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Around the world, some schools are starting to shift from funnelling young people towards a job or profession towards preparing them to navigate an uncertain future of work. Many such schools are found in the United States, where charter schools, magnet schools and regular public schools have taken the opportunity to develop their curriculum and pedagogy around a specific purpose. Some schools shape their currriculum with a focus on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), using this concept to shift away from discrete school subejcts towards a more integrated understanding of how knowledge and skills are combined in rapidly changing fields of work. Other schools extend this focus to STEAM, including the Arts, emphasising that creativity, diversity and humanity are core parts of innovation. Others take a different tack entirely, focusing on democracy or social justice. These schools demonstrate what it looks like to not only teach young peple about these concepts but give them a chance to practise democracy and justice in their daily decision-making.
This chapter will introduce you to the various education systems in Australia. It focuses on the relationship between the Commonwealth and the state and territory governments, outlines the three schooling sectors – public (government), independent and Catholic – and places the Australia education system within a global context. It starts by offering a historical overview of schooling in Australia and finishes with a look at the future of schooling. The education system is examined, especially in relation to educational outcomes, equity issues and funding. You will also be introduced to support mechanisms available for teachers, including professional development requirements and union membership. To gain an understanding of schooling beyond the classroom, key education documents such as the Alice Springs (Mparntwe) Education Declaration will be examined.
This chapter focuses on implementing transformative pedagogy as a solution to support students in their learning rather than feeding into their learning anxiety. The officers who join the Ecole de guerre (French War College) have been taught English through communicative and transactional methods, acquiring grammar and linguistics rather than the ability to communicate in the language. Provided in this chapter is a description of the implementation of a new approach, TLLT, based on learner autonomy and the lessons learned in the process: (1) the need for caution in analyzing the learning environment to avoid introducing a method without properly adapting it, (2) the transition from one method to another that allows the metanoic process and transformation to happen, and (3) all all the key players - the head of department/course designer, the faculty, the leadership of the college and, last but not least, the students experienced the metanoia. The most important lesson? When students realize that TLLT is about transforming their frame of reference and not re-setting who they are, their motivation rockets through the roof.
This chapter traces the quality reform agenda in Australia, identifying key policy initiatives that currently influence educator/teacher practice in the early childhood sector. Attention is focused on Australia’s first national curriculum framework for early childhood educators/teachers – Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009). The EYLF is situated alongside existing national and international frameworks and curriculum documents with its rationale, underpinning philosophies, and implications for practice and children’s learning explored. The role of the National Quality Standard (NQS) in setting a national benchmark for quality early childhood education and care services is also noted. The chapter illustrates how both documents are significant in shaping the practice of educators/teachers. The relevance of these two policy initiatives in relation to teaching science in the early years is highlighted, concluding with the identification of the science outcomes for children within the EYLF.
‘Miscellany’ is not an ancient genre name. When scholars use the term, they are often vague about the definition and boundaries of the genre, and rely on well-known ‘examples’ that are treated as paradigmatic. Two scholars have sought to define the ‘miscellany’ more closely: Teresa Morgan gave a broad, inclusive definition grounded in the history of educational praxis; William Fitzgerald gave a narrower definition, focusing on the rhetorical characteristics of an elite, literary strand of miscellany-making. Fitzgerald's approach shall be our starting point as we investigate how and why Clement artfully deployed rhetorical tropes, imagery and metatextual observations to thematise his intentional participation in a wider discourse of learned literary miscellanism. But we must also situate his work in relation to particular examples of early imperial prose miscellanies, otherwise we risk lapsing into generalities about an irreducibly diverse group of texts. Plutarch’s Table Talk; Pliny’s Natural History; Gellius’ Attic Nights and Athenaeus’ Deipnosophists are introduced alongside Clement’s Stromateis,as appropriate for comparative study.
