe Penhall’s Blue/Orange. She is Book Reviews editor of NTQ.
A hospital built environment can affect patients’ treatment satisfaction, which is, in turn, associated with crucial clinical outcomes. However, little research has explored which elements are specifically important for psychiatric in-patients. This study aims to identify which elements of the hospital environment are associated with higher patient satisfaction with psychiatric in-patient care.
The study was conducted in Italy and the United Kingdom. Data was collected through hospital visits and patient interviews. All hospitals were assessed for general characteristics, aspects specific to psychiatry (patient safety, mixed/single-sex wards, smoking on/off wards), and quality of hospital environment. Patients’ treatment satisfaction was assessed using the Client Assessment of Treatment Scale (CAT). Multi-level modelling was used to explore the role of environment in predicting the CAT scores adjusted for age, gender, education, diagnosis, and formal status.
The study included 18 psychiatric hospitals (7 in Italy and 11 in the United Kingdom) and 2130 patients. Healthcare systems in these countries share key characteristics (e.g. National Health Service, care organised on a geographical basis) and differ in policy regulation and governance. Two elements were associated with higher patient treatment satisfaction: being hospitalised on a mixed-sex ward (p = 0.003) and the availability of rooms to meet family off wards (p = 0.020).
As hospitals are among the most expensive facilities to build, their design should be guided by research evidence. Two design features can potentially improve patient satisfaction: family rooms off wards and mixed-sex wards. This evidence should be considered when designing or renovating psychiatric facilities.
This article uses evidence from textiles, bamboo, and bronzes to explore what the elites wore, who made up the design communities behind the elites, and how luxurious these items were considered to be in 500–300 b.c.e. China. It first examines the reliability of the art historical sources available for the reconstruction of this history and cautions the readers against certain past interpretations of the textiles and accessories of the period. It then delineates a brief history of how certain textile patterns and weaving techniques developed and how their producers selected and obtained sources of inspiration and interacted and exchanged ideas with producers of other types of artifacts. It argues that textile designers seemed to favor certain types of sources and had formed their own distinct, though not impervious, community. After carefully examining the weaving techniques of several pieces of fabric, it proposes a means of building a more reliable and solid foundation for art historical reconstruction. Textiles and accessories were symbols of the wealth, status, and power of individuals who wore them. This article will explain how a combination of the production techniques of textiles and accessories, together with a sharing of designs and techniques within the community of producers, contributed to the formation of those symbols.
Master simple to advanced biomaterials and structures with this essential text. Featuring topics ranging from bionanoengineered materials to bio-inspired structures for spacecraft and bio-inspired robots, and covering issues such as motility, sensing, control and morphology, this highly illustrated text walks the reader through key scientific and practical engineering principles, discussing properties, applications and design. Presenting case studies for the design of materials and structures at the nano, micro, meso and macro-scales, and written by some of the leading experts on the subject, this is the ideal introduction to this emerging field for students in engineering and science as well as researchers.
This chapter introduces the topic in four steps. First, by explaining the research design. Second, by explaining the methodology applied. Third, by discussing a few key aspects related to the sources of law applied. Fourt, the chapter concludes with a section on the concept accountability, and how it can be applied to the relationship between international organizations and individuals.
The DesignOBS project was created to collect, map and interpret data about the Portuguese Design Ecosystem, providing supportive information for decision making. This study takes advantage of a participative Design perspective to define and test an observation process via a case based on Design doctorates undertaken in Portugal. It emphasises the need for additional participatory analysis and curation by experts to evaluate and develop more reliable information about the discipline. Moreover, it develops recommendations that can enhance the communicability of Design doctorates.