Clement’s theme of hiddenness is connected with mystery imagery, which was a widespread topos for imagining many kinds of ‘initiation’, not only in religion and philosophy but also in more text-based arts of reading, writing and rhetoric. Clement worked creatively with this imagery to compose a mystagogical curriculum in hidden listening, where miscellanism became important at the higher stages. He shapes his three works sequentially as a programme that trains Christians to listen in a hidden way, and ultimately equips them to miscellanise better than any heretics. In the Stromateis, he engages in contemporary controversies that have sparked debate about how to miscellanise well. For Clement, miscellanism will ultimately be judged by sensitivity to the nous or telos of Scripture; this depends on a person's doctrine of God, but also on her own ethical behaviour, which conditions her possibility of knowing God and on her prayerfulness and application, for only in love and gratitude towards the Creator and in the labour of gathering passages from Scripture, is it possible truly to miscellanise well, learning the mysteries from God himself.
In this chapter, the authors build upon previous chapters that focus on LGBTQI populations and on the education of psychologists about human rights. Here, they focus on the human rights of sexually and gender-diverse people and communities and how best to prepare psychologists for the future direction of psychology as a field that engages in practice, research, advocacy, and outreach. The authors share an international context related to the current status of sexually and gender-diverse people and provide a strong rationale for the need for psychologists to understand the role of human rights in their work with this population. They describe the need for improved training for psychologists about human rights of sexually and gender-diverse people. They provide an overview of current training models and objectives, as well as recommendations for the future.
Human dignity is inextricably tied to health equity. In the past quarter century, concerns about widening health inequalities and inequities have increased worldwide. Highlighting this concern is the fact that the Sustainable Development Goals include one health goal and more than fifty health-related targets that are applicable to all countries. Psychology, with an understanding of the importance of the person–environment interaction, can help to meaningfully address health equity and promote the sustainable development goals of the UN 2030 Agenda. In this chapter, we focus on the contributions of psychology to promoting health equity and dignity, and well-being overall, highlighting pertinent research surrounding maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and mental health and well-being.
This chapter begins with a rationale for infusing human rights into psychology education and the training of psychology professionals. It then presents the field of human rights education (HRE), including its definition as well as international and regional policies and theories that have evolved over the past 25 years, pointing out their relevance for psychology. In the final section, the chapter proposes human rights–related themes and methodologies for human rights education for psychologists, and social issues that influence and can be informed by psychology.
Culturally responsive approaches to schooling (CRS) aim to address pervasive inequities that exist in education. More specifically, CRS practices seek to improve the experiences and academic achievements of marginalised and minoritised learners, such as those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. In this paper, we consider the possibilities for CRS in the context of Australia where Indigenous students (along with their parents, peers and teachers) are consistently reminded, courtesy of the deficit government policies and ‘close the gap’ rhetoric, that they have the worst educational outcomes of any settler society. This paper does not seek to offer fixed solutions in response to this. Rather, based on shared experience researching and teaching together that draw on CRS, the paper foregrounds a collaborative culturally responsive dialogue between the authors. Together we discuss, deliberate and despair about the state of the education system for Indigenous students, we also remain tentatively hopeful about how CRS might become embedded in teaching and learning, through teacher professional learning, in ways that are relevant to the Australian context.
The structure, implementation and operation of music education at the primary level differs depending on the legislation of the education system within which the school operates. An inquiry-based project was completed over a 10-week period, with the overall aim of gaining an understanding of current teacher practice within music education in both Ireland and the United States. This article examines the Irish generalist and the American specialist models of music education from the teacher’s perspective. The overarching question guiding this research was ‘How is music education realised in Irish and American schools at the primary/elementary level?’. The project sought to investigate the specific challenges of both the generalist and specialist models to ascertain if one educational context might inform the other. Teacher surveys, teacher interviews, curriculum artefacts, expert interviews and contemporary literature around the topic were utilised as data sources to assimilate music educators’ perceived experiences of implementing their respective music curricula. Drawing from the data gathered, coded and quantitively and qualitatively analysed, two contrasting vignette-style stories are presented. A brief discussion follows that compares both models, highlighting some of their relative advantages and drawbacks.
The aim of this study was to identify relevant content among four important domains for the development and structure of a paediatric cardiac rehabilitation curriculum for young patients with congenital heart disease using a consensus approach.
A three-round e-Delphi study among congenital heart disease and paediatric exercise physiology experts was conducted. Round 1, experts provided opinions in a closed- and open-ended electronic questionnaire to identify specific elements necessary for inclusion in a paediatric cardiac rehabilitation programme. Round 2, experts were asked to re-rate the same items after feedback and summary data were provided from round 1. Round 3, the same experts were asked to re-rate items that did not reach consensus from round 2.