Jizhou played a key role in the emergence of ceramics brush-painted decorations of iron-oxide pigment. But Jingdezhen became the site where blue and white ceramics were produced, not Jizhou. This chapter asks when and why Jizhou’s production came to an end, and how Jingdezhen could emerge from this period as the most successful production site of the premodern world. The depletion of local clays, the lack of firing success in Jizhou (yaobian-kiln transmutation) and eventually the migration of potters to Jingdezhen all form part of the story of decline in Jizhou. Jingdezhen, nearby, and with an excellent supply of resources, developed into the site with more potential for growth, in terms of technologies, resources and skilled potters. Archaeological and visual evidence, especially the visual language applied of decorative elements visible in the David vases of the mid fourteenth century, and objects produced in Jizhou shortly before then, supports the claim of a close connection between Jizhou and Jingdezhen during this period. This chapter demonstrates that the story of Jingdezhen, usually told as a story of global success, begins with these local and regional interactions.
In this chapter, we have introduced the fundamentals of self-sustaining wireless communication networks. We have first provided the overviews of conventional energy harvesting networks, i.e., wireless-powered transfer, wireless-powered communication network, and simultaneous wireless information and power transfer, as well as their applications in the literature. Then, we have introduced ambient backscatter communications in terms of architecture, design, advantages, and limitations. Finally, we have discussed potential applications and implementation of ambient backscatter communication system networks such as smart world, biomedical, and logistics.
High-quality data are critical to the entire scientific enterprise, yet the complexity and effort involved in data curation are vastly under-appreciated. This is especially true for large observational, clinical studies because of the amount of multimodal data that is captured and the opportunity for addressing numerous research questions through analysis, either alone or in combination with other data sets. However, a lack of details concerning data curation methods can result in unresolved questions about the robustness of the data, its utility for addressing specific research questions or hypotheses and how to interpret the results. We aimed to develop a framework for the design, documentation and reporting of data curation methods in order to advance the scientific rigour, reproducibility and analysis of the data.
Forty-six experts participated in a modified Delphi process to reach consensus on indicators of data curation that could be used in the design and reporting of studies.
We identified 46 indicators that are applicable to the design, training/testing, run time and post-collection phases of studies.
The Data Acquisition, Quality and Curation for Observational Research Designs (DAQCORD) Guidelines are the first comprehensive set of data quality indicators for large observational studies. They were developed around the needs of neuroscience projects, but we believe they are relevant and generalisable, in whole or in part, to other fields of health research, and also to smaller observational studies and preclinical research. The DAQCORD Guidelines provide a framework for achieving high-quality data; a cornerstone of health research.
The expansion in subject matter of copyright, design and trade marks has made cumulation of protection a more common occurrence, even if the problem has long been recognised as a challenge for intellectual property law. EU law has no consistent approach to overlapping subject matter. In some cases, cumulation is permitted (and perhaps even mandatory). In others, it is looked upon with disfavour. However, it is clear that when regimes clash and cumulation rejected, trade mark law appears the one most likely to be regarded as pre-empted. This chapter considers reasons why this might be so, and finds most possible reasons wanting. However, this analysis does offer some important insights into the nature and challenges of trade mark law in Europe.
A targeted discussion of the state of the art in the field of metamaterials' design, modeling and construction is presented. Only some of the most interesting aspects of the theoretical and experimental investigations available in the literature are described, by selecting the most innovative or methodologically interesting ones. After a preliminary analysis of these aspects, those which seem to be the most promising future research directions are sketched. The most important challenges in the field are delineated, in order to motivate the reader who wants to become acquainted with presented subject.
To the elemental question of what is the nature of intellectual property, the conventional answer is that it is ‘intangible’ and hence has no physical existence. This is because, it is said, there is a fundamental dichotomy between the immaterial subject matter that is protected by an IP right and its embodiment in some material object. This chapter revisits the elemental question and comes to the conclusion that the conventional view mis-states the position. In particular, while it is true that IP laws recognise something like the tangible/intangible duality, properly understood the rights granted by those laws do not attach to the immaterial subject matter; rather, they attach to the material object in which the subject matter is embodied. More specifically, while the class of things in respect of which IP protection may be granted includes intangibles, it also includes tangibles. Moreover, the things in that class are material – in that they are perceptible by a human sense.