Forty-seven experts were contacted via e-mail to participate on the Delphi panel, 37 consented, 35 completed round 1, 29 completed round 2, and 28 completed the final round. After round 2, consensus was reached in 55 of 60 (92%) questionnaire items across four domains: exercise training, education, outcome metrics, and self-confidence.
This study established consensus towards programme structure, exercise training principles, educational content, patient outcome measures, and self-confidence promotion. By identifying the key components within each domain, there is potential to benchmark recommended standards and practice guidelines for the development of a paediatric cardiac rehabilitation curriculum to be used and tested by exercise physiologists, paediatric and adult congenital cardiologists, and other healthcare team members for optimising the health and wellness of paediatric patients with congenital heart disease.
The rationale for including sustainability in Higher Education curriculum has been made clear, yet how to facilitate effective learning in this field has received less research attention. This article focuses on approaches to the ‘framing’ of sustainability in curriculum design as a tool for educators to contextualise sustainability concepts and practices to engage learners within traditional disciplines where sustainability studies are still relatively novel, and therefore, not embedded within existing disciplinary ‘frames’. The article draws together findings from a qualitative study of four undergraduate sustainability courses to provide initial insight into different framings of sustainability and student experiences within the courses. Drawing on an analysis of empirical data and theory, this article argues that the way sustainability is framed may assist in addressing barriers in the uptake of sustainability by teachers and students in Higher Education. Framing has the potential to support student engagement with sustainability courses and the integration of sustainability within degree programs and professional practices. The findings also indicate that framing, and its effect on learning, are shaped by both the presentation of content and also, more importantly for transformative learning, the pedagogy underpinning the curriculum design.
Chapter 10 brings the different chapters together and responds to the question: ‘How might a public education system become more ethical?’ In other words, it asks how an education system itself can be conducive to and embody ethical living in relationships, and assumes that such ethical living will require concern for the well-being of persons and will constitute a vital aspect of one’s own well-being. It clarifies that educational system isn’t a collection of schools, but instead, it is the way in which various institutions are interrelated according to the principles that define the way they work together. These institutions include schools, examination boards, teacher training colleges, local authorities, the national curriculum authority, the ministry, national school inspection offices, various institutional employers, a framework of laws, and from there, the wider global economy. To propose ethically oriented systemic transformation, the chapter outlines the nature of an educational system that is centred around the well-being of persons in the four principles, including non-instrumentalisation, whole-person development, well-being and learning as human becoming. It then explores how these principles can be applied to the design of the system, and to key aspects of schooling, such as curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation and learning communities.
This chapter’s fertile question invites you to challenge the assumption that planning for learning primarily involves the production of a written plan for an activity, lesson or program of work. While the written plan is an important product of planning, it is the process of planning, rather than the final document, that determines the success of the learning experience.
The period from birth to 12 years is crucial in a child's development and can significantly impact future educational success, resilience and participation in society. Health and Wellbeing in Childhood provides readers with a comprehensive introduction to a wide range of topics and issues in health and wellbeing education, including child safety, bullying and social emotional wellbeing, resilience, physical education, communication development and friendships. It explores relevant policies, standards and frameworks, including the Early Years Learning Framework and the Australian Curriculum. The third edition provides a cohesive and accessible reading experience and includes updated and expanded coverage of nutrition, body image and community partnerships. Each chapter has been revised to include the latest research and developments in childhood health and wellbeing, and features definitions of key terms, case studies, pause and reflect activities and end-of-chapter questions. Supplementary materials, including video and audio links, are available on the companion website.
This article, written at the time it was taking place, discusses the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic is having on music education in schools, focusing on the UK. It discusses how schools and teachers have had to make a sudden shift to a largely on-line modality, and the effects of these on teaching and learning in music. It asks questions of curriculum and assessment, especially with regard to the fact that classroom teachers in England are having to use their professional judgment to provide grades for external examinations, where hitherto these would have come from examination boards. It questions the ways in which teachers have been inadequately prepared and supported for this, by years of neoliberal undermining of confidence. It goes on to question accountability, and teacher training, raising issues which, at the time of writing, are of significant concern or music education.